Governor-General of the Philippines

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Governor-General of the Philippines
Gobernador-General de las Filipinas/Capitán General de las Filipinas
Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas/Kapitan Heneral ng Pilipinas
フィリピン総督
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Residence Fort San Pedro (1565–1572)
Palacio del Gobernador (1572–1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863–1945)
Mansion House (1942–1945)
Appointer
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Viceroy of New Spain
Estandarte Real de Espana.svg Monarch of Spain
Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (1714-1801).svg Monarch of Great Britain
Flag of the President of the United States of America.svg President of the United States
Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg Emperor of Japan
PrecursorVarious,
the barangay system
Formation27 April 1565
First holder Miguel López de Legazpi
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Wesley Merritt
(under the United States)
Masaharu Homma
(under Japan)
Final holder Diego de los Ríos
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Frank Murphy
(under the United States)
Tomoyuki Yamashita
(under Japan)
Abolished6 October 1945

The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de las Filipinas/Capitán General de las Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas/Kapitan Heneral ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン総督 (Firipin sōtoku)) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

Contents

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth", as the chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines.

Under New Spain (1565–1761)

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565 to 1821, the governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain to govern the Captaincy General of the Philippines. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Real Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim   Real Audiencia

#PictureNameFromUntil Viceroy of New Spain Monarch
1 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, en La Hormiga de Oro.jpg Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565August 20, 1572 Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg
Francisco Ceinos ,
Dean of the Audiencia
(August 1, 1564 – October 19, 1566)
Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg
Philip II
Felipe II
House of Habsburg
(July 25, 1554 – September 13, 1598)
GastonPeralta.jpg
Gastón Carrillo de Peralta y Bosquete,
3rd Marquess of Falces
(October 19, 1566 – November 11, 1567)
Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg
Licenciado Alonso de Muñoz and
Licenciado Luís Carrillo
(November 11, 1567 – April 1568)
Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg
Licenciado Alonso de Muñoz
(April 1568 – April 14, 1568)
Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg
Francisco Ceinos ,
Dean of the Audiencia
(April 14, 1568 – November 4, 1568)
MartinEnriquezdeAlmansa.jpg

Martín Enríquez de Almanza
(November 5, 1568 – October 4, 1580)

