Governorate of New Andalusia (1501–13)

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Governorate of New Andalusia (and Coquivacoa)

Tierra Firme
1501–1513
Flag
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580) Variant without the Arms of Granada.svg
Coat of arms
Tierra Firme Coquivacoa.PNG
Tierra Firme: Castilla de Oro and New Andalucia (with Coquivacoa)
Status Governorate of Castile (Spanish Empire)
Capital Santa Cruz
Common languages Spanish
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentMonarchy
List of Castilian monarchs  
Historical era Spanish Empire
 Established
1501
 Creation the Great Governorate of Castilla de Oro.
1513
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Banner of arms crown of Castille Habsbourg style.svg Province of Tierra Firme
Castilla de Oro Banner of arms crown of Castille Habsbourg style.svg

The Governorate of New Andalusia (Spanish : Gobernación de Nueva Andalucía, pronounced  [ɡoβeɾnaˈθjon de ˈnweβa andaluˈθi.a] ) was a Spanish colonial entity in present-day Venezuela, from 1501 to 1513.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

History

In 1501, Alonso de Ojeda colonized the mainland of present-day Venezuela, and received the Governorate of New Andalusia (Coquivacoa), between Cabo de la Vela and Isla Margarita (island). This was territory originally seen by Christopher Columbus.

Alonso de Ojeda Spanish navigator and governor

Alonso de Ojeda was a Spanish navigator, governor and conquistador. He travelled through Guyana, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Curaçao, Aruba and Colombia. He is famous for having named Venezuela, which he explored during his first two expeditions, for having been the first European to visit Guyana, Colombia, and Lake Maracaibo, and later for founding Santa Cruz.

Coquivacoa

Coquivacoa or Coquibacoa is an indigenous name for an area in north-west Venezuela - either the Gulf of Venezuela or Lake Maracaibo or possibly the wider region. It may also be the name of an indigenous people itself, in particular the people fought by Ambrosius Ehinger before his 1529 establishment of Maracaibo; the name "Maracaibo" may derive from a Coquivacoa chieftain killed by Ehinger. This people may be related to the Wayuu or the Caquetio people.

Cabo de la Vela cape

Cabo de la Vela is a headland in the Guajira Peninsula in Colombia with an adjacent small fishing village. It is a popular ecotourism destination of the Caribbean Region of Colombia

On May 3, 1502 Ojeda founded the town of Santa Cruz in the Guajira Peninsula, the first Spanish colony in the future Province of Tierra Firme. The settlements were later abandoned for new explorations.

Guajira Peninsula South American peninsula

Guajira Peninsula[gwaˈxiɾa, gwaˈhiɾa], is a peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in the Caribbean. It is the northernmost peninsula in South America and has an area of 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi) extending from the Manaure Bay (Colombia) to the Calabozo Ensenada in the Gulf of Venezuela (Venezuela), and from the Caribbean to the Serranía del Perijá mountains range. It was the subject of a dispute between Venezuela and Colombia in 1891, and on arbitration was awarded to the latter and joined to its Magdalena Department. Nowadays, most of the territory is part of Colombia, making it part of La Guajira Department, while the remaining strip pertains to the Venezuelan Zulia State. The northernmost part of the peninsula is called Punta Gallinas and is also considered the northernmost part of mainland South America.

Province of Tierra Firme

During Spain's New World Empire, its mainland coastal possessions surrounding the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico were referred to collectively as the Spanish Main. The southern portion of these coastal possessions were known as the Province of Tierra Firme, or the "Mainland province".

In 1509, authority was granted to Alonso de Ojeda to colonize the territories between Cabo de la Vela and the Gulf of Urabá as part of the Governorate of New Andalusia.

Gulf of Urabá gulf

The Gulf of Urabá is a gulf on the northern coast of Colombia. It is part of the Caribbean Sea. It is a long, wide inlet located on the coast of Colombia, close to the connection of the continent to the Isthmus of Panama. The town of Turbo, Colombia, lies at the mid eastern side naturally sheltered by the Turbo Bay part of the Gulf. The Atrato River flows into the Gulf of Urabá.

The Governorate of New Andalusia territories were further unified in May 1513 with the Governorate of Castilla de Oro.

Castilla de Oro

Castilla de Oro or del Oro was the name given by the Spanish settlers at the beginning of the 16th century to the Central American territories from the Gulf of Urabá, near today's Colombian-Panamanian border, to the Belén River. Beyond that river, the region was known as Veragua, and was disputed by the Spanish crown along with the Columbus family. The name "Castilla de Oro" was made official in May 1513 by King Ferdinand II of Aragon, then regent of the Crown of Castile.

See also

Governorate of New Andalusia 1534−1542

New Andalusia Governorate was one of the colonial governorates of the Spanish Empire, located in southern South America.

New Andalusia Province province of Venezuela and Guyana

New Andalusia Province or Province of Cumaná (1537–1864) was a province of the Spanish Empire, and later of Gran Colombia and Venezuela. It included the territory of present-day Venezuelan states Sucre, Anzoátegui and Monagas. Its most important cities were Cumaná and New Barcelona.

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