Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg

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Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1810 MuhlenbergGotthilf.jpg
Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1810

Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (17 November 1753 – 23 May 1815) was an American clergyman and botanist.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.



The son of Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg, he was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania. He was educated at Franckesche Stiftungen [1] [2] in Halle starting in 1763 and in 1769 at the University of Halle. He returned to Pennsylvania in September 1770 and was ordained as a Lutheran minister. He served first in Pennsylvania and then as a pastor in New Jersey. He received a Doctor of Divinity degree from Princeton University.

Henry Muhlenberg Lutheran clergyman and missionary

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, was a German Lutheran pastor sent to North America as a missionary, requested by Pennsylvania colonists.

Trappe, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Trappe is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,509 at the 2010 census. Augustus Lutheran Church, built in 1743, is the oldest unchanged Lutheran church building in the United States in continuous use by the same congregation. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark.

Pennsylvania U.S. state in the United States

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

He served as the pastor of Holy Trinity Church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania from 1780 through 1815. [3] In 1787, he was also made the first president of Franklin College. 1779 he retired and devoted himself to the study of botany. He is best known as a botanist. Muhlenbergia , a well-known genus of grasses, was named in his honor. His chief works are Catalogus Plantarum Americae Septentrionalis (1813) and Descriptio Uberior Graminum et Plantarum Calamariarum Americae Septentrionalis Indiginarum et Cicurum (1817). [4]

Holy Trinity Lutheran Church (Lancaster, Pennsylvania)

Holy Trinity Lutheran Church is a historic Lutheran church located at 31 South Duke Street in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It is one of the oldest in the state. The remains of both Thomas Mifflin and Thomas Wharton are interred at Holy Trinity Lutheran Church.

Lancaster, Pennsylvania City in Pennsylvania, United States

Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities. The Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U.S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area.

Botany science of plant life

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes.

Muhlenberg discovered and identified the bog turtle while conducting a survey of plants in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. [5] In 1801 the turtle was named Clemmys muhlenbergii in his honor, [6] (with a common name of Muhlenberg's tortoise). [5] However, the species' common name was changed to bog turtle in 1956, [5] as the practice of naming an organism's common name after individuals became less popular. [5]

Bog turtle species of reptile

The bog turtle is a critically endangered species of semiaquatic turtle in the family Emydidae. The species is endemic to the eastern United States. It was first scientifically described in 1801 after an 18th-century survey of Pennsylvania. The smallest North American turtle, its carapace measures about 10 centimeters (4 in) long when fully grown. Although the bog turtle is similar in appearance to the painted or spotted turtles, its closest relative is actually the somewhat larger wood turtle. The bog turtle can be found from Vermont in the north, south to Georgia, and west to Ohio. Diurnal and secretive, it spends most of its time buried in mud and – during the winter months – in hibernation. The bog turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on small invertebrates. The bog turtle is the state reptile of New Jersey.

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania U.S. county in Pennsylvania

Lancaster County, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445. Its county seat is Lancaster.

In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism; also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name; is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case.

Muhlenberg is buried in Woodward Hill Cemetery in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. [7]

Woodward Hill Cemetery United States historic place

Woodward Hill Cemetery is a 32-acre historic rural or garden cemetery in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It was founded by the Trinity Lutheran Church of Lancaster in 1850, but became a non-denominational cemetery in 1856. It is known for being the burial place of James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States. In 2005 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

The standard author abbreviation Muhl. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. [8]


Muhlenberg was the brother of Frederick and Peter Muhlenberg, father of Henry A. P. Muhlenberg and Frederick Augustus Hall Muhlenberg, a physician, who was the father of Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, the first president of Muhlenberg College.

Frederick Muhlenberg American politician and first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg was an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. A delegate to the Pennsylvania state constitutional convention and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a Lutheran pastor by profession, Muhlenberg was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania. His home, known as The Speaker's House, is now a museum and is currently undergoing restoration to restore its appearance during Muhlenberg's occupancy.

Peter Muhlenberg American politician

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg was an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania.

Henry Augustus Philip Muhlenberg was an American political leader and diplomat. He was a member of the Muhlenberg family political dynasty.


  1. Franckesche Stiftungen
  2. Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen, AFSt/S B I 94, 575-577
  3. Chisholm 1911, p. 957.
  4. Thurston & Moore 1905, p. 90.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Crable, Ad (2009-09-08). "Big threat to a little turtle". Intelligencer Journal . Archived from the original on 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  6. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN   978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Muhlenberg", pp. 184-185).
  7. Brubaker, Jack (2014-10-31). "Noted portrait painter Eichholtz deserves grave recognition". Lancaster Online . Retrieved 2014-11-08.
  8. IPNI.  Muhl.

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