Government of Free Vietnam
Chính Phủ Lâm Thời Việt Nam Tự Do
|Anthem: "March of the Youths"|
|Capital|| Garden Grove, California, U.S.|
Missouri City, Texas, U.S.
|Nguyen Huu Chanh (first)|
|Nguyễn Khánh (last)|
|April 30, 1995|
The Government of Free Vietnam (GFCL; Vietnamese : Chính Phủ Lâm Thời Việt Nam Tự Do) was an anti-communist political organization that was established 30 April 1995 by Nguyen Hoang Dan. It was dissolved in 2013. It claimed an unrecognized government in exile of the Republic of Vietnam headquartered in the U.S. cities of Garden Grove, California and Missouri City, Texas.
The Government of Free Vietnam had stated a list of the political goals of its organization:
- The stated goal of the Provisional National Government of Vietnam is to achieve free and democratic elections in Vietnam. The government seeks to create an atmosphere of non-violent pressure on the Communist's regime to allow for an election process whereby the people can choose whether or not to retain communism as the preferred system of governance
- Provisional National Government of Vietnam has extolled before that achieving a fair and evenhanded oil policy for the benefit of the citizens of Vietnam and other businesses of the world can be achieved without violence and undeterred by the corrupt communist government practices.
- Free market ideas we wish to incorporate into the culture of Vietnam that helps all processes.
- A fair opportunity to use Vietnam's national maritime oil resource and free waterways.
- A prevention of possible clashes of Vietnam's neighboring countries due to illegal controls and restrictions.
- The aggravated communist criminals must be brought to justice and that they must be ordered to pay for the consequences of their crimes, for the world to know and set examples for those tyrannical regimes against humanities.
- Prohibit all forms of provocation, and Re-stablish South Vietnam countrywide.
The GFVN had an approximate budget of US$1 million a year, donated by Vietnamese Anti-communist overseas around the world[ citation needed ].
KC-702 was a military base that was operated by the Provisional Government of Free Vietnam, probably located in Cambodia, near the Vietnamese border.It is believed that this was once used to help plan the failed Vietnamese Embassy bombing in Laos. The current status of the camp is not known. However, in 1999 several members of the group were captured in Cambodia with weapons, deported to Vietnam and charged.
The Khmer Rouge is the name that was popularly given to members of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name was coined in the 1960s by then Chief of State Norodom Sihanouk to describe his country's heterogeneous, communist-led dissidents, with whom he allied after his 1970 overthrow.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It first received international recognition in 1949 as the State of Vietnam within the French Union, with its capital at Saigon, before becoming a republic in 1955. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations, though it failed to gain admission into the United Nations as a result of a Soviet veto in 1957.
The Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on 19 May 1941. Also known as the Việt Minh Front, it was created by the Indochinese Communist Party as a national united front in Vietnam.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, was formed on June 8, 1969, by North Vietnam as a purportedly independent shadow government that opposed the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and then as a country after the Fall of Saigon with the name Republic of South Vietnam from 30 April 1975 to 2 July 1976. Delegates of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, as well as several smaller groups, participated in its creation.
The Viet Cong, officially known as the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, was an armed communist political revolutionary organization in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Its military force, the Liberation Army of South Vietnam (LASV), fought under the direction of North Vietnam, against the South Vietnamese and United States governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side. The LASV had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory the Viet Cong controlled. During the war, communist fighters and anti-war activists claimed that the Viet Cong was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of North Vietnam. According to Trần Văn Trà, the Viet Cong's top commander, and the post-war Vietnamese government's official history, the Viet Cong followed orders from Hanoi and were part of the People's Army of Vietnam.
The Third Indochina War was a series of interconnected armed conflicts, mainly among the various communist factions over strategic influence in Indochina after Communist victory in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in 1975. The conflict primarily started due to continued raids and incursions by the Khmer Rouge into Vietnamese territory that they sought to retake. These incursions would result in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War in which the newly unified Vietnam overthrew the Pol Pot regime and the Khmer Rouge, in turn ending the Cambodian genocide. Vietnam had installed a government led by many opponents of Pol Pot, including former Khmer Rouge most notably Hun Sen. This led to Vietnam's occupation of Cambodia for over a decade. The Vietnamese push to completely destroy the Khmer Rouge led to them conducting border raids in Thailand who had provided sanctuary.
Nguyễn Hữu Chánh is the Vietnamese-American founder of anti-communist organization Government of Free Vietnam (GFVN), in which he served as its prime minister.