2 Guido de Lavezares.jpg Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572August 25, 1575
3 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580).svg Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575April 1580
4 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580March 10, 1583
LorenzoSuarezdeMendoza.jpg
Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza,
4th Count of La Coruña
(October 4, 1580 – June 19, 1583)
5 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583May 16, 1584
Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg
Luís de Villanueva y Zapata ,
Dean of the Audiencia
(June 19, 1583 – September 24, 1584)
6 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584May 1590
PedroMoyaContreras.jpg
Pedro de Moya y Contrerás
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(September 25, 1584 – October 17, 1585)
AlvaroManriquedeZugniga.jpg
Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga
1st Marquess of Villamanrique
(October 17, 1585 – January 27, 1590)
7 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590October 25, 1593 LuisdeVelascoII.jpg
Luís de Velasco
Marquess of Salinas
(January 27, 1590 – November 5, 1595)
8 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro de Rojas October 1593December 3, 1593
9 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593July 14, 1596
GaspardeZugnigayAcevedo.jpg
Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca,
5th Count of Monterrey
(November 5, 1595 – October 27, 1603)
10 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596May 1602
Velazquez-felipeIII (cropped).jpg
Philip III
Felipe III
House of Habsburg
(September 13, 1598 – March 31, 1621)
11 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602June 24, 1606
JuandeMendozayLuna.jpg
Juan de Mendoza y Luna,
Marquess of Montesclaros
(October 27, 1603 – July 2, 1607)
12 Sangelys, detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas (1734).jpg Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606June 15, 1608
LuisdeVelascoII.jpg
Luís de Velasco
Marquess of Salinas
(July 2, 1607 – June 19, 1611)
13 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608April 1609
14 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan de Silva April 1609April 19, 1616
FrayGarciaGuerra.jpg
García Guerra , O.P.
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(June 19, 1611 – February 22, 1612)
Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg
Pedro Otárola,
Dean of the Audiencia
(22 February 1612 – 18 October 1612)
DiegoFernandezdeCordoba.jpg
Diego Fernández de Córdoba,
Marquess of Guadalcázar and Count of Posadas
(October 18, 1612 – March 14, 1621)
15 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
April 19, 1616July 3, 1618
16 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618July 1624
Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg
Paz de Valecillo,
Dean of the Audiencia
(March 14, 1621 – September 11, 1621)
Philip IV of Spain (1644).jpg
Philip IV
Felipe IV
House of Habsburg
(March 31, 1621 – September 17, 1665)
DiegoCarrillodeMendoza.jpg
Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimentel,
1st Marquess of Gélves
(September 12, 1621 – November 1, 1624)
17 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624June 1625
RodrigoPachecoyOsorio.jpg
Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio de Toledo,
3rd Marquess of Cerralvo
(November 3, 1624 – September 16, 1635)
18 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Fernándo de Silva July 1624June 29, 1626
19 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626July 22, 1632
20 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Lorenzo de Olaza
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 16321633
21 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633June 25, 1635
22 Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera.jpg Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635August 11, 1644
LopeDiezdeArmendariz.jpg
Lope Díez de Aux de Armendáriz,
Marquess of Cadreita
(September 16, 1635 – August 28, 1640)
DiegoLopezPacheco,CabrerayBobadilla.jpg
Diego Roque López Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla,
7th Duke of Escalona, 7th Marquess of Villena and 7th Count of Xiquena
(August 28, 1640 – June 10, 1642)
JuandePalafoxyMendoza.jpg
Juan de Palafox y Mendoza
(Bishop of Puebla)
(June 10, 1642 – November 23, 1642)
GarciaSarmientodeSotomayor.jpg
García Sarmiento de Sotomayor,
2nd Count of Salvatierra and Marquess of Sobroso
(November 23, 1642 – May 14, 1648)
23 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644July 25, 1653
MarcosdeTorresyRueda.jpg
Marcos de Torres y Rueda
(Bishop of Yucatan)
(May 15, 1648 – April 22, 1649)
Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg
Matías de Peralta,
Dean of the Audiencia
(April 22, 1649 – June 28, 1650)
EnriquezdeGuzman,condedeAlbadeAliste.jpg
Luis Enríquez de Guzmán,
9th Count of Alba de Liste and Marquess of Villaflor
(June 28, 1650 – August 15, 1653)
24 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653September 8, 1663 FranciscoFernandezdelaCueva.jpg
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva,
8th Duke of Alburquerque, Marquess of Cuéllar, Count of Ledesma and of Huelma
(August 15, 1653 – September 16, 1660)
JuandeLeyvaydelaCerda.jpg
Juan de Leyva de la Cerda,
Marquess of Adrada
(September 16, 1660 – June 29, 1664)
25 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668).svg Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663September 28, 1668
DiegoOsoriodeEscobaryLlamas.jpg
Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas
(Bishop of Puebla)
(June 29, 1664 – October 15, 1664)
Carlos II de Espana, de Juan Carreno de Miranda (Museo del Prado).jpg
Charles II
Carlos II
House of Habsburg
(September 17, 1665 – November 1, 1700)
AntonioSebastiandeToledo.jpg
Antonio Sebastián de Toledo Molina y Salazar,
2nd Marquess of Mancera
(October 16, 1664 – November 20, 1673)
26 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668September 24, 1669
27 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Manuel de LeónSeptember 24, 1669September 21, 1677
PedroNugnoColondePortugal.jpg
Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal y Castro,
6th Duke of Veragua, 6th Marquess of Jamaica and 6th Count of Gelves
(November 20, 1673 – December 13, 1673)
Fray Payo Enriquez de Rivera2.JPG
Payo Enríquez de Rivera Manrique , O.S.A.
(Bishop of Guatemala and Archbishop of Mexico)
(December 13, 1673 – November 7, 1680)
28 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Coloma y Maceda
(Real Audiencia)
April 11, 1677September 25, 1677
29 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677September 28, 1678
30 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Juan de Vargas y HurtadoSeptember 28, 1678August 24, 1684
CondeDeParedes.jpg
Tomás Antonio Manuel Lorenzo de la Cerda y Aragón
3rd Marquess of La Laguna de Camero Viejo
(November 7, 1680 – June 16, 1686)
31 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Gabriel de Curuzealegui y ArriolaAugust 24, 1684April 1689
MelchorPorotcarreroLassodelaVega.jpg
Melchor Portocarrero y Lasso de la Vega,
3rd Count of Monclova
(June 16, 1686 – November 20, 1688)
Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza.jpg
Gaspar Melchor Baltasar de la Cerda Silva Sandoval y Mendoza,
8th Count of Galve, Lord of Salcedón and Tortola
(November 20, 1688 – February 27, 1696)
32 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689July 1690
33 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700).svg Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690December 8, 1701
JuandeOrtegayMontagnes.jpg
Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño
(Bishop of Durango, Guatemala, Michoacán and Archbishop of Mexico)
(February 27, 1696 – December 18, 1696)
Felipe V de Espana.jpg
Philip V
Felipe V
House of Bourbon
(November 1, 1700 – January 15, 1724)
JoseSarmientoyValladares,condedeMoctezuma.jpg
José Sarmiento Valladares Arines de Romay,
1st Duke of Atrisco, Count of Moctezuma and of Tula
(December 18, 1696 – November 4, 1701)
34 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Zabálburu de EchevarriDecember 8, 1701August 25, 1709 JuandeOrtegayMontagnes.jpg
Juan de Ortega Cano Montañez y Patiño
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(November 4, 1701 – November 27, 1702)
Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva y de la Cueva.png
Francisco V Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez y Fernández de la Cueva,
10th Duke of Alburquerque and Marquess of Cuéllar
(November 27, 1702 – November 13, 1710)
35 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of LizárragaAugust 25, 1709February 4, 1715
FernandodeAlencastre.jpg

Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva,

1st Duke of Linares and Marquess of Valdefuentes
(November 13, 1710 – July 16, 1716)

36 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715August 9, 1717
BaltasardeZugniga.jpg
Baltasar de Zúñiga Guzmán Sotomayor y Mendoza,
1st Duke of Arión and Marquess of Valero
(July 16, 1716 – October 15, 1722)
37 Governor General Fernando Bustamante.JPG Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717October 11, 1719
- Francisco de la Cuesta.jpg Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(Acting)
October 11, 1719August 6, 1721
38 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Toribio José Cosio y CampoAugust 6, 1721August 14, 1729
Luis I, principe de Asturias2.jpg
Louis I
Luis Felipe
House of Bourbon
(January 15, 1724 – August 31, 1724)
Juan de Acuna.jpg
Juan de Acuña y Bejarano,
2nd Marquess of Casa Fuerte
(October 15, 1722 – March 17, 1734)
Felipe V de Espana.jpg
Philip V
Felipe V
House of Bourbon
(September 6, 1724 – July 9, 1746)
39 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Fernándo Valdés y TamonAugust 14, 1729July 1739
JuanAntoniodeVizarronyEguiarreta.jpg
Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(March 17, 1734 – August 17, 1740)
40 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gaspar de la Torre y Ayala July 1739September 21, 1745
Pedro de Castro y Figueroa.jpg
Pedro de Castro Figueroa y Salazar,
1st Duke of La Conquista and 1st Marquess of Gracia Real
(August 17, 1740 – August 22, 1741)
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg
Pedro Malo de Villavicencio ,
President of the Audiencia
(August 23, 1741 – November 2, 1742)
PedroCebrianyAgustin.jpg
Pedro Cebrián y Agustín,
5th Count of Fuenclara
(November 3, 1742 – July 9, 1746)
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Archbishop Juan de Arechederra
(Acting)
September 21, 1745July 20, 1750
JuanFranciscodeGuemesyHorcasitas.jpg
Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas,
1st Count of Revillagigedo
(July 9, 1746 – November 9, 1755)
Portrait of King Ferdinand VI of Spain (1713-1759).jpg Ferdinand VI
Fernando VI
House of Bourbon
(July 9, 1746 – August 10, 1759)
41 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750July 26, 1754
42 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754May 31, 1759
AgustindeAhumadayVillalon.jpg
Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón,
Marquess of Amarillas
(November 10, 1755 – February 5, 1760)
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(Acting)
June 1759May 31, 1761
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931) Version with Golden Fleece and Order of Charles III Collars.svg
Francisco Antonio de Echávarri ,
Dean of the Audiencia
(February 5, 1760 – April 28, 1760)
Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
Carlos III
House of Bourbon
(August 10, 1759 – December 14, 1788)
Francisco Cajigal.jpg
Francisco Cajigal de la Vega
(April 28, 1760 – October 5, 1760)
JoaquindeMontserrat.jpg
Joaquín de Montserrat,
Marquess of Cruillas
(October 5, 1760 – August 24, 1766)
- Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera.jpg Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(Acting)
July 1761October 6, 1762

British occupation of Manila (1761–1764)

After the Spanish defeat at the Battle of Manila in 1762, the Philippines was shortly governed simultaneously by two Governors-General of the Spanish Empire and the British Empire.

