Gosanke

Last updated
Maru-ni-mitsuba'aoi ("Circle Around Three Hollyhock Leaves"), the Tokugawa clan's crest (mon). Mon-Tokugawa.png
Maru-ni-mitsuba'aoi ("Circle Around Three Hollyhock Leaves"), the Tokugawa clan's crest ( mon ).

The TokugawaGosanke (徳川御三家, "the Three Houses of the Tokugawa"), also called simply Gosanke (御三家, "the Noble Three Houses"), or even Sanke (三家, "the three houses"), were the most noble three branches of the Tokugawa clan of Japan: Owari, Kii, and Mito branch, all of which were descended from clan founder Tokugawa Ieyasu's three youngest sons, Yoshinao, Yorinobu, and Yorifusa, and were allowed to provide a shōgun in case of need. [1] In the Edo period the term gosanke could also refer to various other combinations of Tokugawa houses, including (1) the shogunal, Owari and Kii houses and (2) the Owari, Kii, and Suruga houses (all with the court position of dainagon ).

Contents

Later, Gosanke were deprived of their role to provide a shōgun by three other branches that are closer to the shogunal house: the Gosankyō .

Even after the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and the abolition of the Edo-period system of administrative domains (han) the three houses continued to exist in some form, as they do into the 21st century.

History

After he established his shogunate, Ieyasu proceeded to put members of his family in key positions. Ninth son Yoshinao was nominated daimyō of Nagoya (Owari Province), tenth son Yorinobu daimyō of Wakayama (Kii Province) and eleventh son Yorifusa daimyō of Mito (Hitachi Province). [1] From this allocation of fiefs came the names of the houses they founded, officially called Owari House of Tokugawa (尾張徳川家, Owari Tokugawa-ke), Kii House of Tokugawa (紀伊徳川家, Kii Tokugawa-ke), and Mito House of Tokugawa (水戸徳川家, Mito Tokugawa-ke)). Ieyasu gave them the right to supply a shōgun in order to ensure the presence of successors to the Tokugawa shogunate in case the main line should become extinct. [2] This occurred twice during the Edo period: when the seventh shōgun died heirless in 1716, and when the thirteenth shōgun died heirless in 1858.

The three houses had the highest rank among the shinpan , the daimyōs who were relatives of the shōgun. After the Meiji Restoration, under the kazoku system, the heads of the three houses became marquesses. In 1929 the head of the Mito House was elevated from marquess to duke.

Owari branch

The senior one was the Owari branch. The first of this line was Tokugawa Yoshinao, ninth son of Ieyasu. He and his heirs were daimyōs of the Owari Domain (Owari Han), with its headquarters at Nagoya Castle. The fief had a rating of 619,500 koku , a koku being the quantity of rice necessary to feed one person for a year (about 180 liters), [3] and was the largest of the three. Before the abolition of the shogunate and of the han system, the house was headed successively by 17 men. Its seniority notwithstanding, the Owari were the only one not to provide a shōgun. [2]

Kii branch

Second in seniority was Kii or Kishū House. The founder was Tokugawa Yorinobu, the tenth son of Ieyasu. Yorinobu was daimyō of the Kishū Han with its castle at Wakayama and a rating of 555,000 koku. [3] He entered Wakayama in 1619 when the previous daimyō was transferred. Fourteen members of the Tokugawa clan headed the fief during the Edo Period. It was the only family to directly produce successors to the shōgun, once in 1716 with Tokugawa Yoshimune and again in 1858 with Tokugawa Iemochi.

The fifth Tokugawa daimyō of Kii was Yoshimune, who later became shōgun and appointed a relative to head the Kii Han. Yoshimune established three new houses, the gosankyō , installing two sons and a grandson as their heads. The gosanke provided the model for the gosankyō. However, while Yoshimune granted lands to the gosankyō, the lands were not consolidated into coherent han , but instead were scattered in various places; the total holdings were also smaller than those of the gosanke. Eventually, one of the gosankyō houses, the Hitotsubashi house, produced two shoguns, once in 1787 (Tokugawa Ienari) and again in 1866 (Tokugawa Yoshinobu).

Mito branch

Third in seniority among the Gosanke was the Mito branch. Its founder was Tokugawa Yorifusa, the eleventh son of Ieyasu. Their fief was the Mito Han in Hitachi Province, with its castle in Mito and lands rated initially at 250,000 koku, and later (1710) at 350,000. [3] Eleven men headed the house, including Tokugawa (Mito) Mitsukuni. The Mito House was not allowed to provide a shōgun, but only his vice. [3] It did manage however to produce one when one of its sons, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, was adopted by the Hitotsubashi (one of the Kii House's three Gosankyō) in 1848 and became the last shōgun as a member of that house.

