Gmina

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Division of Poland into gminy Poland - gminas.svg
Division of Poland into gminy

The gmina (Polish pronunciation [ˈɡmina] , plural gminy [ˈɡminɨ] , from German Gemeinde meaning commune) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality. As of 2010 there were 2,478 gminy throughout the country. [1]

Contents

The gmina has been the basic unit of territorial division in Poland since 1974, when it replaced the smaller gromada (cluster). There are three types of gminy:

  1. urban gmina (Polish : gmina miejska) consisting of just one city or town,
  2. mixed urban-rural gmina (Polish : gmina miejsko-wiejska) consisting of a town and surrounding villages and countryside; and
  3. rural gmina (Polish : gmina wiejska) consisting only of villages and countryside (occasionally of just one village).

Some rural gminy have their seat in a town which is outside the gmina's division. For example, the rural Gmina Augustów is administered from the town of Augustów, but does not include the town, as Augustów is an urban type gmina in its own right.

The legislative and controlling body of each gmina is the elected municipal council (rada gminy), or in a town: rada miasta (town assembly). Executive power is held by the directly elected mayor of the municipality, called wójt in rural gminy, burmistrz in most urban and urban-rural gminy, or prezydent in towns with more than 400,000 inhabitants and some others which traditionally use the title. A gmina may create auxiliary units (jednostki pomocnicze), which play a subordinate administrative role. In rural areas these are called sołectwa, in towns they may be dzielnice or osiedla and in an urban-rural gmina, the town itself may be designated as an auxiliary unit. For a complete listing of all the gminy in Poland, see List of Polish gminas .

Types of administrative tasks and objectives

Each gmina carries out two types of tasks: its own tasks and commissioned ones. Own tasks are public tasks exercised by self-government, which serve to satisfy the needs of the community. The tasks can be twofold:

Own objectives

Own high objectives include matters such as spatial harmony, real estate management, environmental protection and nature conservation, water management, country roads, public streets, bridges, squares and traffic systems, water supply systems and source, the sewage system, removal of urban waste, water treatment, maintenance of cleanliness and order, sanitary facilities, dumps and council waste, supply of electric and thermal energy and gas, public transport, health care, welfare, care homes, subsidised housing, public education, cultural facilities including public libraries and other cultural institutions, historic monuments conservation and protection, the sports facilities and tourism including recreational grounds and devices, marketplaces and covered markets, green spaces and public parks, communal graveyards, public order and safety, fire and flood protection with equipment maintenance and storage, maintaining objects and devices of the public utility and administrative buildings, pro-family policy including social support for pregnant women, medical and legal care, supporting and popularising the self-government initiatives and cooperation within the commune including with non-governmental organizations, interaction with regional communities from other countries, etc.

Commissioned tasks

Commissioned tasks cover the remaining public tasks resulting from legitimate needs of the state, commissioned by central government for the units of local government to implement. The tasks are handed over on the basis of statutory by-laws, charters and regulations, or by way of agreements between the self-government units and central-government administration.

Overall number of gminy by type

Number of gminy by voivodeship
Voivodeship LS KP LBL LBS ŁD LP MS OP SK PD PM SL ŚWK WM GP WP Poland
Urban gminy36172091815353161325495161911307
Urban-rural gminy55352233254350323124172226339052588
Rural gminy789217141134124229361138181967167117511,584
Total gminy16914421383177182314711601181231671021162261142,479
of which: rural gminy with their seat outside the gmina14131751591501212130115118160

Abbreviations used for voivodeships:
LS: Lower Silesian Voivodeship, KP: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, LBL: Lublin Voivodeship, LBS: Lubusz Voivodeship,
ŁD: Łódź Voivodeship, LP: Lesser Poland Voivodeship, MS: Masovian Voivodeship, OP: Opole Voivodeship,
SK: Subcarpathian Voivodeship, PD: Podlaskie Voivodeship, PM: Pomeranian Voivodeship, SL: Silesian Voivodeship,
ŚWK: Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, WM: Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, GP: Greater Poland Voivodeship, WP: West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Largest and smallest gminy

LARGESTPopulation (2006 estimate)Land area in km²Population density
per km²
Urban Warsaw (1,697,596) Warsaw (517.22) Świętochłowice (4,156.80)
Rural Gmina Chełmiec (24,344) Gmina Wałcz (574.89) Gmina Buczkowice (542.70)
Urban-rural Gmina Piaseczno (61,525) Gmina Pisz (633.69) Gmina Wołomin (801.69)
Town in urban-rural gmina Gmina Nysa: Nysa (47,545) Gmina Szczytna: Szczytna (80.38) Gmina Swarzędz: Swarzędz (3,469.23)
Rural part of urban-rural gmina Gmina Wieliczka: rural part (28,864) Gmina Pisz: rural part (623.61) Gmina Świątniki Górne: rural part (407.86)
SMALLESTPopulation (2006 estimate)Land area in km²Population density
per km²
Urban Krynica Morska (1,364) Górowo Iławeckie (3.32) Krynica Morska (11.74)
Rural Gmina Cisna (1,663) Gmina Jejkowice (7.59) Gmina Lutowiska (4.63)
Urban-rural Gmina Nowe Warpno (1,559) Gmina Świątniki Górne (20.35) Gmina Nowe Warpno (7.88)
Town in urban-rural gmina Gmina Wyśmierzyce: Wyśmierzyce (892) Gmina Stawiszyn: Stawiszyn (0.99) Gmina Suraż: Suraż (28.94)
Rural part of urban-rural gmina Gmina Nowe Warpno: rural part (363) Gmina Suchedniów: rural part (15.54) Gmina Nowe Warpno: rural part (2.09)

Related Research Articles

Augustów County County in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Augustów County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Podlaskie Voivodeship, north-eastern Poland, on the border with Belarus. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and largest city is Augustów, which lies 83 kilometres (52 mi) north of the regional capital Białystok. The only other town in the county is Lipsk, lying 32 km (20 mi) south-east of Augustów.

Administrative divisions of Poland

The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into voivodeships (provinces); these are further divided into powiats, and these in turn are divided into gminas. Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 380 powiats, and 2,478 gminas.

Gmina Brańsk Gmina in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Gmina Brańsk is a rural gmina in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship. It is located in north-eastern Poland.

Gmina Rudka Gmina in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland

Gmina Rudka is a rural gmina in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship. It is located in north-eastern Poland.

Gmina Trzebiatów is an urban-rural gmina in Gryfice County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northwestern Poland. Its seat is the town of Trzebiatów, which lies approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Gryfice and 85 km (53 mi) northeast of the regional capital, Szczecin.

References

  1. Central Statistical Office of Poland Archived 2007-07-11 at the Wayback Machine , January 1, 2006. (in Polish)