Great Britain shortly occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War, while the Spanish Governor-General set up a provisional government in Bacolor, Pampanga to continue administering the rest of the archipelago.

#PictureNameFromUntilMonarch
43 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga )
October 6, 1762February 10, 1764 Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
Carlos III
House of Bourbon
(August 10, 1759 – December 14, 1788)
44 Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762May 31, 1764 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III
House of Hanover
(October 25, 1760 – January 29, 1820)

Under New Spain (1764–1821)

After the British returned Manila to the Spanish in 1764, the Spanish Governor-General Francisco Javier de la Torre resumed administration of the Philippines under the authority of the Viceroy of New Spain in modern-day Mexico (New Spain) as part of the Spanish Empire.

The colonies were part of the First French Empire as part of Napoleon's invasion and occupation of Spain, until Joseph Bonaparte's abdication on December 11, 1813, following the aftermath of the Battle of Vitoria and the invasion of France through Spain by the Duke of Wellington.

#PictureNameFromUntil Viceroy of New Spain Monarch
45 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764July 6, 1765 JoaquindeMontserrat.jpg

Joaquín de Montserrat,
Marquess of Cruillas
(October 5, 1760 – August 24, 1766)

Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Charles III
Carlos III
House of Bourbon
(August 10, 1759 – December 14, 1788)
46 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765July 1770
CarlosFranciscodeCroix.jpg

Carlos Francisco de Croix,
Marquess of Croix
(August 24, 1766 – September 22, 1771)

(43) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770October 30, 1776
AntonioMariadeBucareliyUrsua.jpg

Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa
(September 22, 1771 – April 9, 1779)

47 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de SarrioOctober 30, 1776July 1778
48 Jose Basco y Vargas.jpg José Basco y Vargas July 1778September 22, 1787
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931) Version with Golden Fleece and Order of Charles III Collars.svg
Francisco Romá y Rosell ,
Regent of the Audiencia
(April 10, 1779 – August 22, 1779)
MartinMayorga.jpg
Martín de Mayorga Ferrer ,
Captain General of Guatemala
(August 23, 1779 – April 28, 1783)
MatiasdeGalvezyGallardo.jpg
Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo ,
Captain General of Guatemala
(April 28, 1783 – October 20, 1784)
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931) Version with Golden Fleece and Order of Charles III Collars.svg
Vicente de Herrera y Rivero,
Regent of the Audiencia
(October 20, 1784 – June 17, 1785)
Portrait of Bernardo de Galvez.jpg
Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid,
1st Viscount of Galveston and 1st Count of Gálvez
(June 17, 1785 – November 30, 1786)
Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931) Version with Golden Fleece and Order of Charles III Collars.svg
Eusebio Sánchez Pareja y Beleño
Regent of the Audiencia
(November 30, 1786 – May 8, 1787)
AlonsoNugnezdeHaroyPeralta.jpg
Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(May 8, 1787 – August 16, 1787)
Manuel Antonio Florez Maldonado.png
Manuel Antonio Flórez Maldonado
(August 16, 1787 – October 16, 1789)
(47) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro de SarrioSeptember 22, 1787July 1, 1788
49 Felix Berenguer.jpg Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788September 1, 1793
Carlos IV por Goya (Academia de la Historia).jpg
Charles IV
Carlos IV
House of Bourbon
(December 14, 1788 –

March 19, 1808)

