Goulburn, New South Wales

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Goulburn
New South Wales
Goulburn from War Memorial 004.JPG
Goulburn seen from Rocky Hill
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Goulburn
Coordinates 34°45′17″S149°37′7″E / 34.75472°S 149.61861°E / -34.75472; 149.61861 Coordinates: 34°45′17″S149°37′7″E / 34.75472°S 149.61861°E / -34.75472; 149.61861
Population23,835 (2018) [1]
Established1833
Postcode(s) 2580
Elevation702 m (2,303 ft)
Location
LGA(s) Goulburn Mulwaree Council
County Argyle
Parish Goulburn
State electorate(s) Goulburn
Federal Division(s) Hume
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
19.6 °C
67 °F
6.1 °C
43 °F
529.6 mm
20.9 in
Localities around Goulburn:
Kingsdale Middle Arm Tarlo
Baw Baw Goulburn Towrang
Run-O-Waters Brisbane Grove Boxers Creek

Goulburn /ˈɡlbərn/ is a regional city in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia approximately 195 kilometres (121 mi) south-west of Sydney, Australia, and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north-east of Canberra. It was proclaimed as Australia's first inland city through letters patent by Queen Victoria in 1863. Goulburn had a population of 23,835 at June 2018. [1] Goulburn is the seat of Goulburn Mulwaree Council.

Southern Tablelands Region in New South Wales, Australia

The Southern Tablelands is a geographic area of New South Wales, Australia, located south-west of Sydney and west of the Great Dividing Range.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Sydney State capital of New South Wales and most populous city in Australia and Oceania

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

Contents

Goulburn is a railhead on the Main Southern line, a service centre for the surrounding pastoral industry, and also stopover for those travelling on the Hume Highway. It has a central park and many historic buildings. It is also home to the monument the Big Merino , a sculpture that is the world's largest concrete constructed sheep.

Goulburn railway station

Goulburn railway station a heritage-listed railway station located on the Main South line in New South Wales, Australia. Opened on 19 May 1869, it serves the city of Goulburn. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Pastoral art genre

A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture. It lends its name to a genre of literature, art, and music that depicts such life in an idealized manner, typically for urban audiences. A pastoral is a work of this genre, also known as bucolic, from the Greek βουκολικόν, from βουκόλος, meaning a cowherd.

Hume Highway highway in New South Wales and Victoria

The Hume Highway, inclusive of the sections now known as the Hume Freeway and Hume Motorway, is one of Australia's major inter-city national highways, running for 840 kilometres (520 mi) between Melbourne in the southwest and Sydney in the northeast. Upgrading of the route from Sydney's outskirts to Melbourne's outskirts to dual carriageway was completed on 7 August 2013.

History

Goulburn was named by surveyor James Meehan after Henry Goulburn, Under-Secretary for War and the Colonies, and the name was ratified by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. The Mulwaree People are the original people of the land they belonged to the Ngunawal and Gandangara language groups, [2] a Murring/Wiradjuri word indicating a special Indigenous cultural area.

James Meehan was an Irish-Australian explorer and surveyor.

Henry Goulburn British politician

Henry Goulburn PC FRS was a British Conservative statesman and a member of the Peelite faction after 1846.

Lachlan Macquarie Scottish British army officer and New South Wales colonial administrator

Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. In 1816 Macquarie gave orders that led to the Appin Massacre of Gundungurra and Dharawal people.

The colonial government made land grants to free settlers such as Hamilton Hume in the Goulburn area from the opening of the area to settlement in about 1820. Land was later sold to settlers within the Nineteen Counties, including Argyle County (the Goulburn area). The process displaced the local indigenous Mulwaree population and the introduction of exotic livestock drove out a large part of the Aboriginal peoples' food supply. [3]

Hamilton Hume Australian explorer

Hamilton Hume was an early explorer of the present-day Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria. In 1824, along with William Hovell, Hume participated in an expedition that first took an overland route from Sydney to Port Phillip. Along with Sturt in 1828, he was part of an expedition of the first Europeans to discover the Darling River.

Nineteen Counties area of New South Wales colony to which European settlement was legally restricted from 1826 until 1861

The Nineteen Counties were the limits of location in the colony of New South Wales, Australia. Settlers were permitted to take up land only within the counties due to the dangers in the wilderness.

