Location of the municipality of Golubac within Serbia
|Region||Southern and Eastern Serbia|
|• Mayor||Nebojša Miović (SNS)|
|• Town||41.74 km2 (16.12 sq mi)|
|• Municipality||367.29 km2 (141.81 sq mi)|
|Elevation||72 m (236 ft)|
|• Town density||40/km2 (100/sq mi)|
|• Municipality density||23/km2 (59/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Golubac (Serbian Cyrillic : Голубац, pronounced [ɡǒlubats] ; Romanian : Golubăț) is a village and municipality located in the Braničevo District of the eastern Serbia. Situated on the right side of the Danube river, it is bordered by Romania to the east, Veliko Gradište to the west and Kučevo to the south. The population of the village is 1,655 and the population of the municipality is 8,161. Due to many nearby archeological sites and the Đerdap national park, the village is a popular tourist, fishing and sailing destination.
In Serbian, the town is known as Golubac (Голубац), derived from golub ("pigeon" or "dove") and is therefore often translated as "the town of doves." Other names: Romanian : Golubăț (also known as Golumbacu Mare or Columbacu), Hungarian : Galambóc, German : Taubenberg and Turkish : Güvercinlik meaning "dovecote."
Historically, it was known as Columbria in Latin, a contraction of (castrum) Columbaria meaning "city of pigeons" (Latin: Columba, Greek: kòlymbos), and as a city derived from Cuppae during pre-Roman times.
It was a stronghold called Cuppae during Roman and Early Byzantine times (1-6th century) and turned into a city (Columbria) in 554/5 AD.
Archeological sites include the remnants of one of Roman Emperor Trajan's tables near Trajan's Bridge, found along his road through the Danube's Iron Gates; and the Roman fortress Diana. Golubac fortress, 4 km downstream, is from the 14th century and also of interest. The fortress was the scene of a battle against the Turks in 1428, where the Polish knight Zawisza Czarny was captured and executed by the Turks.
Charles I of Hungary conquered the castle in 1334. In 1387 Lazar of Serbia sieged it. Becoming a Hungarian ally in 1403–04, he received large possessions, including the important Belgrade and Golubac Fortress. The Turkish occupied it for the first time in 1391, but after that, Péter Perényi recaptured it. King Sigismund of Hungary acquired Golubac by a contract in 1427, but its Serbian captain sold it to the Turks for twelve thousand golds. Sigismund sieged the fortress in spring 1428 in response, but the mission was a failure, the King himself was almost killed by the Turks. In 1458, Matthias Corvinus tried to recapture it, but the siege was interrupted by Hungarian internal conflicts.
From 1929 to 1941, Golubac was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Golubac has a population of 8,331 inhabitants.
The ethnic composition of the municipality:
The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):
|Agriculture, forestry and fishing||47|
|Distribution of power, gas and water||1|
|Distribution of water and water waste management||36|
|Wholesale and retail, repair||182|
|Traffic, storage and communication||30|
|Hotels and restaurants||90|
|Media and telecommunications||3|
|Finance and insurance||5|
|Property stock and charter||-|
|Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities||38|
|Administrative and other services||39|
|Administration and social assurance||114|
|Healthcare and social work||70|
|Art, leisure and recreation||25|
The Iron Gate national park is noted for its natural environment and its hunting grounds, as well as its hiking trails.[ citation needed ] The village's quay along the Danube river is popular for more relaxed hiking.[ citation needed ]
Golubac has become a well-known sailing site.[ citation needed ] The Sailing Center of the Sailing Association of Serbia, which the Serbian National Team uses for ground preparations before major sailing events, is located in Golubac. One of the events is a sailing Regatta, which is traditionally held in August. During the summer, the Center holds an Optimist Class sailing camp, where beginners can learn from the best Serbian sailors and their international guests.[ citation needed ]
Sremski Karlovci is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the banks of the Danube, 8 kilometres from Novi Sad. According to the 2011 census results, it has a population of 8,750 inhabitants. The town has traditionally been known as the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Habsburg Monarchy. It was the political and cultural capital of Serbian Vojvodina after the May Assembly and during the Revolution in 1848.
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Bačka Palanka is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the left bank of the Danube. In 2011 the town had a total population of 28,239, while Bačka Palanka municipality had 55,528 inhabitants.