JuanVicentedeGuemesPachecoyPadilla.jpg
Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla y Horcasitas,
2nd Count of Revillagigedo
(October 17, 1789 – July 11, 1794)
50 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793August 7, 1806
MigueldelaGruaTalamancayBranciforte.jpg
Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca de Carini y Branciforte,
1st Marquess of Branciforte
(July 12, 1794 – May 31, 1798)
MiguelJosedeAzanza.jpg
Miguel José de Azanza Alegría,
1st Duke of Santa Fe
(May 31, 1798 – April 30, 1800)
Felix Berenguer.jpg
Félix Berenguer de Marquina
(April 30, 1800 – January 4, 1803)
Viceroy Jose de Iturrigaray.jpg
José de Iturrigaray
(January 4, 1803 – September 16, 1808)
51 
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg
 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806March 4, 1810
PedroGaribay.jpg
Pedro de Garibay
(16 September 1808 – 19 July 1809)
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg
Ferdinand VII
Fernando VII
House of Bourbon
(March 19, 1808 – May 6, 1808)
FranciscoJavierdeLizanayBeaumont.jpg
Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont
(Archbishop of Mexico)
(July 19, 1809 – May 8, 1810)
Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg
Joseph Bonaparte
José Napoleón
House of Bonaparte
(June 6, 1808 – December 11, 1813)
52 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel Gonzalez de AguilarMarch 4, 1810September 4, 1813 Middle Coat of Arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain.svg
Pedro Catani
(May 8, 1810 – September 14, 1810)
Francisco Xavier Venegas.jpg
Francisco Javier Venegas,
1st Marquess of Reunión and of New Spain
(September 14, 1810 – March 4, 1813)
Virrey Felix Maria Calleja.jpg
Félix María Calleja del Rey,
1st Count of Calderón
(March 4, 1813 – September 20, 1816)
53 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Gardoqui JaraveitiaSeptember 4, 1813December 10, 1816
JuanRuizdeApodaca.jpg
Juan Ruiz de Apodaca,
1st Count of Venadito
(September 20, 1816 – July 5, 1821)
Fernando VII - Vicente Lopez.jpg
Ferdinand VII
Fernando VII
House of Bourbon
(December 11, 1813 – September 29, 1833)
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816September 15, 1821
PedroFranciscoNovella.jpg
Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo
(July 15, 1821 – July 21, 1821)
Juan O'Donoju.jpg
Juan O'Donojú
(July 21, 1821 – September 28, 1821)

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Spanish Crown.

#PictureNameFromUntilMonarch
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Fernández de Folgueras September 16, 1821October 30, 1822 Fernando VII, by Lopez.png
Ferdinand VII
Fernando VII
House of Bourbon
(December 11, 1813 – September 29, 1833)
54 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio MartínezOctober 30, 1822October 14, 1825
55 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825December 23, 1830
56 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo.png Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830March 1, 1835
Formal portrait of Queen Isabel II of Spain.jpg
Isabella II
Isabel II
House of Bourbon
(September 29, 1833 – September 30, 1868)
57 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Gabriel de TorresMarch 1, 1835April 23, 1835
58 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín de CrameApril 23, 1835September 9, 1835
59 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y VaronaSeptember 9, 1835August 27, 1837
60 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Andrés García CambaAugust 27, 1837December 29, 1838
61 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Luis LardizábalDecember 29, 1838February 14, 1841
62 Oraa-Calbo.jpg Marcelino de Oraá February 14, 1841June 17, 1843
63 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la TorreJune 17, 1843July 16, 1844
64 El teniente general Narciso Claveria y Zaldua, conde de Manila (Museo del Prado).jpg Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844December 26, 1849
65 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio María BlancoDecember 26, 1849July 29, 1850
66 Juan Antonio de Urbiztondo, marques de la Solana.jpg Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850December 20, 1853
67 Ramon Montero y Blandino (Museo del Prado).jpg Ramón Montero y BlandinoDecember 20, 1853February 2, 1854
68 El marques de Novaliches con el manto de la Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando.jpg Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854October 28, 1854
(67) Ramon Montero y Blandino (Museo del Prado).jpg Ramón Montero y BlandinoOctober 28, 1854November 20, 1854
69 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel Crespo y CebríanNovember 20, 1854December 5, 1856
(67) Ramon Montero y Blandino (Museo del Prado).jpg Ramón Montero y BlandinoDecember 5, 1856March 9, 1857
70 Teniente coronel Rogelio Fernandez Semprun.png Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857January 12, 1860
71 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Ramón María Solano y LlanderalJanuary 12, 1860August 29, 1860
72 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Herrera DávilaAugust 29, 1860February 2, 1861
73 Jose Lemery, de Bernardo Blanco y Perez (cropped2).jpg José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861July 7, 1862
74 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Salvador ValdésJuly 7, 1862July 9, 1862
75 CARTE DE VISITE DEL GENERAL ECHAGUE (COLECCION ROMERO ORTIZ).jpg Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862March 24, 1865
76 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e IbáñezMarch 24, 1865April 25, 1865
77 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan de Lara e IrigoyenApril 25, 1865July 13, 1866
78 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José Laureano de Sanz y PosseJuly 13, 1866September 21, 1866
79 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Juan Antonio OsorioSeptember 21, 1866September 27, 1866
(76) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Joaquín del Solar e IbáñezSeptember 27, 1866October 26, 1866
80 Jose de la Gandara y Navarro.jpg José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866June 7, 1869
No Monarch
81 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel MaldonadoJune 7, 1869June 23, 1869
82 Carlos Maria de la Torre.jpg Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada June 23, 1869April 4, 1871
Amadeo I, rey de Espana.jpg
Amadeo I

