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|King Gongmin of Goryeo|
|King of Goryeo|
|Predecessor||King Chungjeong of Goryeo|
|Successor||King U of Goryeo|
|Born||23 May 1330|
|Died||27 October 1374 44)(aged|
|Consort|| Queen Indeok |
|Issue||King U of Goryeo|
|House||House of Wang|
|Father||King Chungsuk of Goryeo|
|Gongmin of Goryeo|
|Revised Romanization||Gongmin wang|
|Revised Romanization||Ijae or Ikdang|
|McCune–Reischauer||Ijae or Iktang|
|Revised Romanization||Wang Jeon, earlier Wang Gi|
|McCune–Reischauer||Wang Chŏn, earlier Wang Ki|
|Sino-Korean Mongolian name|
|Monarchs of Korea Goryeo|
King Gongmin of Goryeo (23 May 1330 – 27 October 1374) ruled Goryeo Korea from 1351 to 1374. He was the son second of King Chungsuk. In addition to his various Korean names, he bore the Mongolian name Bayan Temür (伯顔帖木兒).
Goryeo had been a semi-autonomous vassal state under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty since the Mongol invasions of Korea in the 13th century. Starting with King Chungnyeol, prospective rulers of Korea married Mongolian princesses and were customarily sent to the Yuan Court, in effect, as hostages. As per this custom, King Gongmin spent many years in the Yuan court, being sent there in 1341, before ascending the Korean throne. He married a Mongolian princess who became Queen Noguk. The Yuan dynasty began to crumble during the mid-14th century, and was eventually conquered and replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368.
With the disintegration of Yuan, which had influenced the Korean peninsula since the Mongol invasion of Korea of 1238, King Gongmin began efforts to reform Goryeo government. His first act was to remove all pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officers from their positions. These deposed people formed a dissident faction which plotted an unsuccessful coup against the king. High official Jo Il-shin even tried to take over the government, but this rebellion was put down by general Choi Young.
During the Mongol invasions of Korea, between the 1250s and the 1270s, the Mongols had annexed the northern provinces of Korea and incorporated them into their empire as Ssangseong (쌍성총관부, 雙城總管府) and Dongnyeong Prefectures (동녕부, 東寧府). In 1356, the Goryeo army retook these provinces partly thanks to the defection of Yi Ja-chun, a minor Korean official in the service of the Mongols in Ssangseong, and his son, Yi Seong-gye. In addition, Generals Yi Seong-gye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang.
Another issue was the question of land holdings. The land-grant system had broken down, and Mongol-favoured officials, along with a handful of landed gentry, owned the vast majority of agricultural land, which was worked by tenant farmers and bondsmen. However, King Gongmin's attempt at land reform was met with opposition and subterfuge from those officials who were supposed to implement his reforms, as they were landowners themselves.
The Wokou were also a problem encountered during King Gongmin's reign. The Wokou had been troubling the peninsula for some time and had become well-organized military marauders raiding deep into the country, rather than the "hit-and-run" bandits they started as. Generals Choi Young and Yi Seong-gye were called upon by King Gongmin to combat them.
Additionally, King Gongmin grappled with the Red Turban troops, who invaded Goryeo twice during his reign (first in 1359 and again in 1361). In 1361, the Red Turban troops occupied Kaesong for a short period of time. After Kaesong was recaptured by Generals Choe Yeong, Yi Seong-gye, Jeong Seun, and Yi Bang-sil, few Red Turban troops managed to escape with their lives.
During the reign of King Gongmin, a Goryeo diplomat, Mun Ik-jeom, stationed in China managed to smuggle cotton seeds into Goryeo, introducing them to the Korean peninsula for the first time.
Although the relationship between Queen Noguk and the king was very close, they failed to conceive an heir for many years. Despite suggestions of taking a second wife, King Gongmin ignored these requests. The king was also known to have entered into pederastic relationships with several court catamites, or chajewi, and the names of five of these are recorded as: Hong Yun, Han An, Kwon Chin, Hong Kwan, and No Son.Queen Noguk became pregnant but died from complications with childbirth in 1365. Her death led to King Gongmin's depression and mental instability. King Gongmin became indifferent to politics and entrusted the great tasks of state to Pyeonjo, a Buddhist monk who was born as the son of a princess and a slave. Judging him as clever, King Gongmin renamed Pyeonjo as Shin Don. Having the full confidence of King Gongmin, Shin Don tried to reform the society of Goryeo. In 1365, King Gongmin gave Pyeonjo the nickname "Cheonghan Geosa" and the noble title of Jinpyeonghu (Chinpyŏng Marquess). After six years, Shin Don lost his position and King Gongmin had him executed in 1371.
Goryeo's entrenched bureaucracy never forgave King Gongmin for his reform efforts. They interpreted his policy of cutting all ties with the Yuan and establishing relations with Ming China as a direct threat to their status and feared that further attempts at reform might yet be made. Kaesong's deposed pro-Mongol faction battled to protect its position and hoped to renew ties with the Mongols who had helped them gain and hold their wealth in the first place.
