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|Died||May 6, 1995 94) (aged|
|Alma mater||University of Vienna|
| Othmar Spann |
Ludwig von Mises
|Richard E. Caves|
|Influences||Friedrich von Wieser|
Gottfried von Haberler (German: [ˈhaːbɐlɐ] ; July 20, 1900 – May 6, 1995) was an Austrian-American economist. He worked in particular on international trade. One of his major contributions was reformulating the Ricardian idea of comparative advantage in a neoclassical framework, abandoning the labor theory of value for an opportunity cost concept. 
Haberler was born in Austria-Hungary in 1900, and was educated in the Austrian School of economics. In 1936 he moved to the United States, joining the economics department at Harvard University. There he worked alongside Joseph Schumpeter.
Haberler's two major works were Theory of International Trade (1936) and Prosperity and Depression (1937).
He was President of the International Economic Association (1950–1953).
In 1957 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade commissioned a report on the terms of trade for primary commodities, and Haberler was appointed Chairman. The report found that there was a decline in the terms of trade for primary producers, since 1955 commodity prices were said to have fallen by 5%, while industrial prices rose by 6%. Haberler's report seems to echo the report written by Raúl Prebisch in 1949 as well as Hans Singer in 1950. However, when a second Prebisch's report for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) came out in 1964, Haberler denounced it. His particular disagreement was with the idea that there was a systematic long-term (secular) decline in the terms of trade.
In 1971, Haberler left Harvard to become a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.
One of the things Haberler is accredited with is developing the theory of opportunity cost. The question of who first developed the concept of opportunity cost is slightly debated, but for the most part John Stuart Mill is given the credit. Other contributors are Professor Friedrich von Wieser and Gottfried Haberler. Opportunity cost is defined in the Oxford Dictionary as “the loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen.” This basically means what a person gives up in order to pursue another thing/job/opportunity, etc. One of the men given credit for developing the concept of opportunity cost is Professor Friedrich von Wieser, an Austrian economist who studied things like opportunity cost and the distribution of wealth (Quiggin, 2015). Weiser first called opportunity cost the “Alternative Cost Theory.” Wieser’s discovery of opportunity cost led other economists to study scarcity (Quiggin, 2015). This early research of alternative cost theory in 1914 pioneered the way for further discussion about opportunity cost. Another man who contributed to the development of the theory of opportunity cost is Gottfried Haberler. In 1936 Haberler writes that “the marginal cost of a given quantity X of a commodity A must be regarded as the quantity of commodity B which must be foregone in order that X, instead of (X-1) units of A can be produced” (Haberler, 1968). Haberler came shortly after Friedrich von Wiesser, and they introduced the beginnings of the theory of opportunity cost. John Stuart Mill however was the man who refined and is given most of the credit for developing the idea of opportunity cost.  
He died from Parkinson's disease in 1995. 
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Friedrich August von Hayek, often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian–British economist, legal theorist and philosopher who is best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Gunnar Myrdal for their work on money and economic fluctuations, and the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena. His account of how changing prices communicate information that helps individuals coordinate their plans is widely regarded as an important achievement in economics, leading to his prize.
Keynesian economics are the various macroeconomic theories and models of how aggregate demand strongly influences economic output and inflation. In the Keynesian view, aggregate demand does not necessarily equal the productive capacity of the economy. Instead, it is influenced by a host of factors – sometimes behaving erratically – affecting production, employment, and inflation.
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This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics:
Eugen Ritter von Böhm-Bawerk was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics and neoclassical economics. He served intermittently as the Austrian Minister of Finance between 1895 and 1904. He also wrote extensive criticisms of Marxism.
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Jacob Viner was a Canadian economist and is considered with Frank Knight and Henry Simons to be one of the "inspiring" mentors of the early Chicago school of economics in the 1930s: he was one of the leading figures of the Chicago faculty. Paul Samuelson named Viner as one of the several "American saints in economics" born after 1860. He was an important figure in the field of political economy.
Raúl Prebisch was an Argentine economist known for his contributions to structuralist economics such as the Prebisch–Singer hypothesis, which formed the basis of economic dependency theory. He became the executive director of the Economic Commission for Latin America in 1950. In 1950, he also released the very influential study The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems.
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Structuralist economics is an approach to economics that emphasizes the importance of taking into account structural features (typically) when undertaking economic analysis. The approach originated with the work of the Economic Commission for Latin America and is primarily associated with its director Raúl Prebisch and Brazilian economist Celso Furtado. Prebisch began with arguments that economic inequality and distorted development was an inherent structural feature of the global system exchange. As such, early structuralist models emphasised both internal and external disequilibria arising from the productive structure and its interactions with the dependent relationship developing countries had with the developed world. Prebisch himself helped provide the rationale for the idea of Import substitution industrialization, in the wake of the Great Depression and World War II. The alleged declining terms of trade of the developing countries, the Singer–Prebisch hypothesis, played a key role in this.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics:
Richard von Strigl (1891–1942) was an Austrian economist. He was considered by his colleagues one of the most brilliant Austrian economists of the interwar period. As a professor at the University of Vienna he had a decisive influence on F. A. Hayek, Fritz Machlup, Gottfried von Haberler, Oskar Morgenstern and other fourth-generation Austrian economists.