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Drobeta-Turnu Severin, colloquially Severin, is a city in Mehedinți County, Oltenia, Romania, on the northern bank of the Danube, close to the Iron Gates.
Zawisza Czarny of Garbow, also known as Zawisza the Black, of Sulima coat of arms, was a Polish knight and nobleman who served as a commander and diplomat under Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Hungarian-Bohemian king Sigismund of Luxembourg. During his life, he was regarded as a model of knightly virtues and was renowned for winning multiple tournaments. His nickname is due to his black hair and his custom-made, black armour which is kept at the Jasna Góra Monastery.
Đerdap National Park stretches along the right bank of the Danube River from the Golubac Fortress to the dam near Novi Sip, Serbia. It was established in 1974 and spreads on 63,786.5 ha. The park management office is in the town of Donji Milanovac on the Danube. Across the river is the Parcul Natural Porțile de Fier in Romania.
Đurađ Branković was the Serbian Despot from 1427 to 1456. He was one of the last Serbian medieval rulers. He was a participant in the battle of Ankara (1402) and Ottoman Interregnum (1403-1413). During his reign, the despotate was a vassal of both Ottoman sultans as well as Hungarian kings. Despot George was neutral during the Polish-Lithuanian (1444) and Hungarian-Wallachian (1448) crusades. In 1455, he was wounded and imprisoned during clashes with the Hungarians, after which the young Sultan Mehmed II launched the siege of Belgrade and its large Hungarian garrison. Despot Đurađ died at the end of 1456, due to complications stemming from the wound. After his death, Serbia, Bosnia and Albania became practically annexed by sultan Mehmed II, which only ended after centuries of additional conquests of Byzantine lands. Đurađ attained a large library of Serbian, Slavonic, Latin, and Greek manuscripts. He made his capital Smederevo a centre of Serbian culture. He was the first of the Branković dynasty to hold the Serbian monarchy.
Podunavlje is the name of the Danube river basin parts located in Serbia and Croatia. Podunavlje is located on the southern edge of Pannonian Basin. In its wider meaning, the Serbo-Croatian term refers to the area around the entire flow of the river Danube.
Bač is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The town has a population of 5,399, while Bač municipality has 14,405 inhabitants. The entire geographical region between the rivers Danube and Tisza, today divided between Serbia and Hungary, was named Bačka after the town.
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Ada Kaleh was a small island on the Danube in what is modern Romania, populated mostly by Turks of Romania, that was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates hydroelectric plant in 1970. The island was about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) downstream from Orșova and was less than two kilometers long and approximately half a kilometer wide.
The Golubac Fortress was a medieval fortified town on the south side of the Danube River, 4 km (2.5 mi) downstream from the modern-day town of Golubac, Serbia. According to recent discoveries, the fortress, which was built during the 14th century by Medieval Serbian state, is split into three compounds which were built in stages. It has ten towers, most of which started square, and several of which received many-sided reinforcements with the advent of firearms. Towers were not connected for easier defense. Also inside the fortress were found Serbian Medieval frescos.
The Smederevo Fortress is a medieval fortified city in Smederevo, Serbia, which was the temporary capital of Serbia in the Middle Ages. It was built between 1427 and 1430 on the order of Despot Đurađ Branković, the ruler of the Serbian Despotate. It was further fortified by the Ottoman Empire, which had taken the city in 1459.
Coronini is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, western Romania, with a population of 1,674. Part of the region of Banat, it includes Coronini and Sfânta Elena villages. Situated on the Danube and the border with Serbia, part of the mountainous area known as Clisura Dunării, Coronini holds several archeological sites, which trace its history back to the Bronze Age. The locality is home to a medieval fortress built by rulers of the Hungarian Kingdom, but was re-founded during the Banat colonization of the 1790s, and officially in 1858. A center for immigration from the Czech lands in the early 19th century, Sfânta Elena is among the traditional places founded by and associated with the Czech-Romanian community.
The siege of Golubac was a military conflict between the Hungarian–Wallachian–Lithuanian alliance and the Ottoman Empire in May 1428. This siege was the first battle in Hungarian military history in which the Hungarian army used significant artillery. However, they could not capture Golubac and were defeated by the Ottoman main army, led by Sultan Murad II. After the battle, most of Serbia and Bosnia was conquered by the Ottoman Army.
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