This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations . (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Born||Antônio Gonçalves Dias|
August 10, 1823
Caxias, Empire of Brazil
|Died||November 3, 1864 41) (aged|
Guimarães, Empire of Brazil
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, folklorist, linguist, ethnographer, lawyer|
|Alma mater||University of Coimbra|
|Genre||Poetry, theater play|
|Notable works|| I-Juca-Pirama |
"Canção do exílio"
|Relatives||João Manuel Gonçalves Dias (father) |
Vicência Ferreira (mother)
Teófilo Dias (nephew)
Antônio Gonçalves Dias (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtonju ɡõˈsawvis ˈdʒiɐs] ; August 10, 1823 –November 3, 1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist. A major exponent of Brazilian Romanticism and of the literary tradition known as "Indianism", he is famous for writing "Canção do exílio" (arguably the most well-known poem of Brazilian literature), the short narrative poem I-Juca-Pirama , the unfinished epic Os Timbiras , and many other nationalist and patriotic poems that would award him posthumously with the title of national poet of Brazil. He was also an avid researcher of Native Brazilian languages and folklore.
He is the patron of the 15th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Antônio Gonçalves Dias was born in Caxias on August 10, 1823, to a Portuguese father, João Manuel Gonçalves Dias and a cafuza mother, Vicência Ferreira. After completing his studies in Latin, French and Philosophy, he went in 1838 to Portugal to earn a degree in Law at the University of Coimbra. There he wrote his most remembered poem, "Canção do exílio". He graduated in 1845 and returned to Brazil in the same year. He went to Rio de Janeiro, living there until 1854. There he wrote for newspapers,and began to write the drama Leonor de Mendonça in 1846 and his first poetry book, Primeiros Cantos, in 1847. It was very well-received, and Alexandre Herculano wrote an article praising it. Dias finished his play Leonor de Mendonça also in 1847, and tried to have it performed at the Conservatório de Música do Rio de Janeiro, but the play was not accepted.
In 1848, he wrote two more poetry books: Segundos Cantos and Sextilhas de Frei Antão. In 1849 he became professor of Latin and History at the Colégio Pedro II. In 1851, he published his last poetry book, Últimos Cantos. In the same year, he travelled to Northern Brazil, planning to marry 14-year-old Ana Amélia Ferreira do Vale, to whom he dedicated many of his most famous and beautiful love poems, such as "Seus olhos", "Leviana", "Palinódia" and "Retratação". Ana Amélia was the cousin of Alexandre Teófilo de Carvalho Leal, who in his turn was the brother of Antônio Henriques Leal, a famous Brazilian journalist, writer, medician, biographer and historian known as the "Plutarch of Cantanhede". (Both Alexandre and Antônio were very close friends with Dias, and Antônio would edit Dias' posthumous works in 1875, in 6 volumes.) However, the girl's mother did not allow the marriage, quoting Dias' mestizo origins as a pretext. (This inspired his famous poem "Ainda uma vez – adeus!".) Returning to Rio, he married Olímpia Carolina da Costa later on, having with her a stillborn daughter. Dias divorced Olímpia in 1856.
From 1854 to 1858, he went to Europe on special missions for the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, where he studied the state of public instruction in the educational institutions there.In 1856, in Leipzig, he published his three poetry books in a single volume entitled Cantos, wrote the first four cantos of the epic poem Os Timbiras (that he would leave unfinished) and also published a dictionary of Old Tupi. Returning to Brazil in 1860, he founded the magazine Guanabara alongside Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre in 1849, and went on expeditions to Negro and Madeira Rivers, as a member of the Scientific Commission of Exploration. In 1862 he returned to Rio de Janeiro, but shortly after went to Europe again. In October 1863 he went to Lisbon, where he translated Friedrich Schiller's The Bride of Messina and some poems by Heinrich Heine.
After a short stay in France, he decided to return to Brazil in 1864, in the ship Ville de Boulogne. However, the ship was wrecked on the Bay of Cumã,near the shores of Guimarães, Maranhão. All the passengers but Dias survived the tragedy; he was sleeping in his cabin belowdecks and did not wake up in time to see what was happening; thus he drowned.
Dias had a nephew who was also a poet, Teófilo Dias.
The city of Gonçalves Dias, founded in 1958, has this name because its territory formerly belonged to the city of Caxias, Dias' hometown. A river in Paraná is named after him, as well as many public squares and streets all over Brazil.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the aboriginal Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil. It belongs to the Tupi–Guarani language family, and has a written history spanning the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries. In the early colonial period, Tupi was used as a lingua franca throughout Brazil by Europeans and aboriginal Americans, and had literary usage, but it was later suppressed almost to extinction, leaving only one modern descendant with an appreciable number of speakers, Nheengatu.
