Graham Land

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Coordinates: 66°00′S63°30′W / 66.000°S 63.500°W / -66.000; -63.500

Contents

Northern Graham Land and the surrounding islands.
1 Antarctic Peninsula, 2 James Ross Island, 3 D'Urville Island, 4 Joinville Island, 5 Dundee Island, 6 Snow Hill Island, 7 Vega Island, 8 Seymour Island, 9 Andersson Island, 10 Paulet Island, 11 Lockyer Island, 12 Eagle Island, 13 Jonassen Island, 14 Bransfield Island, 15 Astrolabe Island, 16 Tower Island Wfm antarctic peninsula islands.png
Northern Graham Land and the surrounding islands.
1  Antarctic Peninsula, 2  James Ross Island, 3  D'Urville Island, 4  Joinville Island, 5  Dundee Island, 6  Snow Hill Island, 7  Vega Island, 8  Seymour Island, 9  Andersson Island, 10  Paulet Island, 11  Lockyer Island, 12  Eagle Island, 13  Jonassen Island, 14  Bransfield Island, 15  Astrolabe Island, 16  Tower Island
A 1944 stamp of the Falkland Islands overprinted for use in Graham Land. Falkland Islands Dependencies 1944 9d Graham Land.jpg
A 1944 stamp of the Falkland Islands overprinted for use in Graham Land.

Graham Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula that lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. This description of Graham Land is consistent with the 1964 agreement between the British Antarctic Place-names Committee and the US Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names, in which the name "Antarctic Peninsula" was approved for the major peninsula of Antarctica, and the names Graham Land and Palmer Land for the northern and southern portions, respectively. The line dividing them is roughly 69 degrees south.

Graham Land is named after Sir James R. G. Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty at the time of John Biscoe's exploration of the west side of Graham Land in 1832. [1] It is claimed by Argentina (as part of Argentine Antarctica), Britain (as part of the British Antarctic Territory) and Chile (as part of the Chilean Antarctic Territory).

Graham Land is the closest part of Antarctica to South America. [2] Thus it is the usual destination for small ships taking paying visitors on Antarctic trips from South America. [3] (Larger ships are not allowed to disembark passengers.)

Until the discoveries of the British Graham Land Expedition of 19341937, it was generally supposed to be an archipelago rather than a peninsula. [4] The mountains of Graham Land are the last range of the American Cordillera, the almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges forming the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and the Antarctic Peninsula.

Mountains

Plateaus

The interior of Graham Land is occupied by a series of plateaus, namely (north to south) Laclavère Plateau, Louis Philippe Plateau, Detroit Plateau, Herbert Plateau, Foster Plateau, Forbidden Plateau, Bruce Plateau, Avery Plateau and Hemimont Plateau.

Other names

Argentina calls the area Tierra de San Martín (Land of Saint Martin) [5] and also calls the northern peninsula (Trinity Peninsula) Península Trinidad or Tierra de la Trinidad. Similarly, Chile calls the entire Antarctic Peninsula Tierra de O'Higgins (Land of O'Higgins). [5]

Maps

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Antarctica Past events regarding the continent of Antarctica

The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle, was coined by Marinus of Tyre in the 2nd century AD.

British Antarctic Territory British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom

The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole, overlapping the Antarctic claims of Argentina and Chile.

Antarctic Peninsula Peninsula located in northern Antarctica

The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile and Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and Graham Land in the United Kingdom, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 km2 (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 km (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 km (270 mi) to 900 km (560 mi) southwest from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Palmer Land

Palmer Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica that lies south of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. This application of Palmer Land is consistent with the 1964 agreement between US-ACAN and UK-APC, in which the name Antarctic Peninsula was approved for the major peninsula of Antarctica, and the names Graham Land and Palmer Land for the northern and southern portions, respectively. The line dividing them is roughly 69 degrees south.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

James Ross Island

James Ross Island is a large island off the southeast side and near the northeastern extremity of the Antarctic Peninsula, from which it is separated by Prince Gustav Channel. Rising to 1,630 metres (5,350 ft), it is irregularly shaped and extends 64 km in a north–south direction. It was charted in October 1903 by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition under Otto Nordenskiöld, who named it for Sir James Clark Ross, the leader of a British expedition to this area in 1842 that discovered and roughly charted a number of points along the eastern side of the island. The style, "James" Ross Island is used to avoid confusion with the more widely known Ross Island in McMurdo Sound.

Flag of Antarctica Flags used to represent Antarctica, Earths southernmost continent

Antarctica has no official flag as the condominium that governs the continent has not yet formally selected one. Although the consultative members of the Antarctic Treaty System officially adopted an emblem in 2002 which is sometimes used as a flag, this emblem represents the Antarctic Treaty and not the continent itself.

