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Grace Chisholm Young | |
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Born | Grace Emily Chisholm 15 March 1868 Haslemere, Surrey, UK |

Died | 29 March 1944 England |

Nationality | British |

Alma mater | University of Cambridge University of Göttingen |

Spouse(s) | William Henry Young (died 1942) |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Mathematics |

Thesis | Algebraisch-gruppentheoretische Untersuchungen zur sphärischen Trigonometrie (Algebraic Groups of Spherical Trigonometry) (1895) |

Doctoral advisor | Felix Klein |

Influenced | E. W. Hobson ^{ [1] } |

**Grace Chisholm Young** (née Chisholm) was an English mathematician. She was educated at Girton College, Cambridge, England and continued her studies at Göttingen University in Germany, where in 1895 she became the first woman to receive a doctorate in any field in that country.^{ [2] } Her early writings were published under the name of her husband, William Henry Young, and they collaborated on mathematical work throughout their lives. For her work on calculus (1914–16), she was awarded the Gamble Prize for Mathematics by Girton College, University of Cambridge.^{ [3] }

The **English people** are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the *Angelcynn*. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

A **mathematician** is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

**Girton College** is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge. The college was established in 1869 by Emily Davies, Barbara Bodichon and Lady Stanley of Alderley as the first women's college in Cambridge. In 1948, it was granted full college status by the university, marking the official admittance of women to the university. In 1976, it was the first Cambridge women's college to become coeducational.

She was the youngest of three surviving children. Her father was a senior civil servant, with the title Warden of the Standards in charge of the Weights and Measures Department.^{ [1] } The two girls were taught at home by their mother, father and a governess which was the custom during that time. Her family encouraged her to become involved in social work, helping the poor in London. She had aspirations of studying medicine, but her family would not allow this. However, Chisholm wanted to continue her studies. She passed the senior examination for entrance into Cambridge University at the age of 17.

Chisholm entered Girton College in 1889 aged 22, four years after she passed the senior entrance examination having been awarded the Sir Francis Goldsmid Scholarship by the college. At this time the college was only associated with the University of Cambridge with men and women graded on separate but related lists. Although she wanted to study medicine, her mother would not permit this, so, supported by her father, she decided to study mathematics.^{ [1] } At the end of her first year, when the Mays list came out, top of the Second class immediately below Isabel Maddison. In 1893, Grace passed her final examinations with the equivalent of a first-class degree, ranked between 23 and 24 relative to 112 men.^{ [2] }^{ [1] }

She also took (unofficially, on a challenge, with Isabel Maddison) the exam for the Final Honours School in mathematics at the University of Oxford in 1892 in which she out-performed all the Oxford students. As a result, she became the first person to obtain a First class degree at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities in any subject.^{ [1] }

The **University of Oxford** is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation after the University of Bologna. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ‘ancient universities’ are frequently jointly called ’Oxbridge’. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Chisholm remained at Cambridge for an additional year to complete Part II of the Mathematical Tripos, which was unusual for women.

She wanted to continue her studies and since women were not yet admitted to graduate schools in England she went to the University of Göttingen in Germany to study with Felix Klein. This was one of the major mathematical centres in the world. The decision to admit her had to be approved by the Berlin Ministry of Culture and was part of an experiment in admitting women to university studies.^{ [1] } In 1895, at the age of 27, Chisholm became the first woman to be awarded a doctorate in any field in Germany.^{ [2] } Again government approval had to be obtained to allow her to take the examination, which consisted of probing questions by several professors on sections such as geometry, differential equations, physics, astronomy, and the area of her dissertation, all in German. Along with her test she was required to take courses showing broader knowledge as well as prepare a thesis which was entitled *Algebraisch-gruppentheoretische Untersuchungen zur sphärischen Trigonometrie* (*Algebraic Groups of Spherical Trigonometry*).^{ [4] }

The **University of Göttingen** is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and starting classes in 1737, the Georgia Augusta was conceived to promote the ideals of the Enlightenment. It is the oldest university in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 31,500.