Argyle County Cadastral in New South Wales, Australia

Argyle County was one of the original Nineteen Counties in New South Wales and is now one of the 141 Cadastral divisions of New South Wales. It includes the area around Goulburn. It is bounded by Lake George in the south-west, the Shoalhaven River in the east, and the Wollondilly River in the north-east.

The Mulwaree People lived throughout the area covering Goulburn, Crookwell and Yass.[1] and belong to the Ngunawal language group. To the north of Goulburn Gundungurra was spoken within the lands of the Dharawal People. This was due to Gundungurra people of the Blue Mountains being driven south from their traditional land due to Governor Macquarie's parties sent to massacre the Dharawal [4] and Gundungurra [5] People.

Their neighbours were the Dharawal to their north and Dharug surrounding Sydney,[5] Darkinung, Wiradjuri Ngunawal and Thurrawal, (eastwards)[5] peoples.[4] The reduction of the food supply and the introduction of exotic diseases, substantially reduced the local indigenous population. Some local Aborigines survived at the Tawonga Billabong Aboriginal Settlement established under the supervision of the Tarago police. In the 1930s the local billabong dried up and the Aboriginal people moved away although some have, over time, made their way back to their traditional lands.

Tarago, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Tarago is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Goulburn Mulwaree Council. Part of the defined locality, which includes a large area of grazing country, is on the eastern shore of Lake George in the area of the Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council. The town is situated 39 kilometres south of the city of Goulburn and 69 kilometres northeast of Canberra, the capital city of Australia. It is located on the Goulburn-Braidwood road. The town is notable for recent renewable energy projects in the surrounding districts.

Billabong Australian term for a seasonal oxbow lake

A billabong is an Australian term for an oxbow lake, an isolated pond left behind after a river changes course. Billabongs are usually formed when the path of a creek or river changes, leaving the former branch with a dead end. As a result of the arid Australian climate in which these "dead rivers" are found, billabongs fill with water seasonally; they are dry for a greater part of the year.

The first recorded settler in Goulburn established 'Strathallan' in 1825 (on the site of the present Police Academy) and a town was originally surveyed in 1828, although moved to the present site of the city in 1833 when the surveyor Robert Hoddle laid it out. [6]

George Johnson purchased the first land in the area between 1839 and 1842 and became a central figure in the town's development. He established a branch store with a liquor licence in 1848. The 1841 census records Goulburn had a population of 665 people, 444 males and 211 females. [7] This number had jumped to 1171 inhabitants by 1847, 686 males and 485 females. [8] It had a courthouse, police barracks, churches, hospital and post office and was the centre of a great sheep and farming area.

A telegraph station opened in 1862, by which time there were about 1,500 residents, a blacksmith's shop, two hotels, two stores, the telegraph office and a few cottages. The town was a change station (where coach horses were changed) for Cobb & Co by 1855. A police station opened the following year and a school in 1858. Goulburn was proclaimed a municipal government in 1859 and was made a city in 1863. [9]

Goulburn holds the unique distinction of being proclaimed a City on two occasions. The first, unofficial, proclamation was claimed by virtue of Royal Letters Patent issued by Queen Victoria on 14 March 1863 to establish the Diocese of Goulburn. It was a claim made for ecclesiastical purposes, as it was required by the traditions of the Church of England. The Letters Patent also established St Saviour's Church as the Cathedral Church of the diocese. This was the last instance in which Letters Patent were used in this manner in the British Empire, as they had been significantly discredited for use in the colonies, and were soon to be declared formally invalid and unenforceable in this context. [10] Several legal cases [11] over the preceding decade in particular had already established that the monarch had no ecclesiastical jurisdiction in colonies possessing responsible government. This had been granted to NSW in 1856, seven years earlier. The Letters Patent held authority only over those who submitted to it voluntarily, and then only within the context of the Church – it had no legal civil authority or implications. An absolute and retrospective declaration to this effect was made in 1865 in the Colenso Case, [10] by the Judiciary Committee of the Privy Council. However, under the authority of the Crown Lands Act 1884 [12] (48. Vict. No. 18), Goulburn was officially proclaimed a City on 20 March 1885 [13] removing any lingering doubts as to its status. This often unrecognised controversy has in no way hindered the development of Goulburn as a regional centre, with an impressive court house (completed in 1887) and other public buildings, as a centre for wool selling, and as an industrial town.