Genealogy of the Gosanke heads

Owari branch

  1. Yoshinao
  2. Mitsutomo
  3. Tsunanari
  4. Yoshimichi
  5. Gorōta
  6. Tsugutomo
  7. Muneharu
  8. Munekatsu
  9. Munechika
  10. Naritomo
  11. Nariharu
  12. Naritaka
  13. Yoshitsugu
  14. Yoshikumi
  15. Mochinaga
  16. Yoshinori
  17. Yoshikatsu
  18. Yoshiakira
  19. Yoshichika
  20. Yoshitomo
  21. Yoshinobu
  22. Yoshitaka

The 22nd head of the Owari House is Mr. Yoshitaka Tokugawa (徳川 義崇, Tokugawa Yoshitaka) (born 1961), who in 2005 succeeded his late father, becoming director of the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya. [2] A Tokyo resident, he commutes to Nagoya during weekends. [2] His main activities are the museum and realty management. [2]

Kii branch

  1. Tokugawa Yorinobu (1601–1671, r. 1619–1667)
  2. Mitsusada (1626–1705, r. 1667–1698)
  3. Tsunanori (1665–1705, r. 1698–1705)
  4. Yorimoto (1680–1705, r. 1705)
  5. Yoshimune (1684–1751, r. 1705–1716) (later became shōgun with the same name)
  6. Munenao (1682–1757, r. 1716–1757)
  7. Munemasa (1720–1765, r. 1757–1765)
  8. Shigenori (1746–1829, r. 1765–1775)
  9. Harusada (1728–1789, r. 1775–1789)
  10. Harutomi (1771–1852, r. 1789–1832)
  11. Nariyuki (1801–1846, r. 1832–1846)
  12. Narikatsu (1820–1849, r. 1846–1849)
  13. Yoshitomi (1846–1866, r. 1849–1858) (later became shōgun with the name Iemochi)
  14. Mochitsugu (1844–1906, r. 1858–1869)
  15. Yorimichi (1872-1925, r. 1869-1925)
  16. Yorisada (1892-1954, r. 1925-1954)
  17. Yoriaki (1917-1958, r. 1954-1958)
  18. Gō (1924-unknown, r. 1958-1965)
  19. Kotoko (b.1956, r. 1965-still)

The 19th head of the Kii House is Ms. Kotoko Tokugawa (徳川 宜子, Tokugawa Kotoko) (born in 1956). [2] Although she is not married and has no children, she was chosen as head of the clan because there were no other direct descendants. [2] An architect, [4] she owns and operates her own construction company in Ginza, Tokyo. [2] Unlike the other two, the Kii House does not have a museum of its own, and has given its properties of historical value to museums, such as the Wakayama Prefectural Museum. [2] Effectively extinct

Mito branch

  1. Yorifusa
  2. Mitsukuni
  3. Tsunaeda
  4. Munetaka
  5. Munemoto
  6. Harumori
  7. Harutoshi
  8. Narinobu
  9. Nariaki
  10. Yoshiatsu
  11. Akitake
  12. Atsuyoshi
  13. Kuniyuki
  14. Kuninari
  15. Narimasa

The 15th head of the Mito House is Mr. Narimasa Tokugawa (徳川斉正, Tokugawa Narimasa) (born in 1958). [2] From July 2009 he is also the director of Mito's Shōkōkan Tokugawa Museum (彰考館徳川博物館). [2] He presently works for Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. [2] A Tokyo resident, he commutes to Mito on weekends. [2]

Other uses of the term

In modern Japanese, the word gosanke is used to refer to "the strongest three" or "the most famous three" in various contexts. For example, the Imperial Hotel, Hotel Okura, and Hotel New Otani Tokyo are often referred to as one of the three great hotels (御三家, gosanke) of Tokyo. The Otani Hotel was built in the Kioi district of Tokyo, where the Tokyo residence of the Kii House was located.

Notes

  1. 1 2 Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, Tokugawa Gosanke, Tokugawa Owari-ke, Tokugawa Kii-ke, and Tokugawa Mito-ke
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Asahi Simbun
  3. 1 2 3 4 Iwanami Kōjien Japanese Dictionary
  4. See her page at the site of the Architect Studio Japan,

Related Research Articles

Tokugawa Yoshinobu 15th (the last) shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate (1837-1913)

Prince Tokugawa Yoshinobu was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was part of a movement which aimed to reform the aging shogunate, but was ultimately unsuccessful. After resigning in late 1867, he went into retirement, and largely avoided the public eye for the rest of his life

Tokugawa Yoshimune Japanese shogun (1684-1751)

Tokugawa Yoshimune was the eighth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Tokugawa Yorifusa daimyo of the ealy Edo period; 1st lord of Mito, founder of Mito branch

Tokugawa Yorifusa, also known as Mito Yorifusa, was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period.

