Gonçalves de Magalhães
A drawing of Gonçalves de Magalhães
|Born||Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães|
August 13, 1811
Rio de Janeiro, Colonial Brazil
|Died||July 10, 1882 70) (aged|
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, medician, diplomat|
|Notable works||A Confederação dos Tamoios , Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades , António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição|
|Children||Antônio José Gonçalves de Magalhães de Araguaia|
Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães, Viscount of Araguaia (August 13, 1811 – July 10, 1882), was a Brazilian poet, playwright, physician and diplomat. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in Brazilian literature, and was a pioneer of the Brazilian theatre.
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country's independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of the Portuguese language.
He is the patron of the 9th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Academia Brasileira de Letras (ABL) is a Brazilian literary non-profit society established at the end of the 19th century by a group of 40 writers and poets inspired by the Académie Française. The first president, Machado de Assis, declared its foundation on December 15, 1896, with the by-laws being passed on January 28, 1897. On July 20 of the same year, the academy started its operation.
Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães was born in Rio de Janeiro, to Pedro Gonçalves de Magalhães Chaves. His mother's name is unknown. He entered in a Medicine course in 1828, graduating in 1832. In the following year, he travelled to Europe, where he met and befriended Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and was exposed to the Romantic ideals. He wrote in 1836 a Romantic manifesto, Discurso Sobre a História da Literatura no Brasil, and, in the same year, he published the poetry book Suspiros Poéticos e Saudades, the first Romantic work to be written by a Brazilian.
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
Manuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo, was a Brazilian Romantic writer, painter, architect, diplomat and professor, considered to be one of the first Brazilian editorial cartoonists ever. He is the patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Returning to Brazil in 1837, he wrote two tragic plays: António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição in 1838 and Olgiato in 1839. Also in 1838 he becomes a Philosophy teacher in the Colégio Pedro II. He also founded with Porto-Alegre and Francisco de Sales Torres Homem the short-lived magazine Niterói ; only two issues of it were published.
António José, ou O Poeta e a Inquisição is a theatre play by Gonçalves de Magalhães, the first Brazilian Romantic author. Written in and performed for the first time in 1838, it was published in that same year. It is considered to be the first play of a "pure" Brazilian theatre.
Francisco de Sales Torres Homem, Viscount of Inhomirim, was a physician, lawyer, journalist, romantic writer, deputy, senator, top officer of the National Treasury, president of the Bank of Brazil and Minister of Treasury. The only afrobrazilian ever to have been in charge of the economy of Brazil throughout its history.
Niterói: Revista Brasileira was a magazine created in 1836 by three of the most prominent Brazilian writers at the time: Gonçalves de Magalhães, Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre and Francisco de Sales Torres Homem. It was edited in Paris, France.
He entered the diplomatic career in 1847, becoming minister in the United States, Argentina, Austria and in the Holy See. He was also a chargé d'affaires in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Piedmont, Russia and Spain. Very esteemed by Emperor Pedro II, he was decorated with the Order of the Rose, the Order of Christ and the Order of the Southern Cross, and with the title of Baron of Araguaia in 1872, being elevated to Viscount two years later.
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.
The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, is the apostolic episcopal see of the bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, ex cathedra the universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, and a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the 1st century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and Papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic bishops and Catholics around the world organised in polities of the Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D, is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador. The term is French for "charged with matters". A female diplomat may be designated a chargée d'affaires, following French declension.
Magalhães had a son, Antônio José Gonçalves de Magalhães de Araguaia (born c. 1858), who was proclaimed Count of Araguaia by the Holy See.
Count (Male), or Countess (Female), is a historical title of nobility in certain European countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility. The etymologically related English term, "county" denoted the land owned by a count. Equivalents of the rank of count exist or have existed in the nobility structures of some non-European countries, such as hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era.
Gonçalves de Magalhães died in Rome, on July 10, 1882.
|Portuguese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
| Baron of Araguaia|
1872 — 1874
None (title abolished)
| Viscount of Araguaia|
1874 — 1882
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 9th chair
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo (founder)
José Martiniano de Alencar was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist. He is considered to be one of the most famous and influential Brazilian Romantic novelists of the 19th century, and a major exponent of the literary tradition known as "Indianism". Sometimes he signed his works with the pen name Erasmo.
Antônio Gonçalves Dias was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist. A major exponent of Brazilian Romanticism and of the literary tradition known as "Indianism", he is famous for writing "Canção do exílio", the short narrative poem I-Juca-Pirama, the unfinished epic Os Timbiras, and many other nationalist and patriotic poems that would award him posthumously with the title of national poet of Brazil. He was also an avid researcher of Native Brazilian languages and folklore.
The Riograndense Republic, often called Piratini Republic, was a de facto state that seceded from the Empire of Brazil roughly coinciding with the present state of Rio Grande do Sul. It was proclaimed on September 11, 1836, by General Antônio de Sousa Neto, as a direct consequence of the victory obtained by Gaúcho oligarchic forces at the Battle of Seival (1836), during the Farroupilha Revolution (1835–1845). It had a constitution finished in 1843 and was recognised only by Britain, France, and Uruguay.
Moacyr Jaime Scliar was a Brazilian writer and physician. Most of his writing centers on issues of Jewish identity in the Diaspora and particularly on being Jewish in Brazil.
Viamão is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In size it is the largest municipality in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre and the seventh most populous in the state.
The Legislative Assembly of São Paulo state is the unicameral legislative branch of São Paulo state in Brazil.
Fernando Cabrera is a Dominican-American poet, essayist, visual artist, songwriter and professor. He is a National Poetry and Literary Essay Prize Winner.
Luis Carlos Verzoni Nejar, better known as Carlos Nejar, is a Brazilian poet, author, translator and critic, and a member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras. One of the most important poets of its generation, Nejar, also called "o poeta do pampa brasileiro", is distinguished for his use of an extensive vocabulary, alliteration, and pandeism. His first book, Sélesis, was published in 1960.
Manuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto Alegre, nicknamed "the Gloved Centaur", was an army officer, politician, abolitionist and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Born into a wealthy family of military background, Manuel Marques de Sousa joined the Portuguese Army in Brazil in 1817 when he was little more than a child. His military initiation occurred in the conquest of the Banda Oriental, which was annexed and became the southernmost Brazilian province of Cisplatina in 1821. For most of the 1820s, he was embroiled in the Brazilian effort to keep Cisplatina as part of its territory: first during the struggle for Brazilian independence and then in the Cisplatine War. It would ultimately prove a futile attempt, as Cisplatina successfully separated from Brazil to become the independent nation of Uruguay in 1828.
Magalhães is a Portuguese surname, sometimes rendered in English as Magellan.
Teófilo Odorico Dias de Mesquita was a Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of the famous Romantic author Gonçalves Dias.
Manoel Wenceslau Leite de Barros was a Brazilian poet. He has won many awards for his work, including twice the Prêmio Jabuti, the most important literary award in Brazil.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.