Gram panchayat

Last updated

Grama panchayat

ग्राम पंचायत
Polity type
  • Local government
Part of Panchayati Raj System ( Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti)
Formation2 October 1959
Legislative branch
NameGram-sabha [1]
Executive branch
Supreme leader
TitlePresident (Pradhan/Sarpanch )
AppointerBlock Development Officer
Judicial branch
CourtsNyaya Panchayat

Gram Panchayat (transl.'village council') is a basic governing institution in Indian villages. It is a political institution, acting as the cabinet of a village or group of villages. The Gram Sabha works as the general body of the Gram Panchayat. The members of the gram panchayat are elected directly by the people. The gram panchayat is headed by an elected President and Vice President, assisted by a Secretary who serves as the administrative head of the panchayat. The president of a gram panchayat is known as a "Pradhan" or "Sarpanch" in Northern India. There are about 250,000 gram panchayats present in India. [2] [3]



Established in various states of India, the Panchayat Raj system has three tiers: Zila Parishad, at the district level; Panchayat Samiti, at the block level; and Gram Panchayat, at the village level. Rajasthan was the first state to establish Gram Panchayat, Bagdari Village (Nagaur District) being the first village where Gram Panchayat was established, on 2 October 1959. [4]

In 1992, the institution of Gram Panchayat was modified in order to deepen democracy. The 73rd Amendment to the Constitution re-introduced panchayats as the institutions of local self-governance, with a basic structure for operations at three administrative levels; villages, groups of villages and districts. [5]


Gram Panchayats are at the lowest level of Panchayat Raj institutions (PRIs), whose legal authority is the 73rd Constitutional Amendment of 1992, which is concerned with rural local governments. [6]

The Gram Panchayat is divided into wards and each ward is represented by a Ward Member or Commissioner, also referred to as a Panch or Panchayat Member, who is directly elected by the villagers. [7] The Panchayat is chaired by the president of the village, known as a Sarpanch. [8] The term of the elected representatives is five years. The Secretary of the Panchayat is a non-elected representative, appointed by the state government, to oversee Panchayat activities. [9]

Republic of India
States Union Territories
Municipal Corporations
(Nagar Nigam/Maha Nagar Palika)
(Nagar Palika)
City Councils
(Nagar Panchayat)
(Gram Panchayat/Gram Sabha)


According to Section. 6 (3) of the Andhra Pradesh Panchayat Raj Act of 1994 , that state's gram sabha has to conduct a meeting at least twice a year. [10]


Gram Panchayat elections in India occur every five years. The village is divided into wards, and people in each ward vote for their representative. These elected members, along with the president (sarpanch) and vice president, form the Gram Panchayat. The president (sarpanch) and vice president (upa-sarpanch) in a gram Panchayat are elected from among the elected ward members. the term of office for elected members in a Gram Panchayat, including the Sarpanch and Upa-Sarpanch, is typically five years. All people over the age of 18 who are residents of the territory of that village's Gram panchayat can vote. [11] [12]

For women's empowerment and to encourage participation of women in the democratic process, the government of India has set some restrictions on Gram panchayat elections, reserving one-third of the seats for women, as well as reserving seats for scheduled castes and tribes. [12]


See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elections in Kerala</span>

Elections in Kerala are regularly held to appoint government officials at various levels, both within the state of Kerala and in India as a whole. These elections encompass national elections as well as regional elections for local bodies and panchayats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jodhpur district</span> District of Rajasthan in India

Jodhpur District is a district in the State of Rajasthan in western India. The city of Jodhpur is the administrative headquarters of the district.

A sarpanch, gram pradhan, mukhiya, or president is a decision-maker, elected by the village-level constitutional body of local self-government called the gram sabha in India. The sarpanch, together with other elected panchayat members, constitute gram panchayats and zilla panchayats. The sarpanch is the focal point of contact between government officers and the village community and retains power for five years. the term used to refer to the sarpanch can vary across different states of India. Here are some of the commonly used terms for sarpanch in various states: panchayat president, gram pramukh, gram pradhan, gram adhyaksha, gaon panchayat president, gram panchayat president, etc.

Panchayat samiti or block panchayat is a rural local government (panchayat) body at the intermediate tehsil (taluka/mandal) or block level in India. It works for the villages of the tehsil that together are called a development block. It has been said to be the "panchayat of panchayats".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panchayati raj in India</span> Village self-government system in rural India

Panchayati raj is the system of local self-government of villages in rural India as opposed to urban and suburban municipalities.

Appikatla is a village in Bapatla district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Bapatla mandal of Tenali revenue division.

Local government. in Maharashtra State follows the general structure of Local Governance in India and is broadly classified into two categories: Urban Local Governance and Rural Local Governance.

Amruthalur is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Amruthaluru mandal in Tenali revenue division. The village forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region and is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA.