Goulburn's importance as a wool market is celebrated by this giant sculpture known as Big Merino Big Merino Goulburn 2011.jpg
Goulburn's importance as a wool market is celebrated by this giant sculpture known as Big Merino
St Brigid's School, Goulburn, now closed; the scene of an education strike in 1962. GoulburnStBrigid'sSceneOf1962EducationStrike.jpg
St Brigid's School, Goulburn, now closed; the scene of an education strike in 1962.

The arrival of the railway in 1869, which was opened on 27 May by the Governor Lord Belmore (an event commemorated by Belmore Park in the centre of the city), along with the completion of the line from Sydney to Albury in 1883, was a boon to the city. [14] Later branchlines were constructed to Cooma (opened in 1889) and later extended further to Nimmitabel and then to Bombala, and to Crookwell and Taralga. Goulburn became a major railway centre with a roundhouse [15] and engine servicing facilities and a factory which made pre-fabricated concrete components for signal boxes and station buildings. The roundhouse is now the Goulburn Rail Heritage Centre with steam, diesel and rolling stock exhibits. CFCL Australia operate the Goulburn Railway Workshops.

St Saviour's Cathedral, designed by Edmund Thomas Blacket, was completed in 1884 with the tower being added in 1988 to commemorate the Bicentenary of Australia. Though completed in 1884, some earlier burials are in the graveyard adjacent to the Cathedral. St Saviour's is the seat of the Bishop of Canberra and Goulburn. The Church of SS Peter and Paul is the former cathedral for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.

The Goulburn Viaduct was built in 1915 replacing an earlier structure. This brick arch railway viaduct spanning the Mulwaree Ponds is the longest on the Main Southern railway line and consists of 13 arches each spanning 13.1 m (43 ft). [16]

In 1962, Goulburn was the focus of the fight for state aid to non-government schools. An education strike was called in response to a demand for installation of three extra toilets at a local Catholic primary school, St Brigid's. The local Catholic archdiocese closed down all local Catholic primary schools and sent the children to the government schools. The Catholic authorities declared that they had no money to install the extra toilets. Nearly 1,000 children turned up to be enrolled locally and the state schools were unable to accommodate them. The strike lasted only a week but generated national debate. In 1963 the prime minister, Robert Menzies, made state aid for science blocks part of his party's platform. [17]

Heritage listings

Goulburn has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 22,890 people in Goulburn.

Geography

Goulburn is located a small distance east of the peak ridge of the Great Dividing Range and is 690 metres (2,264 ft) above sea-level. It is intersected by the Wollondilly River and the Mulwaree River, and the confluence of these two rivers is also located here. The Wollondilly then flows north east, into Lake Burragorang (Warragamba Dam) and eventually into the Tasman Sea via the Hawkesbury River.

Climate

Owing to its elevation, Goulburn has a subtropical highland climate (Cfb) with warm summers and cold winters, and a high diurnal temperature variation. Its climate is variable, though generally dry with maximum temperatures averaging from 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) in July to 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) in January. Rainfall is distributed evenly throughout the year, with an annual average of 536.2 mm (21.1 in). Temperature extremes have ranged from −10.9 to 40.4 °C (12.4 to 104.7 °F).


Climate data for Goulburn Airport (1988–2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)40.4
(104.7)
40.7
(105.3)
35.9
(96.6)
30.7
(87.3)
24.4
(75.9)
20.7
(69.3)
19.4
(66.9)
24.1
(75.4)
30.5
(86.9)
31.3
(88.3)
39.9
(103.8)
38.6
(101.5)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)27.9
(82.2)
26.4
(79.5)
23.8
(74.8)
19.9
(67.8)
15.9
(60.6)
12.4
(54.3)
11.7
(53.1)
13.4
(56.1)
16.5
(61.7)
19.8
(67.6)
23.0
(73.4)
25.8
(78.4)
19.7
(67.5)
Average low °C (°F)12.7
(54.9)
12.7
(54.9)
10.1
(50.2)
5.7
(42.3)
2.5
(36.5)
1.3
(34.3)
0.3
(32.5)
0.5
(32.9)
3.1
(37.6)
5.1
(41.2)
8.3
(46.9)
10.7
(51.3)
6.1
(43.0)
Record low °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
0.7
(33.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−8.1
(17.4)
−10.2
(13.6)
−10.4
(13.3)
−10.9
(12.4)
−7.4
(18.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−10.9
(12.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)48.9
(1.93)
52.7
(2.07)
40.0
(1.57)
25.6
(1.01)
32.8
(1.29)
60.9
(2.40)
33.5
(1.32)
39.9
(1.57)
45.8
(1.80)
50.2
(1.98)
54.9
(2.16)
57.6
(2.27)
549.1
(21.62)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)7.58.69.79.311.414.514.211.511.59.49.58.3125.4
Average relative humidity (%)41454646546361525046453949
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [38]