House of Savoy
(December 16, 1870 – February 11, 1873)

83 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871January 8, 1873
84 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Manuel MacCrohonJanuary 8, 1873January 24, 1873
85 Juan Alaminos y Vivar.jpg Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873March 17, 1874
No Monarch
- Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874).svg Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(Acting)
March 17, 1874June 18, 1874
86 Jose Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael.jpg José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874February 28, 1877
Retrato del rey Alfonso XII (Museo del Prado).jpg
Alfonso XII
House of Bourbon
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
87 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Domingo Moriones y MurilloFebruary 28, 1877March 20, 1880
88 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Rafael Rodríguez AriasMarch 20, 1880April 15, 1880
89 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880March 10, 1883
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(Acting)
March 10, 1883April 7, 1883
90 General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting.jpg Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883April 1, 1885
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(Acting)
April 1, 1885April 4, 1885
91 Emilio Terrero.jpg Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885April 25, 1888
Alfonso XIII y Maria Cristina Regente. 1898. Luis Alvarez Catala.jpg
Alfonso XIII
House of Bourbon
(May 17, 1886 – August 14, 1898)
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Antonio Moltó y Díaz Berrio
(Acting)
April 25, 1888June 4, 1888
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Federico Lobatón y Prieto
(Acting)
June 4, 1888June 5, 1888
92 Valeriano Weyler.gif Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888November 17, 1891
93 Eulogio Despujols y Dusay.jpg Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891March 1, 1893
- General Ochando.jpg Federico Ochando
(Acting)
March 1, 1893May 4, 1893
94 Ramon Blanco y Erenas.jpg Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893December 13, 1896
- Camilo Polavieja, en La Esfera.jpg Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(Acting)
December 13, 1896April 15, 1897
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg José de Lachambre
(Acting)
April 15, 1897April 23, 1897
95 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak.jpg Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897April 11, 1898
96 Basilio Augustin y Davila.jpg Basilio Augustín [1] April 11, 1898July 24, 1898
- Fermin Jaudenes.png Fermín Jáudenes [1]
(Acting)
July 24, 1898August 13, 1898
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Francisco Rizzo [1]
(Acting)
August 13, 1898September 1898
- Diego de los Rios y Nicolau (22 de enero de 2010, La Ilustracion Espanola y Americana, Franzen).jpg Diego de los Rios [1]
(Acting)
September 1898June 3, 1899

United States Military Government (1898–1902)

The city of Manila was captured by American expeditionary forces on 13 August 1898. [2] On 14 August 1898, the terms of the Spanish capitulation were signed. From this date, American government in the Philippines begins. [2] General Wesley Merritt, in accordance with the instructions of the United States President, issued a proclamation announcing the establishment of United States military rule. [2]

During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

#PictureNameFromUntil President
1 Wesley Merritt.jpg Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898 [3] August 30, 1898 [4] William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
(March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)
2 Elwell S. Otis.jpg Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898May 5, 1900
3 Arthur MacArthur Jr.jpg Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900 [5] July 4, 1901
4 AdnaChaffee.jpg Adna Chaffee [6] July 4, 1901July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with Civil Governor, William Howard Taft. [7] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon. [8] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority. [6] Chaffee remained commander of the Philippine Division until September 30, 1902. [9]

After his retirement as Civil Governor, Governor Taft was appointed Secretary of War and he secured for his successor the adoption by Congress [10] of the title Governor-General of the Philippine Islands thereby "reviving the high designation used during the last period of Spanish rule and placing the office on a parity of dignity with that of other colonial empires of first importance". [2] The term "insular" (from insula, the Latin word for island) [11] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas were under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department. [12] [13]

