|Formation||26 January 1950|
|Country||Republic of India|
|Head of state||President Ramnath Kovind|
|Upper house||Rajya Sabha|
|Leader||Chairman (Venkaiah Naidu)|
|Lower house||Lok Sabha|
|Leader||Speaker (Om Birla)|
|Meeting place||Sansad Bhavan|
|Head of government||Prime minister (Narendra Modi)|
|Head of civil services||Cabinet secretary (Rajiv Gauba, IAS)|
|Meeting place||Central secretariat|
|Responsible to||Lok Sabha|
|Court||Supreme Court of India|
|Chief Justice||Sharad Arvind Bobde|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Government of India (ISO: Bhārat Sarkār), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of twenty eight states and nine union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.
Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state,the union government is mainly composed of the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister, parliament and the supreme court. The President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, and is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, and the Rajya Sabha the upper house. The judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, and several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court.
The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, and the criminal procedure code. [ citation needed ] The term New Delhi is commonly used as a metonym for the central government,[ citation needed ] as the seat of government is in New Delhi.Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive, legislative and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law. The full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are equally official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, and both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases. The terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārat Sarkār" are often used officially and unofficially to refer to the Government of India.
The powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures. The Lok Sabha is considered the lower house or the House of the people.
The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court.However, it does exercise some control over the executive. The members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and can never be dissolved. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term.
The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers.
The executive power is vested mainly in the President of India, as per Article 53(1) of the constitution. The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through subordinate officers as per the aforesaid Article 53(1). The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India.
The council of ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha.
The president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the chief justice; other judges of the supreme court and high courts on the advice of other judges; the Attorney General; the Comptroller and Auditor General; the Chief Election Commissioner and other election commissioners; the chairman and members of the Union Public Service Commission; the officers of the All India Services (IAS, IFoS and IPS) and central civil services in group 'A'; and the ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries on the recommendations of the cabinet.
The president, as the head of state, also receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, however, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister.
The vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president. The vice president also has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha.The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot conducted by the election commission.
The Prime Minister of India, as addressed in the Constitution of India, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the president, head of the council of ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India.
The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing a proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the prime minister dissolves the cabinet.
The prime minister is appointed by the president to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive.
The Cabinet of India includes the prime minister and cabinet ministers.Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament. The cabinet is headed by the prime minister, and is advised by the Cabinet Secretary, who also acts as the head of the Indian Administrative Service and other civil services. Other ministers are either as union cabinet ministers, who are heads of the various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state (independent charges), who do not report to a cabinet minister. As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member.
A secretary to the Government of India, a civil servant, generally an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer,is the administrative head of the ministry or department, and is the principal adviser to the minister on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry/department. Secretaries to the Government of India rank 23rd on Indian order of precedence. Secretaries at the higher level are assisted by one or many additional secretaries, who are further assisted by joint secretaries. At the middle they are assisted by directors/deputy secretaries and under secretaries. At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff.
|Vice President's Secretariat|
|Prime Minister's Office||Atomic Energy|
|Agriculture and Farmers Welfare||Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare|
|Agricultural Research and Education|
|Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries|
|Chemicals and Fertilizers||Chemicals and Petrochemicals|
|Commerce and Industry||Commerce|
|Industrial Policy and Promotion|
|Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution||Consumer Affairs|
|Food and Public Distribution|
|Defence Research and Development|
|Development of North Eastern Region|
|Drinking Water and Sanitation|
|Electronics and Information Technology|
|Environment, Forest and Climate Change|
|Investment and Public Asset Management|
|Food Processing Industries|
|Health and Family Welfare||Health and Family Welfare|
|Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises||Heavy Industry|
|Home Affairs||Border Management|
|Jammu Kashmir Affairs|
|Housing and Urban Affairs|
|Human Resource Development||Higher Education|
|School Education and Literacy|
|Information and Broadcasting|
|Labour and Employment|
|Law and Justice||Justice|
|Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises|
|New and Renewable Energy|
|Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions||Personnel and Training|
|Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances|
|Pension and Pensioners' Welfare|
|Petroleum and Natural Gas|
|Road Transport and Highways|
|Rural Development||Land Resources|
|Science and Technology||Biotechnology|
|Science and Technology|
|Scientific and Industrial Research|
|Skill Development and Entrepreneurship|
|Social Justice and Empowerment||Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities|
|Social Justice and Empowerment|
|Statistics and Programme Implementation|
|Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation|
|Women and Child Development|
|Youth Affairs and Sports||Sports|
The Civil Services of India are the civil services and the permanent bureaucracy of India. The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants.