José Martiniano de Alencar was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist. He is considered to be one of the most famous and influential Brazilian Romantic novelists of the 19th century, and a major exponent of the literary tradition known as "Indianism". Sometimes he signed his works with the pen name Erasmo.
Indianism is a Brazilian literary and artistic movement that reached its peak during the first stages of Romanticism, though it had been present in Brazilian literature since the Baroque period.
Antônio Maria de Araújo Morais, known as Antônio Maria, was a Brazilian writer of pop music lyrics as well as radio sports commentator, poet, composer, and chronicler.
João Cabral de Melo Neto, also known as Joãozinho Cabral was a Brazilian poet and diplomat, and one of the most influential writers in late Brazilian modernism. He was awarded the 1990 Camões Prize and the 1992 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the only Brazilian poet to receive such award to date. He was considered until his death a perennial competitor for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Casimiro José Marques de Abreu was a Brazilian poet, novelist and playwright, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement. He is famous for the poem "Meus oito anos".
Joaquim Manuel de Macedo was a Brazilian novelist, doctor, teacher, poet, playwright and journalist, famous for the romance A Moreninha.
Bernardo Joaquim da Silva Guimarães was a Brazilian poet and novelist. He is the author of the famous romances A Escrava Isaura and O Seminarista. He also introduced to Brazilian poetry the verso bestialógico, also referred to as pantagruélico — poems whose verses are very nonsensical, although very metrical. Under the verso bestialógico, he wrote polemical erotic verses, such as "O Elixir do Pajé" and "A Origem do Mênstruo". A non-erotic poem written in verso bestialógico is "Eu Vi dos Polos o Gigante Alado".
Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães, Viscount of Araguaia, was a Brazilian poet, playwright, physician and diplomat. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in Brazilian literature, and was a pioneer of the Brazilian theatre.
Manuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo, was a Brazilian Romantic writer, painter, architect, diplomat and professor, considered to be one of the first Brazilian editorial cartoonists ever. He is the patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Antônio Gonçalves da Silva, popularly known as Patativa do Assaré, was a Brazilian popular / oral poet, improviser of oral verse, composer, singer and guitar player. One of the main articulators of the Brazilian North-eastern oral poetry of the 20th century.
The Candelária Church is an important historical Roman Catholic church in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. It was built and decorated during a long period, from 1775 to the late 19th century. The church combines a Portuguese colonial Baroque façade with later Neoclassical and Neo-Renaissance interior elements.
I-Juca-Pirama is a short narrative poem by Brazilian author Gonçalves Dias. It first appeared in his 1851 poetry book Últimos Cantos, but is usually published independently of its parent tome. Written under decasyllabic and alexandrine verses, and divided in ten cantos, it is one of the most famous Indianist poems of Brazilian Romanticism.
Antônio Gonçalves Teixeira e Sousa was a Brazilian poet, novelist and playwright, whose novel O Filho do Pescador is considered to be the first Romantic novel in Brazil.
Sílvio Vasconcelos da Silveira Ramos Romero was a Brazilian "Condorist" poet, essayist, literary critic, professor, journalist, historian and politician.
Luis Carlos Verzoni Nejar, better known as Carlos Nejar, is a Brazilian poet, author, translator and critic, and a member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras. One of the most important poets of its generation, Nejar, also called "o poeta do pampa brasileiro", is distinguished for his use of an extensive vocabulary, alliteration, and pandeism. His first book, Sélesis, was published in 1960.
"Canção do exílio" is a poem written by the Brazilian Romantic author Gonçalves Dias in 1843, when he was in Portugal studying Law at the University of Coimbra. The poem is a famous example of the first phase of Brazilian Romanticism, which was characterized by strong nationalism and patriotism.
Teófilo Odorico Dias de Mesquita was a Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of the famous Romantic author Gonçalves Dias.
Beatriz Francisca de Assis Brandão was a Neoclassical or Arcadian Brazilian poet, translator, musician, educator and early feminist. One of the few prominent female intellectuals and artists in Brazil during the reign of Pedro II, she became well-known for her poetry, frequently published in Brazilian newspapers. Through her life and work, she challenged the dominant societal roles for women at the time and played an important part in Brazilian social, political and cultural history.
Alexei Bueno is a leading contemporary Brazilian poet. As curator, he organized more than eighty exhibitions, on Fine Arts or on the History of Literature. As editor, he published many selected or complete works of great classics of the Portuguese language, as Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro, Almada Negreiros, Gonçalves Dias, Álvares de Azevedo, Machado de Assis, Cruz e Sousa, Olavo Bilac, Alphonsus de Guimaraens, Augusto dos Anjos and Vinicius de Moraes.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Gonçalves Dias, Antonio .|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gonçalves Dias .|
|Portuguese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 15th chair
Olavo Bilac (founder)