**Christian Felix Klein** was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work with group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the associations between geometry and group theory. His 1872 Erlangen Program, classifying geometries by their basic symmetry groups, was an influential synthesis of much of the mathematics of the time.

After returning to England in 1896 to marry, she resumed research she had initiated at Gӧttingen into an equation to determine the orbit of a comet. Her husband continued his work coaching in mathematics.^{ [1] } However, in 1897 they both returned to Gӧttingen, encouraged by Felix Klein. Both attended advanced lectures and while she continued her mathematical research her husband started to work creatively for the first time. They visited Turin in Italy to study modern geometry and under Klein's guidance they began to work in the new area of set theory.^{ [1] } From about 1901, the Youngs began to publish papers together. These concerned the theory of functions of a real variable and were heavily influenced by new ideas with which she had come into contact with in Gӧttingen. In 1908 they moved to Geneva in Switzerland where she continued to be based while her husband held a series of academic posts in India and the UK.

Although most of their work was published jointly it is believed that Grace did a large amount of the actual writing, and she also produced some independent work which, according to expert opinion, was deeper and more important than her husband's.^{ [5] } In total, they published about 214 papers together.^{ [2] } and four books.^{ [1] } She began to publish in her own name in 1914, and was awarded the Gamble Prize for Mathematics by Girton College for an essay *On infinite derivates* in 1915.^{ [1] } This work was stimulated by developments in microscopy that allowed real molecular motion to be viewed. Her work between 1914-16 on relationships between derivatives of an arbitrary function contributed to the Denjoy-Young-Saks theorem.

They also wrote an elementary geometry book (*The First Book of Geometry*, 1905) which was translated into 4 languages. In 1906 the Youngs published *The Theory of Sets of Points*, the first textbook on set theory.^{ [2] }

Chisholm married William Henry Young in 1896, the year after she received her Ph.D. from Göttingen. He had been her tutor for one term at Cambridge and they had become friends after he was one of the people that she sent a copy of her doctoral thesis. He suggested collaboration in a publication about astronomy but they did not pursue this.^{ [2] } They had six children within nine years.

In addition to her career as a pioneering woman in what was then a discipline with significant barriers to entry, she completed all the requirements for a medical degree except the internship. She also learned six languages and taught each of her children a musical instrument. In addition, she published two books for children (*Bimbo:A Little Real Story for Jill and Molly* (1905) and *Bimbo and the Frogs: Another Real Story* (1907)). The former was aimed to explain where babies came from to children while the latter was about cells.^{ [2] } In 1929 she started a historical novel *The Crown of England* set in the sixteenth century. She worked on this for five years but it was never published.^{ [1] }

With the approach of World War II, she left Switzerland in 1940 to take two of her grandchildren to England. She planned to return immediately, but because of the fall of France, she could not. This left William alone, and he died two years later in 1942. Two years after that, Grace Chisholm Young died of a heart attack.^{ [2] }

Of their six children, three continued on to study mathematics (including Laurence Chisholm Young and Cecilia Rosalind Tanner), one daughter (Janet) became a physician, and one son (Patrick) became a chemist and pursued a career in finance and business. Their eldest son (Frank) was killed in World War I and his death had a profound effect on his parents, reducing their mathematical creativity.^{ [1] } One of Grace's fourteen grandchildren, Sylvia Wiegand (daughter of Laurence), is a mathematician at the University of Nebraska and is a past president of the Association for Women in Mathematics.

In 1996 Sylvia Wiegand and her husband Roger established a fellowship for graduate student research at the University of Nebraska in honor of Grace Chisholm Young and William Henry Young, called the Grace Chisholm Young and William Henry Young Award.^{ [6] } Sylvia is one of Grace's fourteen grandchildren.

**Arthur Cayley** was a prolific British mathematician who worked mostly on algebra. He helped found the modern British school of pure mathematics.

