Glockenspiel

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Glockenspiel
Glockenspiel-malletech.jpg
A glockenspiel made by Malletech
Percussion instrument
Other names
  • Concert bells
  • orchestral bells
  • carillon
Classification Keyboard percussion
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 111.212
(Sets of percussion plaques)
Playing range
Glockenspiel range.svg
Related instruments

The glockenspiel (German pronunciation: [ˈɡlɔkənˌʃpiːl] or [ˈɡlɔkŋ̍ˌʃpiːl] , Glocken: bells and Spiel: set) or bells is a percussion instrument consisting of pitched aluminum or steel bars arranged in a keyboard layout. This makes the glockenspiel a type of metallophone, similar to the vibraphone.

Contents

The glockenspiel is played by striking the bars with mallets, often made of a hard material such as metal or plastic. Its clear, high-pitched tone is often heard in orchestras, wind ensembles, marching bands, and in popular music.

Terminology

In German, a carillon is also called a Glockenspiel, and in French, the glockenspiel is sometimes called a carillon. It may also be called a jeu de timbres (lit.'set of colors') in French, although this term may sometimes be specifically reserved for the keyboard glockenspiel. [1] In Italian, the term campanelli (lit.'little bells') is used. [2]

The glockenspiel is sometimes erroneously referred to as a xylophone. [3] The Pixiphone, a type of toy glockenspiel, was one such instrument sold as a xylophone.

Range

The glockenspiel is limited to the upper register and usually covers about 2+12 to 3 octaves, although certain professional models may reach up to 3+12 octaves. [4] The glockenspiel is a often a transposing instrument and sounds two octaves above the written pitch, although this is sometimes remedied by using an octave clef.

History

A glockenspiel made around 1910 in Leipzig, Germany Glockenspiel (c. 1910).jpg
A glockenspiel made around 1910 in Leipzig, Germany

Early glockenspiels were percussion instruments that produced notes via small bronze bells that were tuned with a drumstick. The bells were replaced by metal sound plates in the 17th century. In the 18th century the instrument was played using a keyboard that struck the bottom of each plate with a hammer. [5] The use of mallets evolved during the 19th century, coinciding with Romanticism. [6]

Construction

A Mardi Gras musician playing a horizontal bell lyre GlockenspielSousaphone.jpg
A Mardi Gras musician playing a horizontal bell lyre

When used in a marching or military band, the bars are sometimes mounted in a portable case and held vertically, sometimes in a lyre-shaped frame. However, the bars may be held horizontally, using a harness similar to that found on a marching snare. In orchestral use, the bars are mounted horizontally.

Larger sets of glockenspiel (i.e. sets three octaves or larger) are often equipped with a sustain pedal, not unlike that of a vibraphone. [7]

From 1918 to 1932, J.C. Deagan, Inc. manufactured bells equipped with a resonator under the name Parsifal bells. [8] Both Adams and Yamaha model their professional-grade glockenspiels on the Deagan design. [9]

Mallets

The glockenspiel is played with unwrapped mallets made of hard material, such as metal (usually brass or aluminum) or a type of polymer (usually lexan, acrylic, phenolic, or nylon). Non-metal mallets are used for general playing, while metal mallets produce a more brilliant sound. Rubber mallets may be used for a warmer sound, although rubber that is too soft may struggle to excite the metal bars. Playing chords on a glockenspiel can be done with four mallets using a grip such as Stevens technique.

Bell-lyre

A vertical bell lyre in use by the National Marching Band of the RAF Air Cadets "Lord Mayor's Show" London 2006 (295240726).jpg
A vertical bell lyre in use by the National Marching Band of the RAF Air Cadets

In the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, a form of glockenspiel is called a bell lyre, bell lyra, or lyra-glockenspiel. [10] The bell lyre is a form of glockenspiel commonly used in marching bands. [11]

One variation is played vertically and has an extendable spike that is held on a strap. The player marches with the strap over one's shoulder and plays the instrument upright with a mallet. Another variation of the bell lyre exists that is supported by a strap around the shoulders and back. This variation is played horizontally with two mallets. Since the middle of the 19th century this form has been used in military and civil bands in Germany, where it is called a Stahlspiel or Militär-Glockenspiel.

The all-percussion drum and lyre corps in the Philippines uses this as a main instrument. This form of glockenspiel is also popular in Colombian marching band music. [12]

Many marching bands stopped using bell lyres with the introduction of the front ensemble. One of the few college marching bands with a glockenspiel section is UC Berkeley's University of California Marching Band, where they are affectionately referred to as "glocks". [13]

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Keyboard percussion instrument</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Song bells</span>

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J.C. Deagan, Inc. is a former musical instrument manufacturing company that developed and produced instruments from the late 19th- to mid-20th century. It was founded in 1880 by John Calhoun Deagan and initially manufactured glockenspiels. It was noted for its development of the xylophone, vibraharp, organ chimes, aluminum chimes, aluminum harp, Swiss handbells, the marimba, orchestra bells, and marimbaphone. Church bells were revolutionized by Deagan through his design of tubular bells, and the NBC chimes were his creation.

References

  1. Del Mar, Norman (1983). Anatomy of the Orchestra (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 407. ISBN   0-520-04500-9. OCLC   10561390.
  2. Beck 2014, p. 121.
  3. Desiderio, Kelsey (13 July 2015). "You Know More Now: Xylophone Vs. glockenspiel". MSNBC . Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  4. Miller, R. J. (2015). Contemporary Orchestration: A Practical Guide to Instruments, Ensembles, and Musicians. Taylor & Francis. p. 263. ISBN   9781317806257. OCLC   900827870.
  5. Blades, James (1992). Percussion Instruments and Their History (Rev. ed.). Westport, CT: Bold Strummer. p. 398. ISBN   978-0-933224-71-1. OCLC   28230162.
  6. "glockenspiel." The New Penguin Dictionary of Music, Paul Griffiths, Penguin, 1st edition, 2006. Credo Reference. Accessed 19 Jan. 2022.
  7. "Brief Description - Vienna Symphonic Library". www.vsl.co.at. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  8. Beck 2014, p. 67.
  9. Cook, Gary (2018). Teaching Percussion (3rd ed.). Cengage. p. 99. ISBN   9781337672221. OCLC   1100674819.
  10. Blades, James (2001). "Bell-lyra". In Sadie, Stanley; Tyrrell, John (eds.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan. ISBN   978-1-56159-239-5.
  11. "glockenspiel." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Britannica Digital Learning, 2017. Credo Reference. Accessed 19 Jan. 2022.
  12. "Banda de Guerra". Fuerza Aérea Colombiana (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  13. Chen, Jeremy (27 January 2013). "Glocks, Oboes and Violins? Oh, My!". Halftime Magazine .

Bibliography