Some time before his death, King Gongmin found out that one of his concubines had an affair with a young man named Hong Ryun (홍륜), which led to King Gongmin's anger. Before King Gongmin could kill him, Hong Ryun and Choe Man-saeng (최만생) killed the King in his sleep in 1374.
After his death, a high official Yi In-im assumed the helm of the government and enthroned eleven-year-old, King U.
King Gongmin was well known for his artistic skills, and he is referred to as one of the best artists of the Goryeo period. He was also well known for his calligraphy works.
Example of his works are:
Yi Ja-chun was a minor military officer of the Yuan Dynasty and the father of Yi Seong-gye, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty. He was given the temple name Hwanjo by Taejong.
Taejo of Joseon, born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.
Choi Young (1316–1388), also romanized as Choe Yeong, was a Korean general born in Hongseong or Cheorwon during the Goryeo period.
King Chungnyeol of Goryeo was the 25th ruler of the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo from 1274 to 1308. He was the son of Wonjong, his predecessor on the throne. Chungnyeol was king during the Mongol Invasions of Japan, aiding in the offensives.
King Chungsuk of Goryeo was king of the Goryeo (Korea), from 1313 to 1330 and again from 1332 to 1339.
U of Goryeo 우, often written Woo, but pronounced "Oo" ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1374 until 1388.
King Chang of Goryeo was the 33rd and youngest ruler of the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea. He was the son of his predecessor, King U.
King Chungjeong of Goryeo was the 30th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea and was enthroned by imperial edict at the age of 12.
Wonjong of Goryeo was the 24th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea from 1260 to 1274.
King Chungmok of Goryeo was the 29th king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.
King Chunghye of Goryeo was the 28th king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.
King Chungseon of Goryeo was the 28th king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea. He is sometimes known by his Mongolian name, Iǰirbuqa. Adept at calligraphy and painting, rather than politics, he generally preferred the life of the Yuan capital Beijing to that of the Goryeo capital Kaesong. He was the eldest son of King Chungryeol; his mother was a Yuan royal, Queen Jangmok, a daughter of Khublai Khan also known by her Mongolian name/title Qutlugh-kelmysh.
Gyeongsun of Silla was the 56th and final ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla.
The Red Turban invasions of Goryeo occurred in the 14th century, when the Red Turban Rebellion spread to Goryeo on the Korean Peninsula. The Red Turban rebels, originating in the Zhejiang area, were opposed to the Yuan dynasty of China and the Mongolian plateau. After gaining control of Liaodong, the Red Turbans invaded Goryeo in 1359 and 1360.
Queen Noguk, also known as Queen Indeok, was a Mongolian princess, queen of Korea by marriage to King Gongmin. Her Mongolian name was Borjigin Budashiri.
Queen Gongwon also known as Queen Mother Myeongdeok was queen consort to king Chungsuk of Goryeo and the mother of king Chunghye of Goryeo and king Gongmin of Goryeo. She was from the Namyang Hong clan.
Daejang-Princess Jeguk or Empress Inmyeong was queen consort to king Chungnyeol of Goryeo and the mother of king Chungseon of Goryeo. She was the first Mongol queen of Korea, having gone to Goryeo from the Yuan dynasty. Her father was Kublai Khan.
Mungyeong Jeon clan is one of the Korean clans. Their Bon-gwan is in Mungyeong, North Gyeongsang Province. According to the research held in 2000, the number of Mungyeong Jeon clan’s member was 5535. Their founder was Jeon Yu gyeom who worked as Grand Secretariat of Long Tu Court in Yuan dynasty. He entered Goryeo as a fatherly master of Queen Noguk who had a marriage to an ordinary person planned by Gongmin of Goryeo in 1351. He worked as Pingzhangshi and married Choe Yeong’s sister. After that, he was settled in Kaesong and his government post reached to Jeongdang munhak. Then, his descendant founded Mungyeong Jeon clan and made Mungyeong, Mungyeong Jeon clan’s Bon-gwan.
Ro clan of Kaesong is one of the Korean clans. According to the research held in 2015, the number of Ro clan of Kaesong’s member was 2232. Ro clan came from a Chinese clan. Ro clan was made because Chinese empire appointed Chinese empire’s descendant as [[Ro]]. Ro clan of Kaesong’s founder was Ro Eun gyeong who was Yuan dynasty’s Hanlin Academy. Ro Eun gyeong entered Goryeo as a fatherly master of Queen Noguk who had a marriage to an ordinary person planned by Gongmin of Goryeo in Goryeo and was settled in Kaesong.
Foundation of the Kingdom is a 1983 South Korean historical television series. It aired on KBS1 from January 2, 1983 to December 18, 1983. The series revolves around the fall of Goryeo and the foundation of Joseon.
Gongmin of GoryeoBorn: 23 May 1330 Died: 27 October 1374
| King of Goryeo |