In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it.
The cabinet secretary (IAST: Maṃtrimaṇḍala Saciva) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The cabinet secretary is the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government.
The cabinet secretary is generally the senior-most officer of the Indian Administrative Service. The cabinet secretary ranks 11th on the Indian order of precedence.The cabinet secretary is under the direct charge of the prime minister.
India's independent union judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of India consists of the chief justice and 30 associate justices, all appointed by the president on the advice of the Chief Justice of India. The jury trials were abolished in India in the early 1960s, after the famous case KM Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra , for reasons of being vulnerable to media and public pressure, as well as to being misled.
Unlike its United States counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and union level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, high courts at the state level, and district courts and sessions courts at the district level.
The Supreme Court of India is situated in New Delhi, the capital region of India.
The supreme court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and 30 sanctioned other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions.
As the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various governments in the country. As an advisory court, it hears matters which may specifically be referred to it under the constitution by the president. It also may take cognisance of matters on its own (or 'suo moto'), without anyone drawing its attention to them. The law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India and also by the union and state governments.Per Article 142, it is the duty of the President to enforce the decrees of the supreme court.
In addition, Article 32 of the constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the supreme court in regard to enforcing fundamental rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus , mandamus , prohibition , quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The supreme court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one state high court to another state high court, or from a court subordinate to another state high court and the supreme court. Although the proceedings in the supreme court arise out of the judgment or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the supreme court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved. This may be done by any individual or group of persons either by filing a writ petition at the filing counter of the court, or by addressing a letter to the Chief Justice of India, highlighting the question of public importance for redress. These are known as public interest litigations.
India has a quasi-federal form of government, called "union" or "central" government,with elected officials at the union, state and local levels. At the national level, the head of government, the prime minister, is appointed by the President of India from the party or coalition that has the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected for a term of five years by universal adult suffrage through a first-past-the-post voting system. Members of the Rajya Sabha, which represents the states, are elected by the members of State legislative assemblies by proportional representation, except for 12 members who are nominated by the president.
India is currently the largest democracy in the world, with around 900 million eligible voters, as of 2019.
State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India and the chief minister heads the state government. Power is divided between union government and state governments. State government's legislature is bicameral in 7 states and unicameral in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6-year term.
Local government function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments. It consists of panchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.
India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.More than half of the revenues of the union and state governments come from taxes, of which 3/4 come from direct taxes. More than a quarter of the union government's tax revenues is shared with the state governments.
The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase compliance by taking steps in the following directions:
The non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services.
Inter-state share in the union tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the Finance Commission to the president.
Total tax receipts of Centre and State amount to approximately 18% of national GDP. This compares to a figure of 37–45% in the OECD.
The Finance minister of India usually presents the annual union budget in the parliament on the last working day of February. However, for the F.Y. 2017-18, this tradition had been changed. Now budget will be presented on the 1st day of February. The budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of India's fiscal year. The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year
India's non-development revenue expenditure had increased nearly five-fold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non-development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defense expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing because of India's desire to project its military prowess beyond South Asia. In 2007, India's defence spending stood at US$26.5 billion.
Several ministers are accused of corruption and nearly a quarter of the 543 elected members of parliament had been charged with crimes, including murder, in 2009. ₹ 70,000 crore (equivalent to ₹1.2 trillionorUS$16 billion in 2018)), the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the Coal Mining Scam ( ₹ 1.86 lakh crore (equivalent to ₹3.1 trillionorUS$44 billion in 2018)), the mining scandal in Karnataka and the cash for vote scandal.Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including cabinet ministers and chief ministers, such as the 2010 Commonwealth Games scam (
The prime minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the president of India and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha —but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha.