The People's Action Party of Vietnam is a Vietnamese anti-communist organization in-exile that is based in the United States. The organization's chairman is Nguyen Si Binh and its vice chairman is Dr. Nguyen Xuan Ngai.
Chhun Yasith is a Cambodian American who led a failed coup d’état in Cambodia in 2000.
The Indochina Wars were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 to 1991, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, State of Vietnam, American, Cambodian, Laotian Royal and Chinese forces. The term "Indochina" originally referred to French Indochina, which included the current states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. In current usage, it applies largely to a geographic region, rather than to a political area. The wars included:
The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, renamed in 1990 to the National Government of Cambodia, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions, namely Prince Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime. For most of its existence, it was the internationally recognized government of Cambodia.
Trương Như Tảng was a Vietnamese lawyer and politician. He was active in many anti-South Vietnam organizations before joining the newly created North Vietnam-aligned Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam as the Minister of Justice. He spent many years in the jungles near and in Cambodia until the Fall of Saigon in 1975. He quickly became disillusioned with the newly imposed North Vietnamese regime and escaped the reunited Socialist Republic of Vietnam via a boat in August 1978. He was sent to a refugee camp in Indonesia before moving to Paris, France, to live out his life in exile.
The insurgency in Laos was waged primarily by members of the former "Secret Army", Laotian royalists, and rebels from the Hmong and lowland Lao ethnic minorities. These groups have faced reprisals from the Lao People's Army and Vietnam People's Army for their support of the U.S.-led, anti-communist military campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War, which the insurgency is an extension of itself. The North Vietnamese invaded Laos in 1958 and supported the communist Pathet Lao. The Vietnamese communists continued to support the Pathet Lao after the end of the Laotian Civil War and the establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
The 1962 South Vietnamese Independence Palace bombing in Saigon was an aerial attack on 27 February 1962 by two dissident Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots, Second Lieutenant Nguyễn Văn Cử and First Lieutenant Phạm Phú Quốc. The pilots targeted the Independence Palace, the official residence of the President of South Vietnam, with the aim of assassinating President Ngô Đình Diệm and his immediate family, who acted as his political advisors.
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) was a historical partially recognised state in Southeast Asia supported by Vietnam. It was founded in Cambodia by the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation, a group of Cambodian communists who were dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge due to its oppressive rule of Cambodia and defected from it after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government. Brought about by an invasion from Vietnam, which routed the Khmer Rouge armies, it had Vietnam and the Soviet Union as its main allies.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), was a socialist state in Southeast Asia that existed from 1945 to 1976.
General elections were held in Cambodia on 1 May 1981 and marked the establishment of the new, Vietnamese-backed, state of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). The Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party was the only party to contest the election, and won all 117 seats. Voter turnout was reported to be 97.8%.
The United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races waged a nearly three decade long insurgency against the governments of North and South Vietnam, and later the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The FULRO insurgents represented the interests of minority Muslim and Hindu Cham, Christian Montagnards, and Buddhist Khmer Krom against the ethnic Kinh Vietnamese. They were supported and equipped by China and Cambodia according to those countries' interests in the Indochina Wars.
The native inhabitants of the Central Highlands of Vietnam are known as the Montagnard. The Vietnamese conquered the Central Highlands during their "march to the south". Ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) people now outnumber the indigenous Degars after state-sponsored colonization directed by both the government of South Vietnam and the current Communist government of unified Vietnam. The Montagnards have engaged in conflicts with the Vietnamese, from the anti-Communist South Vietnamese government, the Viet Cong, to the Communist government of unified Vietnam. There are contrasting views on this issue, as the constitution of the government of Vietnam states "Article 36 of the Constitution, the state invests heavily in education and supports various preferential programmes for ethnic minorities, like ethnic minority boarding schools, lower entry requirements and quota for minorities." Both the initial 1945 constitute and the revised 1992 constitution of North Vietnam and the successor state the Socialist Republic of Vietnam stated that all minority groups in Vietnam have the right to maintain their mother tongues in their schooling as well as to use their languages to preserve their ethnic cultures and values, although the degree of enforcement remains ongoingly debated due to complicated nature.
The Third Republic of Vietnam, abbreviated as the DTVNCH, also referred to its former name as the Provisional National Government of Vietnam, is a self-proclaimed government in exile, headquartered in Orange County and other Little Saigon communities. This organization is listed as one of the reactionary, South Vietnamatic and also a terrorist organization as stated by the Ministry of Public Security of Vietnam.