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|Emperor of Korea|
|Reign||13 October 1897 – 21 January 1907|
|King of Joseon|
|Reign||13 December 1863 – 13 October 1897|
|Born||8 September 1852|
Unhyeon Palace, Hanseong, Joseon dynasty, Korea
|Died||21 January 1919 66) (aged|
Deoksu Palace, Keijō, Japanese Korea
|Issue|| Emperor Sunjong |
Prince Imperial Ui
Crown Prince Euimin
|House||House of Yi|
|Mother||Grand Lady Sunmok|
|Revised Romanization||Gojong Gwangmuje (short Gojong)|
|McCune–Reischauer||Kojong Kwangmuje (short Kojong)|
이명복, later 이희
|Revised Romanization||I Myeong-bok, later I Hui|
|McCune–Reischauer||Yi Myŏng-bok, later Yi Hŭi|
Gojong (Hangul : 고종; Hanja : 高宗; RR : Gojong; MR : Kojong), the Emperor Gwangmu (Hangul : 광무제; Hanja : 光武帝; RR : Gwangmuje; MR : Kwangmuje; 8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the last king of Joseon and the first Emperor of Korea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written Hangeul following the standard Romanization.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system. The new system eliminates diacritics and apostrophes in favor of digraphs.
Gojong took the Joseon throne in 1863 when still a child. As a minor, his father, the Heungseon Daewongun (or more commonly, the Daewongun), ruled as regent for him until Gojong reached adulthood.
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.
Heungseon Daewongun, also known as the Daewongun, Guktaegong or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewonwang and also known to contemporary western diplomats as Prince Gung, was the title of Yi Ha-eung, regent of Joseon during the minority of Emperor Gojong in the 1860s and until his death a key political figure of late Joseon Korea.
During the mid-1860s, the Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French invasion and the United States expedition to Korea in 1871. The early years of the Daewongun's rule also witnessed a concerted effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During the Daewongun's reign, Joseon factional politics, the Seowon (learned academies that often doubled as epicenters of factional power), and the power wielded by the Andong Kim clan, completely disappeared as political forces within Korean state life.[ citation needed ]
Seowon were the most common educational institutions of Korea during the mid- to late Joseon Dynasty. They were private institutions, and combined the functions of a Confucian shrine and a preparatory school. In educational terms, the seowon were primarily occupied with preparing students for the national civil service examinations. In most cases, seowon served only pupils of the aristocratic yangban class.
In 1873, Gojong announced his assumption of direct royal rule. In November 1874, with the retirement of the Heungseon Daewongun, Gojong's consort, Queen Min (posthumously known as Empress Myeongseong), gained complete control over the court, filling senior court positions with members of her family. This angered Heungseon Daewongun, who was exiled from the court. Some relatives of Heungseon Daewongun and members of the Southerner faction plotted a coup.
Empress Myeongseong or Empress Myung-Sung, known informally as Queen Min, was the first official wife of Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of Joseon and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.
The Southerners were a political faction of the Joseon Dynasty. The faction was created after the split of the Easterners in 1591 by Yi Sanhae's opponents. Its leader was Ryu Seong-ryong, who died in 1607. Leader Heo Mok was Left Prime Minister from 1675 to 1678. Leader Yun Hyu was executed in 1680. They supported Jang Huibin, queen consort of Sukjong of Joseon from 1688 to 1694. The faction continued to exist until the 18th century.
In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895. Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, had acquired Western military technology and had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and other natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese Imperial expansion in East Asia.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between China and Japan primarily over influence in Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.
The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.
The French campaign against Korea of 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871 and the Incident of the Japanese gunboat Unyo put pressure on many of Joseon's officials, including King Gojong.
The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed between Korea and a foreign country; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea and forced the Korean government to open three ports, Busan, Incheon and Wonsan, to Japanese and foreign trade. With the signing of its first unequal treaty, Korea became easy prey for many imperialistic powers, and later the treaty led to Korea being annexed by Japan.