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. It currently has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through Open Ballot while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with elections every year but almost a third of the 233 designates up for election every two years, specifically in even-numbered years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, being the lower house of the Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, which is the upper house of Parliament, is not subjected to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President.
The Lok Sabha, or House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.
Arun Jaitley was an Indian politician and attorney. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, Jaitley served as the Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs of the Government of India from 2014 to 2019.
The Vice President of India is the second-highest constitutional office in India after the President. Article 63 of Indian Constitution states that "There shall be a Vice President of India." The Vice President acts as President in the absence of the president due to death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations.
Ram Vilas Paswan is an Indian politician from Bihar and the current Cabinet Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution. Paswan is also the president of the Lok Janshakti Party, eight-time Lok Sabha member and former Rajya Sabha MP. He started his political career as member of Samyukta Socialist Party and was elected to the Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1969. Later, he joined Lok Dal upon its formation in 1974, and became its general secretary. He opposed the emergency, and was arrested during the period. He entered the Lok Sabha in 1977, as a Janata Party member from Hajipur constituency, was chosen again 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1998, 1999, 2004, and 2014.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India. It consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ministers', junior ministers, called 'ministers of state' and, rarely, deputy ministers. It is led by the Prime Minister.
India is a union of states with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which defines the power distribution among the central government and the states.
In the Westminster system, a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law.
India is a democratic country having a Federal structure of:
Sushma Swaraj was an Indian politician and a Supreme Court lawyer. A senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, Swaraj served as the Minister of External Affairs of India in the first Narendra Modi government (2014–2019). She was the second woman to hold the office, after Indira Gandhi. She was elected seven times as a Member of Parliament and three times as a Member of the Legislative Assembly. At the age of 25 in 1977, she became the youngest cabinet minister of Indian state of Haryana. She also served as 5th Chief Minister of Delhi for a short duration in 1998.
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a democratically elected state government in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh with the governor as its appointed constitutional head of the state by the President of India. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh is appointed for a period of five years and appoints the chief minister and his or her council of ministers, who are vested with the executive powers of the state. The governor remains a ceremonial head of the state, while the chief minister and his or her council are responsible for day-to-day government functions. The state of Uttar Pradesh's influence on Indian politics is important, and often paramount and/or a bellwether, as it sends the largest number of members of parliament to both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, the state's population being more than 200 million; approximately double that of the next-most populous state.
State governments in India are the governments ruling 28 states and 9 union territories of India and the head of the council of ministers in a state is chief minister. Power is divided between the union government and state governments. While the union government handles military and external affairs etc., whereas the state government deals with internal security and other state issues. Income for the union government is from customs duty, excise tax, income tax etc., while state government income comes from sales tax (VAT), stamp duty, now these have been subsumed under CGST, SGST—components of GST.
The Representation of the People Act, 1951 is an act of Parliament of India to provide for the conduct of election of the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State, the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses, the corrupt practices and other offences at or in connection with such elections and the decision of doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with such elections. It was introduced in Parliament by law minister Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. The Act was enacted by the provisional parliament under Article 327 of Indian Constitution, before the first general election.
The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, popularly known as the Telangana Act is an Act of Indian Parliament that bifurcated the state of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and the residuary Andhra Pradesh state, due to the Telangana movement. The Act defined the boundaries of the two states, determined how the assets and liabilities were to be divided, and laid out the status of Hyderabad as the permanent capital of new Telangana state and temporary capital of the Andhra Pradesh state.
Joint Secretary is a post under the Central Staffing Scheme and the third highest non-political executive rank in Government of India. The authority for creation of this post solely rests with Cabinet of India.
A member of parliament in Lok Sabha is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 552. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states, up to 20 members to represent the union territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President of India. The current elected strength of the Lok Sabha is 543. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.
A Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha is the representative of the Indian states to the upper house of the Parliament of India. Rajya Sabha MPs are elected by the electoral college of the elected members of the State Assembly with a system of proportional representation by a single transferable vote. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The total number of members of Rajya Sabha are lesser than the Members of Parliament in the Lok Sabha and have more restricted power than the lower house. Unlike membership to the Lok Sabha, membership to the Rajya Sabha is permanent for a term of six years and cannot be dissolved at any time.