Water supply

With a history of water shortages, an 84 km underground water supply pipeline was constructed to pump water from the Wingecarribee Reservoir in the Southern Highlands to Goulburn. This pipeline has a capacity of 7.5 ML per day. [39]

The $54 million water supply pipeline is largest construction project in the history of Goulburn. [40]

Landmarks

As a major settlement of southern New South Wales, Goulburn was the administrative centre for the region and was the location for important buildings of the district.[ citation needed ] The first lock-up in the town was built in 1830. [41] In 1832 a postal service commenced in Goulburn, four years after the service was adopted in New South Wales.[ citation needed ] The first town plan had been drawn up by Assistant Surveyor Dixon in 1828, but the site was moved, as it was subject to flooding. The new town plan was drawn up by Surveyor Hoddle and was gazetted in 1833. [9]

Goulburn's second court house was built in 1847; designed by Mortimer Lewis, the colonial architect. [42] James Barnet, the colonial architect from 1862–90, built a number of buildings in Goulburn. These included the Goulburn Gaol that opened 1884; the current court house that opened in 1887; and a post office in 1881. Barnet's successor, Walter Liberty Vernon, was responsible for the first buildings of Kenmore Hospital, completed in 1894. St Saviour's Anglican Cathedral and Hall were designed by Edmund Blacket. Building started in 1874 and it was dedicated in 1884. It was finally consecrated in 1916. A tower was added in 1988 as part of a Bicentennial project but Blacket's plans included a spire which is yet to be added. E.C. Manfred was a prominent local architect responsible for many of the buildings in the city, including the first public swimming baths opened in 1892; the old Town Hall constructed in 1888; the Goulburn Base Hospital designed in 1886; the old Fire Station built in 1890; the Masonic Temple built in 1928; he also designed the earlier building of 1890 it replaced. Goulburn's first permanent fire station built 1890 and designed by local architect E.C. Manfred. The city was home to Kenmore Hospital, a psychiatric hospital which was finally closed in 2003. [43] Goulburn remains a hub for mental health with facilities now located at the Goulburn Base Hospital.

New South Wales Police Academy

The New South Wales Police Academy is situated at McDermott Drive, Goulburn. NSW Police College gate.jpg
The New South Wales Police Academy is situated at McDermott Drive, Goulburn.

The Police Academy relocated to Goulburn from Sydney in 1984. At this time it was known as the New South Wales Police Academy however the name has subsequently changed.

The Academy has relocated to the former campus of the Goulburn College of Advanced Education located on the banks of the Wollondilly River. The New South Wales Police Academy is now the largest education institution for law enforcement officers in the southern hemisphere.

Since its relocation there has been significant expansion of the facilities including a new site on the Taralga Road which houses the New South Wales Police School of Traffic and Mobile Policing.

Goulburn Medical Clinic

Entry to the Goulburn Medical Clinic from McKell Place GMC wikipedia.JPG
Entry to the Goulburn Medical Clinic from McKell Place

The Goulburn Medical Clinic was established in 1946 making it the most longstanding medical practice in the city. Historically, it was the first group practice of any size established in New South Wales and probably only the third in Australia. [44] The clinic has a mixture of general practitioners and specialists that provide comprehensive healthcare. [44]

Goulburn Gaol

Goulburn is home to Goulburn Correctional Centre, more generically known as Goulburn Gaol. It is a maximum-security male prison, the highest security prison in Australia and is home to some of the most dangerous, and infamous, prisoners. [45]

Goulburn Rail Heritage Centre

The roundhouse at Goulburn was a significant locomotive depot both in the steam and early diesel eras. After closure it became the Goulburn Rail Heritage Centre, a railway museum with preserved steam and diesel locomotives as well as many interesting examples of rolling stock. Some minor rail operators such as RailPower have used the site to restore diesel locomotives to working order for main line use.