OOPictureNameFromUntil President
1 William Howard Taft.jpg William Howard Taft July 4, 1901February 1, 1904 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg
William McKinley
(March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901)
T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
(September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)

T Roosevelt.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
(September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)
2 Luke Edward Wright.jpg Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904November 3, 1905
3 Henry Clay Ide 710x1024.jpg Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905September 19, 1906
4 GenJFSmith.jpg James Francis Smith September 20, 1906November 11, 1909
5 W. Cameron Forbes cph.3b13852.jpg William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909September 1, 1913 William Howard Taft.jpg
William Howard Taft
(March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913)
- Newton W. Gilbert (Governor General of the Philippines).jpg Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913October 6, 1913 Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg
Woodrow Wilson

(March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)

6 Francis Burton Harrison, seated.jpg Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913March 5, 1921
- Charles Emmett Yeater (Philippines Governor General).jpg Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921October 14, 1921 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg
Warren G. Harding
(March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923)
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg
Calvin Coolidge
(August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)
7 General Leonard Wood Rol BNF Gallica.jpg Leonard Wood October 14, 1921August 7, 1927
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916).jpg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927December 27, 1927
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg
Calvin Coolidge
(August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)
8 Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927February 23, 1929
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916).jpg Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929July 8, 1929 Herbert Hoover.jpg
Herbert Hoover
(March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)
9 Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929January 9, 1932
- George C. Butte (Philippines Governor).jpg George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932February 29, 1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpg Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932July 15, 1933
11 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy July 15, 1933November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines
FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46)

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

#PictureNameFromUntil President
1 Justice Frank Murphy.jpg Frank Murphy November 14, 1935April 26, 1937 FDR in 1933.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945)
2 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941.jpg Paul V. McNutt April 26, 1937July 12, 1939
3 Francis B Sayre.jpg Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. April 12, 1939October 12, 1942
4 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941.jpg Paul V. McNutt September 14, 1945July 4, 1946
Following Philippine independence became
1st U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines
Harry S. Truman.jpg
Harry S. Truman
(April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953)

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic. [14]

#PictureNameFromUntil Emperor
1 Honma Masaharu.jpg Homma Masaharu
本間 雅晴
January 3, 1942June 8, 1942 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg
Emperor Hirohito (Shōwa)
昭和天皇
2 Tanaka Shizuichi.jpg Tanaka Shizuichi
田中 静壱
June 8, 1942May 28, 1943
3 General-Shigenori-Kuroda.png Kuroda Shigenori
黒田 重徳
May 28, 1943September 26, 1944
4 Face detail, Yamashita Tomoyuki Osaka (cropped).jpg Yamashita Tomoyuki
山下 奉文
September 26, 1944September 2, 1945

On September 2, 1945, the position of Governor-General of the Philippines was abolished. The Philippines' independence from the United States was proclaimed on July 4, 1946, installing Manuel Roxas as the fourth President of the Philippines and ushering in the Third Philippine Republic.

Timelines

1750–1800

Governor-General of the Philippines

1800–1850

Governor-General of the Philippines

1850–1898

Governor-General of the Philippines

1898–1946

Governor-General of the Philippines

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Peterson 2007 , p. 11.
  2. 1 2 3 4 David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States ; The American Historical Review Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311 (PDF)
  3. Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p.  116.
  4. Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p.  457. ISBN   978-1-85109-951-1.
  5. Pershing, John J. (2013). My Life Before the World War, 1860--1917: A Memoir. University Press of Kentucky. p.  547. ISBN   978-0-8131-4199-2.
  6. 1 2 Elliott (1917), p. 509
  7. Elliott (1917), p. 4
  8. Tanner (1901), p. 383
  9. Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp.  40.
  10. Act of Congress of February 6, 1905 entitled: "An Act To amend an Act approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," and to amend an Act approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes" and to amend an Act March second, nineteen hundred and three, entitled "An Act to establish a standard of value and to provide for a coinage system in the Philippine Islands," and to provide for the more efficient administration of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Section 8 thereof provided that "the civil governor of the Philippine Islands shall hereafter be known as the governor-general of the Philippine Islands.
  11. "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  12. "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations" Archived 2012-09-25 at the Wayback Machine . U.S. Department of the Interior.
  13. "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  14. Cahoon (2000)

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References