Professor **Sheila Scott Macintyre** FRSE was a Scottish mathematician best known for her work on the Whittaker constant. Macintyre is also known for co-authoring a German-English mathematics dictionary with Edith Witte.

**Dame Mary Lucy Cartwright**, was a British mathematician.

**William Henry Young** FRS was an English mathematician. Young was educated at City of London School and Peterhouse, Cambridge. He worked on measure theory, Fourier series, differential calculus, amongst other fields, and made contributions to the study of functions of several complex variables. He was the husband of Grace Chisholm Young, with whom he authored and co-authored 214 papers and 4 books. Two of their children became professional mathematicians. Young's Theorem was named after him.

**Dorothy Maud Wrinch** was a mathematician and biochemical theorist best known for her attempt to deduce protein structure using mathematical principles. She was a champion of the controversial 'cyclol' hypothesis for the structure of proteins.

The **Mathematical Tripos** is the mathematics course that is taught in the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. It is the oldest Tripos examined at the University.

**Dusa McDuff** FRS CorrFRSE is an English mathematician who works on symplectic geometry. She was the first recipient of the Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics, was a Noether Lecturer, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society.

**Annie Scott Dill Maunder ** was an Irish astronomer.

**Johanna (Hanna) Neumann** was a German-born mathematician who worked on group theory.

**Charlotte Angas Scott** was a British mathematician who made her career in the United States and was influential in the development of American mathematics, including the mathematical education of women. Scott played an important role in Cambridge changing the rules for its famous Mathematical Tripos exam.

**Ada Isabel Maddison** was a British mathematician best known for her work on differential equations.

**Mary Frances Winston Newson** was an American mathematician. She became the first female American to receive a PhD in mathematics from a European university, namely the University of Göttingen in Germany.

**Margaret Theodora Meyer**, also known as **Maud Meyer** was a British mathematician. She was one of the first directors of studies in mathematics, and one of the earliest members of the London Mathematical Society. In 1916, she was one of the first women to be elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

**Rosalind Cecilia Hildegard Tanner** was a mathematician and historian of mathematics. She was the eldest daughter of the mathematicians Grace and William Young. She was born and lived in Göttingen in Germany until 1908. During her life she used the name Cecily.

**Sylvia Margaret Wiegand** is an American mathematician.

This is a timeline of **women in mathematics**.

**Caroline Mary Series** is an English mathematician known for her work in hyperbolic geometry, Kleinian groups and dynamical systems.

**Sarah Woodhead** (1851–1912) was the first woman to sit and pass a Tripos examination at Cambridge University. She studied at Girton College, the first women's college to be founded at Oxford or Cambridge. As the physical college had yet to be built, she attended courses set up by Girton founder Emily Davies at Benslow House, Hitchin.

**Mary Taylor Slow** was a British physicist who worked on the theory of radio waves and the application of differential equations to physics. She was the first woman to take up the study of radio as a profession.

**Anne Lucy Bosworth Focke** was an American mathematician who became the first mathematics professor at what is now the University of Rhode Island, and later became the first female doctoral student of David Hilbert.

- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Rothman, Patricia (1996). "Grace Chisholm Young and the Division of Laurels".
*Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London*.**50**(1): 89–100. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1996.0008. JSTOR 531843. - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Haines, Catherine M. C. (2001).
*International Women in Science: a biographical dictionary to 1950*. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO Inc. p. 383. ISBN 1-57607-090-5. - ↑ Riddle, Larry. "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Grace Chisholm Young". Agnes Scott College . Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- ↑ "Grace Chisholm Young". Agnesscott.edu. 29 March 1944. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- ↑ Caroline Series (1995).
*British women mathematicians 200 years of history*. - ↑ PO BOX 880130 (18 November 2010). "UNL | Arts & Sciences | Math | Department | Awards | Graduate Student Awards". Math.unl.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2012.

- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Grace Chisholm Young",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive*, University of St Andrews . - "Grace Chisholm Young", Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
- University of Liverpool: Papers of Professor William Henry Young and Grace Chisholm Young

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