King Gojong began to rely on a new paid army of rifle-equipped soldiers. The old army, which was primarily armed with swords, spears, and old matchlocks, eventually revolted as a result of their mediocre wages and loss of prestige, and the Heungseon Daewongun was restored to power. However Chinese troops led by the Qing Chinese general Yuan Shikai soon abducted the Daewongun and took him to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years later the Daewongun returned to Korea.
On 4 December 1884, five revolutionaries initiated the Gapsin Coup, an attempted coup d'état, by leading a small anti-old minister army, attempting to detain King Gojong and Queen Min. The coup failed after 3 days. Some of its leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.
Widespread poverty presented significant challenges to the 19th century Joseon Dynasty. One indication of this poverty was the poor conditions of life suffered by those of the lower classes, who often had little to eat and lived in little more than run down shanties lined along roads of dirt and mud.A number of factors, including famine, poverty, high taxes and corruption among the ruling class, led to several notable peasant revolts in the 19th century. King Gojong's predecessors had suppressed an 1811–1812 revolt in the Pyeongan Province, led by Hong Gyeong-nae.
In 1894, another major revolt, the Donghak Peasant Revolution took hold as an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. To suppress the rebellion, the Joseon government requested military aid from Japan, thus deepening Japanese claims to Korea as a protectorate.In the end the revolution failed, but many of the peasants' grievances were later dealt with by the Gabo Reform.
In 1895, Empress Myeongseong, also known as Queen Min, was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Gyeongbokgung in Seoul, which was under guard by Korean troops sympathetic to the Japanese, and the Queen was killed in the palace. The Queen had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.[ citation needed ]
By 1895 Japan had won the First Sino-Japanese War, gaining much more influence over the Korean government. The Gabo reforms and the assassination of the Queen also stirred controversy in Korea, fomenting Korean anti-Japanese sentiments.
Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.
On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation.
In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). There he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesignated the national title as such, and declared a new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning, "shining and martial"). This effectively ended Korea's historic subordination to the Qing empire which Korea had acknowledged since the fall of the Ming Dynasty, King Gojong took the title of Gwangmu Emperor, and became the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Empire of Korea.
This marked the end of the traditional Chinese tributary system in the Far East. Adopting the status of Empire meant that Korea was declaring itself the co-equal of Qing China, that it was independent of it and, at least nominally, it implemented the "full and complete" independence of Korea as recognized in 1895.
Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire in October 1897 to justify the country's ending of its traditional tributary subordination to China. He tried to promote the ultimately unsuccessful Gwangmu Reform.
In 1904-5, the Japanese military achieved a comprehensive victory in the Russo-Japanese War. Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, Gojong sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 in order to try to re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.
One representative warned forebodingly of Japanese ambitions in Asia: "The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East. Japan is bitter against the United States and against Great Britain. If the United States does not watch Japan closely she will force the Americans and the English out of the Far East."
As a result, Gojong was forced to abdicate by the Japanese and Gojong's son Sunjong succeeded to the throne.
After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was confined to the Deoksu Palace by the Japanese. On 22 August 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan under the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty.
Gojong died suddenly on 21 January 1919 at Deoksugung Palace at the age of 66. There is much speculation that he was killed by poison administered by Japanese officials, an idea that gained wide circulation and acceptance at the time of his death. His death and subsequent funeral proved a catalyst for the March First Movement for Korean independence from Japanese rule. He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju.
|Joseon dynasty monarchs|
|Ancestors of Emperor Gojong|
Sunjong, the Emperor Yunghui, was the second and the last Emperor of Korea, of the Yi dynasty, ruling from 1907 until 1910.
The Korean Empire was the last independent unified Korean state. Proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, the empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910. During the Korean Empire, Emperor Gojong oversaw the Gwangmu Reform, a partial modernization and Westernization of the military, economy, land system, and education system, and of various industries.