Theatre scene

Goulburn is home to Australia's oldest existing theatre company Lieder Theatre Company, established in 1891. The Lieder Theatre Company presents up to five major performance projects each year, along with numerous community events, readings, workshops, and short seasons of experimental and new work. The company, along with the Lieder Youth Theatre Company, is based in the historic Lieder Theatre, built by the company in 1929. [46]

Governance

Goulburn is the seat of the Goulburn Mulwaree Shire local government area (LGA) of New South Wales, Australia, formed in 2004. The most recent elections for Council were held on 13 September 2008. Two of the elected Councillors, Max Hadlow and Keith Woodman resigned due to ill health in 2009. A by-election to fill the vacancies was held in June 2009 and resulted in the election of Councillors Geoffrey Kettle and Geoffrey Peterson. Councillor Geoffrey Kettle was elected Mayor, replacing Councillor Carol James, in September 2010.

Transport

Goulburn is approximately two hours drive from Sydney via the Hume Highway, or a one-hour drive from Canberra via the Federal and Hume Highways. Goulburn was bypassed in 1992 due to increasing traffic on the Hume Highway.

Goulburn railway station is the southern terminus of the Southern Highlands Line which reaches from Campbelltown and is part of the NSW TrainLink intercity passenger train system. Most services on the line terminate at Moss Vale, some 65 km northeast, meaning Goulburn sees limited passenger service. The station is also served by the long distance Southern XPT and Xplorer trains between Sydey and Griffith, Canberra and Southern Cross railway station in Melbourne. All services are operated by NSW TrainLink.

Goulburn Airport is approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) south of Goulburn and services light aircraft.

Public transport within Goulburn consists of the local taxi and bus service operated by PBC Goulburn.

Goulburn Tourist Information Centre has a Tesla Motors Supercharger station. [47]

Media

Radio stations

Radio stations with transmitters located in or nearby to Goulburn include-

AM:

FM:

Depending on location some Illawarra and/or Canberra based radio stations can also heard.

Television

Goulburn receives five free-to-air television networks relayed from Canberra, and broadcast from nearby Mt Gray:

A much smaller retransmission site also exists to cover residences in the suburb of Eastgrove.

Notable people

See also

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The Colonial Mutual Life Building is a heritage-listed insurance office at Clifford Street, Goulburn, Goulburn Mulwaree Council, New South Wales, Australia. It is also known as the CML Building. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

References

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    "ANNO QUADRAGESIMO OCTAVO VICTORIAE REGINAE". New South Wales Government Gazette (541). New South Wales, Australia. 23 October 1884. p. 7107ff via National Library of Australia.
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  17. "The Battle for State Aid". Timeframe. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1997. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2006.; J. Warhurst, Fifty years since the “Goulburn Strike”: Catholics and education politics, Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 33 (2012), 72-82.
  18. "Goulburn Post Office". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01424. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  19. "St. Saviour's Cathedral". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01798. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  20. "Goulburn Brewery". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00178. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  21. "Lansdowne". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00132. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  22. "CML Building". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00129. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  23. "Rossi Bridge over Wollondilly River". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01479. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  24. "Goulburn Viaduct (Mulwaree Ponds)". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01035. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  25. "Goulburn Railway Station, yard group and movable relics". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01152. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  26. "Goulburn Correctional Centre complex". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00808. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  27. "Riversdale". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01504. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  28. "Goulburn Court House and Residence". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00793. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  29. "Connollys Mill". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00215. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  30. "Old Police Barracks". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00546. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  31. "Railway Workshops (former)". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00601. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  32. "Alpine Lodge Hotel". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00483. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  33. "St. Clair". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00117. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  34. "Kenmore Hospital Precinct". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01728. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  35. "St. Peter and Paul's Former Cathedral". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01797. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  36. "Goulburn Pumping Station, Marsden Weir & Appleby Steam Engine". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H00356. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
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  39. "Goulburn Water Supply Pipeline". The project involved the design and construction of a pipeline and pump station from the Wingecarribee Reservoir near Moss Vale in New South Wales to the Goulburn treatment plant. The pipeline is 84 kilometres long and is capable of supplying the Goulburn community with up to 7.5 million litres of water per day. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
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  41. "Fast Fact: Goulburn Gaol". Tourism Business Unit of Goulburn Mulwaree Council. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
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  43. Walsh, Gerard (18 February 2013). "Last Kenmore artefact in time for 150th b'day". Goulburn Post. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
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  45. Mitchell, Alex (22 April 2007). "Mastermind recruiting Islamic gang inside super jail". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
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  47. "Goulburn Supercharger - Tesla Australia". www.tesla.com. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
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