Argentine Antarctica Department in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

Argentine Antarctica is a sector of Antarctica claimed by Argentina as part of its national territory consisting of the Antarctic Peninsula and a triangular section extending to the South Pole, delimited by the 25° West and 74° West meridians and the 60° South parallel. This region overlaps the British and Chilean claims in Antarctica; however, all claims are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty System, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires.

Adelaide Island island on the north side of Marguerite Bay off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula

Adelaide Island is a large, mainly ice-covered island, 139 kilometres (75 nmi) long and 37 kilometres (20 nmi) wide, lying at the north side of Marguerite Bay off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The Ginger Islands lie off the southern end. Mount Bodys is the easternmost mountain on Adelaide Island, rising to over 1,220 m. The island lies within the Argentine, British and Chilean Antarctic claims.

Northeast Glacier

Northeast Glacier is a steep, heavily crevassed glacier on the west side of Hemimont Plateau, 21 km (13 mi) long and 8 km (5 mi) wide at its mouth, which flows from McLeod Hill westward and then south-westwards into Marguerite Bay between the Debenham Islands and Roman Four Promontory, on the west coast of Graham Land, Antarctica. Northeast Glacier was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Riddoch Rymill. It was resurveyed in 1940 by members of the United States Antarctic Service (USAS), who first used the glacier as a sledging route, and so named by them because it lay on the north-eastern side of their base at Stonington Island.

Trinity Island

Trinity Island or Île de la Trinité or Isla Trinidad is an island 24 km (15 mi) long and 10 km (6 mi) wide in the northern part of the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It lies 37 km (23 mi) east of Hoseason Island,72.6 km (45 mi) south of Deception Island in the South Shetland Islands, and 10.3 km (6 mi) north-northwest of Cape Andreas on the Antarctic Peninsula. The island was named by Otto Nordenskiöld, leader of the 1901-1904 Swedish Antarctic Expedition (SAE) in commemoration of Edward Bransfield's "Trinity Land" of 1820.

The French Antarctic Expedition is any of several French expeditions in Antarctica.

Snow Hill Island

Snow Hill Island is an almost completely snowcapped island, 33 km (21 mi) long and 12 km (7.5 mi) wide, lying off the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. It is separated from James Ross Island to the north-east by Admiralty Sound and from Seymour Island to the north by Picnic Passage. It is one of several islands around the peninsula known as Graham Land, which is closer to South America than any other part of the Antarctic continent.

Chilean Antarctic Territory Place in Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, Chile

The Chilean Antarctic Territory or Chilean Antarctica is the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile. The Chilean Antarctic Territory ranges from 53° West to 90° West and from the South Pole to the 60° South parallel, partially overlapping the Argentine and British Antarctic claims. It is administered by the Cabo de Hornos municipality in the South American mainland.

Territorial claims in Antarctica Wikimedia list article

There are seven sovereign states who have made eight territorial claims in Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation, and countries without claims such as India, Italy, Russia, and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.

Mount Nicholas is a 1,465-m mountain, standing 5.5 nautical miles (10 km) south-southwest of Cape Brown, and forming the northern limit of the Douglas Range on the east side of Alexander Island, Antarctica.

Sleipnir Glacier

Sleipnir Glacier is a glacier 10 nautical miles (18 km) long, flowing into the west side of Cabinet Inlet between Balder and Spur Points, on the east coast of Graham Land, Antarctica. Vologes Ridge is situated in the central portion of the glacier.

<i>Antártica</i> (commune) Commune in Magallanes Region, Chile

Antártica is a Chilean commune in Antártica Chilena Province, Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region, which covers all the Chilean Antarctic Territory. It ranges from 53°W to 90°W and from the South Pole to 60°S, overlapping the Argentine and British Antarctic claims, and is the largest and least populated commune in Chile, being over 25 times the size of the next largest commune, Natales. It is administered by the Cabo de Hornos municipality in the South American mainland.

Antarctandes

The Antarctandes, also known as the Antarctic Peninsula cordillera, is the mountain range that is located on the northern Antarctic Peninsula, in the Graham Land and Palmer Land regions of Antarctica and may also be considered to extend across the continent.

References

  1. Stanton, William (1975). The Great United States Exploring Expedition . Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.  147. ISBN   0520025571.
  2. ESA Science & Technology: Graham Land
  3. A cruise to Antarctica is a trip like no other
  4. McGonigal, David (2009). Antarctica: Secrets of the Southern Continent. London: Frances Lincoln Ltd. ISBN   0-7112-2980-5.
  5. 1 2 Антарктический полуостров, an article from Great Soviet Encyclopedia.

Further reading