Cheoljong of Joseon was the 25th king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was a distant relative of King Yeongjo.
Sukjong of Joseon was the 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1674 to 1720. A skilled politician, he caused multiple changes of political alliance throughout his reign, switching among the Southerner, Westerner, Soron, and Noron political factions.
Jungjong of Joseon, born Yi Yeok or Lee Yeok, ruled during the 16th century in what is now Korea. He succeeded his half-brother, Yeonsangun, because of the latter's tyrannical misrule, which culminated in a coup placing Jungjong on the throne.
Injo of Joseon was the sixteenth king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea. He was the grandson of Seonjo and son of Grand Prince Jeongwon (정원군). King Injo was king during both the first and second Manchu invasions, which ended with the surrender of Joseon to the Qing dynasty in 1636.
Sejo of Joseon was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. Prime minister of Joseon Dynasty 1453 to 1455. He was brother of Munjong of Joseon and uncle of Danjong of Joseon. He produced a coup d'état and became king himself in 1455.
Seongjong of Joseon was the ninth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He succeeded King Yejong in 1469 and ruled until 1494.
Empress Myeongseong is a 2001 South Korean television series that aired on KBS2.
Queen Cheorin also known as Queen Mother Myeongsun (명순대비) was a Queen consort of Korea by marriage to King Cheoljong of Joseon.
Yi Junyong, known as Prince Yeongseon of Joseon (영선군，永善君) was a politician, thinker, and member of the Korean Joseon Dynasty's royal family, politicians, and later became a collaborator of Imperial Japan.
Prince Imperial Heungchin was a prince of the Joseon Dynasty and of the Korean Empire. He was the son of Heungseon Daewongun, elder brother of Korean Emperor Gojong. His real name was Yi Jae-myon ; his nickname was U-seok (우석).
Kim Hong-jip (1842–1896) was a Korean politician best known for his role as prime minister during the Gabo Reform period from 1895-1896. His name was originally Kim Goeng-jip(Hangul: 김굉집) which he later changed to Kim Hong-jip. His father, Kim Yeong-jak, served as mayor of Kaesŏng in the Joseon Dynasty.
Crown Prince Uigyeong or Deokjong of Joseon or Prince Dowon was a crown prince of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Choi Ik-hyeon was a Korean Joseon Dynasty scholar, politician, philosopher, and general of the Korean Righteous Army guerrilla forces. He was a strong supporter of Neo-Confucianism and a very vocal nationalist, who defended Korean Sovereignty in the face of Japanese Imperialism.
Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Okcheon Jo clan is one of the best-known female fatale royal consort of the Joseon.
Queen Sinjeong also known as Queen Dowager Hyoyu (효유왕대비) was the only wife of Crown Prince Hyomyeong of Joseon and mother of king Heonjong of Joseon. She served as nominal regent of Joseon during the minority of Gojong’s reign, whom she had selected to place upon the throne, in 1864-1873, although she left all de facto power to the king's father Heungseon Daewongun and only kept the formal title as regent.
Prince Imperial Waneun(hangul:완은군 hanja:完恩君,? - October 28, 1881) was a prince of the Korean Empire and a member of the Joseon dynasty. He was a descendant of Prince Namyeon. and an illegitimate son of Heungseon Daewongun and his concubine Kyeseongwol; he was a half-brother of Gojong of Korea and Prince Imperial Heung, and a half-uncle of Prince Youngsun and Emperor Sunjong of Korea. His real name was Yi Jae-seon(hangul:이재선, hanja:李載先); his Chinese name is unknown.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gojong of the Korean Empire .|
Gojong of KoreaBorn: 25 July 1852 Died: 21 January 1919
| King of Joseon |
13 December 1863 — 13 October 1897
with Heungseon Daewongun (1863–1873)
Empress Myeongseong (1873–1895)
|Elevated to Emperor|
|Elevated to Emperor|| Emperor of Korea |
13 October 1897 — 21 January 1907