Golub-Dobrzyń

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Golub-Dobrzyń
Golub-Dobrzyn, Polska - widok dawnego kosciola ewangelickiego , obecnie miesci sie tam szkola - panoramio.jpg
Main church and an 18th-century timber frame tavern on the marketplace
POL Golub-Dobrzyn flag.svg
Flag
POL Golub-Dobrzyn COA.svg
Coat of arms
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Golub-Dobrzyń
Coordinates: 53°6′N19°3′E / 53.100°N 19.050°E / 53.100; 19.050
Country Poland
Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County Golub-Dobrzyń County
Gmina Golub-Dobrzyń (urban gmina)
Government
  MayorMariusz Piątkowski
Area
  Total7.50 km2 (2.90 sq mi)
Population
 (2013)
  Total13,060
  Density1,741/km2 (4,510/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
87-400, 87-401
Car plates CGD
Website www.golub-dobrzyn.pl

Golub-Dobrzyń (Polish pronunciation:  [ˈɡɔlup ˈdɔbʐɨɲ] ) is a town in central Poland, located on both sides of the Drwęca River. Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), it was previously in the Torun Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Golub-Dobrzyń County and has a population of 13,060.

Contents

History

Golub-Dobrzyń initially consisted of two separate towns: Golub located north of the Drwęca in Chełmno Land and Dobrzyń located south of the Drwęca in the Dobrzyń Land. The two cities were united May 5, 1951.

History of Golub

Saint Catherine's Church in Golub Golub-Dobrzyn, Kosciol sw. Katarzyny Aleksandryjskiej (Golub).jpg
Saint Catherine's Church in Golub

The village Golub (German : Gollub; Latin : villa golube), populated by Poles, was first mentioned in a document from 1258; Chełmno Land, or Culmerland, had been in the hands of the Teutonic Knights since 1231. The Teutonic Knights built a castle (1296–1306) and elevated it to town status. In 1421 all privileges of the town were confirmed by Grand Master Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg. Golub was severely damaged during wars in 1414 and 1422; the latter war called the Gollub War. The town became part of Poland according to the Second Peace of Thorn (1466).

The height of prosperity of Golub was reached during the rule of King Sigismund III Vasa 1611-25. The town was severely damaged during Polish-Swedish Wars, especially in 1626-29, 1655, and 1660, as well as the later Seven Years' War (1756–63). In the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Golub was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. From 1807-15 it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw. It was assigned to the Duchy of Poznan in 1815, and in 1817 it was included in West Prussia. In 1871 it was included in Imperial Germany and was subject to Germanisation. According to the German census of 1890, Gollub had a population of 2,738, of which 1,000 (36.5%) were Poles. [1]

In January 1920 it became part of Poland. In August 1920, the Red Army attacked the city. In 1939 it was annexed by Nazi Germany and most of dwellers were forced to sign the Volksliste.

History of Dobrzyń

Historical tenement Golub-Dobrzyn, Polska - Kamienica przy ulicy Generala Hallera - panoramio (2).jpg
Historical tenement

Since the second half of the 17th century, Dobrzyń (German : Dobrin an der Drewenz) existed as a settlement on the left bank of the Drwęca. In 1684 Zygmunt Działyński named the settlement Przedmieście Golubskie. In 1789 Count Ignacy Działyński founded the city of Dobrzyń. In 1793 after the Second Partition of Poland, Dobrzyń was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. From 1807-15 it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 it was included in the Kingdom of Poland in personal union with the Russian Empire. In the second half of the 19th century the Kingdom of Poland was annexed by Russia and the city developed quickly with a growing Jewish population. Eventually Dobrzyń became larger than Golub.

Dobrzyń became part of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 following World War I. In August 1920, the Soviet Red Army attacked the city. In 1939 it was annexed by Nazi Germany and most of its dwellers were deported to Nazi concentration camps. The local intelligentsia was murdered through executions.

Monuments and landmarks

The castle

Culverin from film The Deluge Golub-Dobrzyn 03.jpg
Culverin from film The Deluge
Golub Castle IGP2339-castle hdr-1-2A.jpg
Golub Castle
Museum inside the castle 601628 Golub-Dobrzyn zamek-wnetrza 06.JPG
Museum inside the castle
Castle interior Golub-Dobrzyn castle, courtyard.jpg
Castle interior

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Golub-Dobrzyń is twinned with:

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Bernard Szumborski was a Moravian knight and a mercenary. Szumborski was hired by the Teutonic Knights during the Battle of Chojnice, and was sent with 15,000 men to relieve the besieged city of Chojnice. King Casimir IV of Poland sent cavalry attacks to the rear of the Teutonic lines and Szumborski was captured. However, Teutonic knights rallied up and caused panic. Szumborski managed to escape and organized the pursuit of the fleeing Polish army. On October 24, 1457, together with 2000 mercenaries, Szumborski captured Chełmno (Kulm), and killed its mayor, Michal Segemund, claiming that he was a traitor. His forces captured other towns of Pomerelia and Chełmno Land, and on March 21, 1458, Szumborski with his army approached Toruń (Thorn), burning its suburbs, but failing to capture the heavily fortified city. On September 19, 1460, Szumborski captured the town of Golub-Dobrzyń, but Polish garrison of its castle, commanded by Andrzej Puszkarz, managed to hold it. In August 1466, Szymborski, as envoy of the Teutonic Knights, was sent to Bydgoszcz, to negotiate with King Casimir IV and his envoys, Jan Długosz and Jan Sapienski. The negotiations ended on October 19, 1466, when the Second Peace of Thorn was signed. Szymborski, regarded as a very cruel man, died on January 7, 1470. As Jan Długosz recorded, he was poisoned by a female resident of Chełmno.

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Golub Castle is a four-wing conventional Teutonic fortress built at the turn of the fourteenth century, built on a hill as a look-out point over the whole town of Golub-Dobrzyń. The castle was initially constructed in a brick Gothic architectural style and a Renaissance attic was added in the 17th century. It is located in Golub-Dobrzyń, approximately 43km north-east of Toruń.

Siege of Marienburg occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland. Marienburg was the capital of the state of the Teutonic Order, in particular, the residence of the Grand Master of the order. An alliance of Prussians and Poles besieged the city beginning 27 February 1454 with mercenaries from Danzig, and the necessary artillery.

References

  1. "Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Westpreussen, Kreis Briesen". treemagic.org. Retrieved 2021-01-19.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Golub-Dobrzyń at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 53°06′30″N19°03′00″E / 53.10833°N 19.05000°E / 53.10833; 19.05000