|Governor-General of Pakistan|
|Appointer||Monarch of Pakistan|
|Formation||14 August 1947|
|First holder||Muhammad Ali Jinnah|
|Final holder||Iskander Mirza|
|Abolished||23 March 1956|
The Governor-General of Pakistan (Urdu : گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956, the office of governor-general was abolished.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office. However, the lack of consensus in the political literature on political representation belies this common view. Theorists of representation differ not only in their definition of representation but also, among other things, on what the duties of a representative are, who can be called representative and how one becomes a representative. In her seminal work on political representation, Hanna Pitkin defined political representation as, "a way to make [the represented] present again" and identified four views of political representation which, since her book's publication, have shaped contemporary debates on political representation. Recently, Jane Mansbridge has identified four other views of specifically democratic political representation which, although they are distinct, share some similarities with Pitkin's. On the other hand, Andrew Rehfeld has critiqued the failure of theorists like Pitkin and Mansbridge to articulate a purely descriptive view of political representation and has proposed a general theory of representation that recognizes that political representation can be and often is undemocratic.
Pakistan, also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan. The dominion, which included much of modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was conceived under the two-nation theory as an independent country composed of the Muslim-majority areas of the former British India.
|Pakistan Muslim League|
|Took office||Left office||Political party|
|1|| Muhammad Ali Jinnah |
|15 August 1947||11 September 1948|
(died in office)
|Pakistan Muslim League|
|2|| Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin |
|14 September 1948||17 October 1951|
(became prime minister)
|Pakistan Muslim League|
|3|| Sir Ghulam Muhammad |
|17 October 1951||7 August 1955|
|4|| Iskander Mirza |
|7 August 1955||23 March 1956|
The Governor-General of India was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India".
The President of Pakistan, is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the civilian Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Armed Forces, per the Constitution of Pakistan. The office-holder represents the "unity of the Republic". The current President of Pakistan is Arif Alvi.
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.
The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts/high courts.
The Pakistan Muslim League, is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s. The first Pakistan Muslim League was founded by President Ayub Khan in 1962 as a successor to the original Muslim League. Just a short period after its foundation, the party broke into two factions: Convention Muslim League that supported the President and the new Constitution, and the Council Muslim League, that opposed the new Constitution, denouncing it as undemocratic that made the Presidency an autocratic position. Following President Ayub's resignation, Nurul Amin, a right-wing political veteran, attempted to reunite the factions of Pakistan Muslim League. His efforts were supported by some, while opposed by others. Before the 1970 Elections, a senior leader of Council Muslim League, Abdul Qayyum Khan formed his own variant of the Muslim League that opposed cooperation with a party that once supported a Dictator. In 1973, Amin's efforts succeeded and the Functional Muslim League (PML-F) was founded.
Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza ; 13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969), CIE, OSS, OBE, was a Bengali bureaucrat and General who served as the first President of Pakistan, elected in this capacity in 1956 until being dismissed by his appointed army commander General Ayub Khan in 1958.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate of Pakistan. The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 336 members, before 25th ammendment they used to be 342' who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 137 seats to obtain and preserve a majority.
The Parliament of Pakistan is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate as the upper house and the National Assembly, as the lower house. According to the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the president in his discretion under the Constitution.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army. The Commander-in-Chief and most of his staff were based at General Headquarters, India, and liaised with the civilian Governor-General of India. Following the Partition of India in 1947 and the creation of the independent dominions of India and Pakistan, the post was abolished. It was briefly replaced by the position of Supreme Commander of India and Pakistan before the role was abolished in November 1948. Subsequently, the role of Commander-in-Chief was merged into the offices of the Governors-General of India and Pakistan, respectively, before becoming part of the office of President of India from 1950, of the President of Pakistan from 1956.
Muhammad Mian Soomro is a Pakistani politician and a banker who currently serves as the Federal Minister for Privitization and Aviation. Previously, he served as the Chairman of the Senate from 2003 to 2009, the caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2007 to 2008 and the acting President of Pakistan from 18 August 2008 to 9 September 2008.
General Muhammad Musa Khan, HPk, HQA, HI, HJ, MBE, was a four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.
Saeed Uz Zaman Siddiqui was a Pakistani jurist and legislator of great prominence who formerly served as the Chief Justice of Pakistan at the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
Muhammad Latif Khosa was the Governor of Punjab, and a politician representing Pakistan People's Party. A former senator and a former Attorney General of Pakistan, Latif Khosa was appointed as the Governor of Punjab by the President of Pakistan after the murder of late-Governor Salman Taseer on 11 January 2011. He was appointed the Attorney General on 19 August 2008. Also served as Chairman Executive Committee (CEC) of Pakistan Bar Council. He co-authored an electoral fraud report with former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto shortly before her assassination in December 2007. Khosa was one of Bhutto's top aides.
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed head of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The Office of the Governor as the head of the province is largely a ceremonial position; the executive powers lie with the Chief Minister and the Chief Secretary of Sindh.
The Governor's House in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan is the official residence of the Governor of Sindh. The current Governor of Sindh is Imran Ismail. It is located along the Aiwan-e-Sadar Road of Karachi.
Military coups in Pakistan began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts. There have also been numerous unsuccessful attempts since 1951. Since its creation in 1947, Pakistan has spent several decades under military rule.
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Islamic Republic of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969. It was abrogated in the same year by president Yahya Khan.