Tokugawa Yorinobu daimyo of the ealy Edo period; 1st lord of Kishu, founder of Kii branch

Tokugawa Yorinobu was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period.

Tokugawa Yoshinao daimyo

Tokugawa Yoshinao was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period.

The Gosankyō were three branches of the Tokugawa clan of Japan. They were descended from the eighth of the fifteen Tokugawa shōguns, Yoshimune (1684–1751). Yoshimune established the Gosankyo to augment the Gosanke, the heads of the powerful han (fiefs) of Owari, Kishū, and Mito. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, established the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi, and Shimizu branches of the Tokugawa. Unlike the Gosanke, they did not rule a han. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shōguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Tokugawa clan Noble family

The Tokugawa clan is a Japanese dynasty that was formerly a powerful daimyō family of Japan. They nominally descended from Emperor Seiwa (850–880) and were a branch of the Minamoto clan by the Nitta clan. The early history of this clan remains a mystery. Members of the clan ruled Japan as shōguns from 1603 to 1867.

Glossary of Japanese history Wikipedia glossary

This is the glossary of Japanese history including the major terms, titles and events the casual reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject.

Tokushima Domain Japanese historical estate in Awa province (shikoku)

The Tokushima Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Awa Province in modern-day Tokushima Prefecture on the island of Shikoku; and it was associated with Awaji Province in modern-day Hyōgo Prefecture.

Tokugawa is a surname in Japan.

Mito Domain Japanese historical estate in Hitachi province

Mito was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Hitachi Province in modern-day Ibaraki Prefecture.

Tokugawa Mitsusada was a daimyō in Japan during the Edo period (1603–1868). Mitsusada born as son and heir of Tokugawa Yorinobu and a grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu with childhood name Nagatomimaru (長福丸). Among his sons was the eighth Tokugawa shōgun Yoshimune. Norihime, daughter of his married Ichijō Kaneteru. He married daughter of Prince Fushimi-no-Miya Sadakiyo, Yaso-no-Miya Teruko.

Owari-Tokugawa family branch of Tokugawa clan

The Owari Tokugawa family is a branch of the Tokugawa clan, and it is the seniormost house of the Gosanke.

Tsuyama Domain Japanese historical estate in Mimasaka province

Tsuyama Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Mimasaka Province in modern-day Okayama Prefecture.

Takamatsu Domain Japanese historical estate in Sanuki province

The Takamatsu Domain was a han or feudal domain in Sanuki Province, Japan during the Edo period. The domain was governed first by the Ikoma clan then by the Mito-Matsudaira clan.

Kishū Domain Japanese historical estate in Kii province

The Kishū Domain, also known as Kii Domain (紀伊藩) or Wakayama Domain (和歌山藩), was a han or Japanese feudal domain in Kii Province. The domain spanned areas of present-day Wakayama and southern Mie prefectures, and had an income of 555,000 koku. The domain was administered from Wakayama Castle in present-day Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture. The heads of the domain were drawn from the Kishu-Tokugawa clan, one of the Gosanke, or three branches of the Tokugawa clan. The domain was founded by Tokugawa Yorinobu, the tenth son of the shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, when he moved from Sunpu Domain in Suruga Province to Kii Province. The Kishū came to control the smaller adjacent Tanabe and Shingū domains. The Kishū Domain was noted for its production of the Kishū mikan, soy sauce, lacquerware, and high-grade oak charcoal during the Edo period, and leather and cotton production by the Meiji Restoration in 1868.

Kuwana Domain

Kuwana Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period, located in Ise Province, Japan. It was centered on Kuwana Castle in what is now the city of Kuwana, Mie.

Akashi Domain Japanese historical estate in Harima province

The Akashi Domain was a feudal domain of Japan. It occupied Akashi District and surroundings in Harima Province. Fudai and Shimpan daimyō were assigned, and frequently reassigned, to Akashi. The domain had its administrative headquarters at Akashi Castle.

The Takasu Domain was a Japanese domain located in Mino Province. For most of its history, it was ruled by the Takasu-Matsudaira, a branch of the Tokugawa clan of Owari Domain.

Mito-Tokugawa family branch of Tokugawa clan

The Mito Tokugawa family is a branch of the Tokugawa clan based in Mito, Ibaraki.

References