Gorinchem

Last updated
Gorinchem
Gorinchem 011.jpg
Lingehaven in Gorinchem
Flag of Gorinchem.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Gorinchem.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0512 (2009).svg
Location in South Holland
Coordinates: 51°50′19″N4°58′38″E / 51.83873°N 4.97713°E / 51.83873; 4.97713 Coordinates: 51°50′19″N4°58′38″E / 51.83873°N 4.97713°E / 51.83873; 4.97713
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Reinie Melissant-Briene (CDA)
Area
[2]
  Total21.93 km2 (8.47 sq mi)
  Land18.83 km2 (7.27 sq mi)
  Water3.10 km2 (1.20 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (January 2019) [4]
  Total36,682
  Density1,948/km2 (5,050/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Gorkumer
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
4200–4208
Area code 0183
Website www.gorinchem.nl OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Dutch Topographic map of Gorinchem (town), Sept. 2014 Gorinchem-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg
Dutch Topographic map of Gorinchem (town), Sept. 2014

Gorinchem (also called Gorkum ( [ˈɣɔrkʏm] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) or [-əm]), is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 21.93 km2 (8.47 sq mi) of which 3.10 km2 (1.20 sq mi) is water. It had a population of 36,682 in 2019.

Contents

The municipality of Gorinchem also includes the population centre of Dalem.

History

Dalem Gate Gorinchem, Dalem poort.JPG
Dalem Gate

It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa 1000 CE by fishermen and farmers on the raised land near the mouth of the river Linge at the Merwede. "Goriks Heem" (Home of Gorik) is first mentioned in a document from 1224 in which Floris IV granted people from Gorinchem exemption of toll payments throughout Holland.

Somewhere between 1247 and 1267, Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel. At the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre. Half a century later real city walls were built complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November 1322.

Jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in 1417. This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the eighth city of Holland.

On 9 July 1572, the Watergeuzen (Dutch rebels against Spanish rule) conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests and monks. Because they refused to renounce their faith, these priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from then on known among Catholics as the Martyrs of Gorkum.

By the 16th century, the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions that still are almost completely intact. The new walls were completed in 1609 and were located further from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In 1673, Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line.

The city walls had four city gates: the Arkel Gate in the north, the Dalem Gate in the east, the Water Gate in the south (where the ferry to Woudrichem was), and the Kansel Gate in the west. Of these four gates, only the Dalem Gate remains. The others were removed in the 19th century to make way for vehicular traffic. A portion of the Water Gate was preserved in the gardens of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

Map of Gorinchem of 1869. Gorinchem 1869.png
Map of Gorinchem of 1869.

In the 18th century, the economy went into decline. After the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged.

During the Industrial Revolution, Gorinchem recovered. Increased shipping led to new canals being dug and a railway connection to the city. Its population quickly increased, filling the innercity, and new neighbourhoods had to be built outside the city walls.

At the beginning of the 20th century, expansion took place in the Lingewijk and West neighbourhoods. After World War II, expansion started in the north-western portion of the municipality which was completed in the 1970s. This was followed by developments of the neighbourhoods Wijdschild and Laag Dalem east of the city center. In 1986, the town Dalem was added to the municipality.

Politics

The current mayor of Gorinchem is Reinie Melissant-Briene of the CDA. The municipal executive consists of the City Interest, Democrats Gorinchem, PvdA and CDA.

The municipal council of Gorinchem has 25 members, which are directly elected. As of the 2018 Dutch municipal elections, the current composition is:

PartyRoleCurrent Municipal Assembly
 City InterestExecutive5      Netherlands Gorinchem Municipal Council 2018.svg
 Democrats GorinchemExecutive4     
  PvdA Executive3   
  VVD Opposition3   
  SP Opposition2  
  CDA Executive2  
  CU-SGP Opposition2  
  D66 Opposition2  
  GroenLinks Opposition1 
 Active GorcumOpposition1 

Transport

The city is crossed by two motorways; the A15 on the northside, and the A27 on the westside.

The city also has a railway station: Gorinchem.

Notable natives and residents

Martyrs de Gorkum Martyrs de Gorkum.jpg
Martyrs de Gorkum

Public thinking & public service

Abraham Bloemaert Meyssens, Johannes - Abraham Bloemaert.jpg
Abraham Bloemaert
Ida Gerhardt, 1968 IdaGerhardt.jpg
Ida Gerhardt, 1968

The Arts

Science & Business

Sport

International relations

Gorinchem is twinned with

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References

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  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. "Postcodetool for 4205AZ". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. "Erpenius,Thomas"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 09 (11th ed.). 1911.
  6. "Camphuysen,DirkRafelsz"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 05 (11th ed.). 1911.
  7. "Bloemaert,Abraham"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 04 (11th ed.). 1911.
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  9. Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1886). "Boate,Gerard"  . Dictionary of National Biography . 05. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  10. Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1886). "Boate,Arnold"  . Dictionary of National Biography . 05. London: Smith, Elder & Co.