Harji Ram Burdak was an Indian politician from Nagaur district in Rajasthan. He served as Minister of Agriculture in Government of Rajasthan. He was member of the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly for six terms between 1967 to 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kattevaram</span> Village in Andhra Pradesh, India

Kattevaram is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Tenali mandal of Tenali revenue division. It forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.

Pedapalem is a village in Palnadu district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the headquarters of Atchampet mandal in Guntur revenue division. The village forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region and is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA.

Kerala is a state on the southwestern coast of India. It is known for its high literacy rate, low infant mortality rate, and long life expectancy. Kerala has also been a pioneer in the field of decentralization and participatory local democracy.

Local government in India is governmental jurisdiction below the level of the state. Local self-government means that residents in towns, villages and rural settlements are the people who elect local councils and their heads authorising them to solve the important issues. India is a federal republic with three spheres of government: union, state and local. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments give recognition and protection to local governments and in addition each state has its own local government legislation. Since 1992, local government in India takes place in two very distinct forms. Urban localities, covered in the 74th amendment to the Constitution, have Municipality but derive their powers from the individual state governments, while the powers of rural localities have been formalized under the panchayati raj system, under the 73rd amendment to the Constitution.

Local bodies in Tamil Nadu constitute the three tier administration set-up in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a system of local government which forms the last level from the Centre. Chennai Corporation in the then Madras Presidency, established in 1688, is the oldest such local body not only in India but also in any commonwealth nations outside United Kingdom.

"Right To Recall (RTR)" are existing laws in some states of India that allow citizens to remove or replace public servants holding posts of Sarpanch, Mukhiya, Corporator and Mayor in the government.

The Zila Panchayat or District Development Council or Zilla Parishad or District Panchayat or is the third tier of the Panchayati Raj system and functions at the district levels in all states. A Zila Parishad is an elected body representing the entire rural area of a district. A District Panchayat is headed by a President, who is an elected member. Block Pramukh of Block Panchayat are also represented in Zila Parishad. The members of the State Legislature and the members of the Parliament of India are members of the Zila Parishad. The Zila parishad acts as the link between the state government and the village-level Gram Panchayat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Panchayati Raj Day</span> Observance in India, 24 April

National Panchayati Raj Day is the national day of Panchayati Raj System in India celebrated by Ministry of Panchayati Raj on 24 April annually.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panchayati raj</span> Indian political system

The Panchayat raj is a political system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. It is one of the oldest systems of local government in the Indian subcontinent, and historical mentions date to around 250 CE. The word raj means 'rule' and panchayat means 'assembly' (ayat) of 'five' (panch). Traditionally, panchayats consisted of wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the local community. These assemblies settled disputes between both individuals and villages. However, there were varying forms of such assemblies.

Chinaravuru is an area of Tenali in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Tenali Mandal of Tenali revenue division. It has become of the important parts of Tenali city. Chinnaravuru park located here is the biggest attraction of Tenali. It forms a part of Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.

Block Pramukh is a term used in India to refer to the elected head of a Panchayat Samiti or Block Panchayat. The Panchayat samiti is a tier of the Panchayati raj system. It is a rural local government body at the Tehsil (block) level in India. It works for the villages of the tehsil that together are called a development block. The Panchayat Samiti is the link between the gram panchayat and the zila parishad. There are a number of variations in the name of this institution in the various states. For example, it is known as Kshetra Panchayat in Uttar Pradesh, Mandal Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka Panchayat in Gujarat, Block Panchayat in Kerala, and Mandal Panchayat in Karnataka.


  1. "The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992". Government of India – Ministry of Law and Justice – Legislative Department. 21 March 2018. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  2. Chaturvedi, Mahesh Chandra (2012). India's waters. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 74. ISBN   978-1439872833 . Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  3. "Ground Rules". . Archived from the original on 15 June 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  4. "Panchayati Raj – History". Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  5. Sapra, Ipsita (February 2013). "Living in the villages". Rural Democracy. D+C Development and Cooperation . Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  6. Benoy Banerjee; Irfaan Khan; Rajeev Kumar; et al. (2006). "Chapter Eight: Local Governments". India Constitution at Work: Textbook in Political Science for Class XI. National Council of Educational Research and Training. ISBN   81-7450-550-4. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  7. Seetharam, Mukkavilli (1 January 1990). Citizen Participation in Rural Development. Mittal Publications. p. 34. ISBN   9788170992271.
  8. "Rajasthan Sarpanch Salary 2021 – What is the Salary Of Sarpanch". Exam Craze. 30 January 2021. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  9. Social Science. Vk Publications. p. 117. ISBN   9788179732144.[ permanent dead link ]
  10. "The Andhra Pradesh Panchayat Raj Act, 1994" (PDF). 2002. Section 6.(3). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  11. "What is Gram Sabha". Vikaspedia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "Panchayati Raj System in India | Definition, Examples, Diagrams". Retrieved 4 December 2020.