Grand Prix motorcycle racing

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Moto Gp logo.svg
The official MotoGP logo
Category Motorcycle sport
RegionInternational
Inaugural season 1949
Official website www.motogp.com
MotoGP World Championship
Constructors Aprilia, Ducati, Honda, KTM, Suzuki, Yamaha
Tyre suppliers Michelin
Riders' champion Marc Márquez
Constructors' champion Honda
Motorsport current event.svg Current season
Moto2 World Championship
Constructors Kalex, KTM, MV Agusta, NTS, Speed Up
Tyre suppliers Dunlop
Riders' champion Francesco Bagnaia
Constructors' champion Kalex
Motorsport current event.svg Current season
Moto3 World Championship
Constructors Honda, KTM
Tyre suppliers Dunlop
Riders' champion Jorge Martín
Constructors' champion Honda
Motorsport current event.svg Current season
MotoE World Cup
Constructors Energica
Tyre suppliers Michelin
Riders' championn/a (new in 2019)
Constructors' championn/a (new in 2019)
Motorsport current event.svg Current season
Grand Prix motorcycle racing MotoGP final race.jpg
Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Grand Prix motorcycle racing is the premier class of motorcycle road racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM). Independent motorcycle racing events have been held since the start of the twentieth century [1] and large national events were often given the title Grand Prix, [2] The foundation of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme as the international governing body for motorcycle sport in 1949 provided the opportunity to coordinate rules and regulations in order that selected events could count towards official World Championships. It is the oldest established motorsport world championship. [3]

Road racing Form of motorsport racing on tracks that contain both right and left turns

Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Originally, road races were held almost entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns eventually led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits.

Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme international sport governing body

The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme is the global governing/sanctioning body of motorcycle racing. It represents 113 national motorcycle federations that are divided into six regional continental unions.

Motorcycle Two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle

A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, commuting, cruising, sport including racing, and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies.

Contents

Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are generally unavailable for purchase by the general public or able to be ridden legally on public roads. This contrasts with the various production-based categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship and the Isle of Man TT Races that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.

Superbike World Championship is a motorsport road racing series for modified production motorcycles also known as superbike racing. The championship was founded in 1988. The Superbike World Championship consists of a series of rounds held on permanent racing facilities. Each round has two full length races and, from 2019, an additional ten-lap sprint race known as the Superpole race. The results of all three races are combined to determine two annual World Championships, one for riders and one for manufacturers.

The championship is currently divided into four classes: Moto Grand Prix, Moto2, Moto3 and MotoE. The first three classes use four-stroke engines, while the MotoE class (new in 2019) uses electric motors. The 2019 MotoGP season comprises 19 Grands Prix, with 12 held in Europe, three in Asia, two in the Americas, and one each in Australia and the Middle East.

Four-stroke engine engine

A four-strokeengine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:

  1. Intake: Also known as induction or suction. This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. The piston is moving down as air is being sucked in by the downward motion against the piston.
  2. Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage.
  3. Combustion: Also known as power or ignition. This is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug or by heat generated by high compression, forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft.
  4. Exhaust: Also known as outlet. During the exhaust stroke, the piston, once again, returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.
2019 MotoGP season

The 2019 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season is the 71st F.I.M. Road Racing World Championship season.

History

An FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949. The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sport sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association (IRTA) and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association (MSMA). Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members. [4] These four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission.

Dorna Sports, S.L. is the commercial rights holder for the motorcycling sport of MotoGP.

There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50 cc, 80 cc, 125 cc, 250 cc, 350 cc, and 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, and 350 cc and 500 cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders (meaning smaller pistons, producing higher revs) and a multiplicity of gears (giving narrower power bands, affording higher states of tune). In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes.

Engine displacement

Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres, litres (L), or cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber.

Sidecar German term for articulated vehicles and motrocycles (bicycles) with sidecars

A sidecar is a one-wheeled device attached to the side of a motorcycle, scooter, or bicycle, making the whole a three-wheeled vehicle. A motorcycle with a sidecar is sometimes called a combination, an outfit, a rig or a hack.

In 1969, the FIM —citing high development costs for non-works teams— brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears and most to two cylinders (four cylinders in the case of the 350 cc and 500 cc classes). This led to a mass walk-out of the sport by the previously highly successful Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha manufacturer teams, skewing the results tables for the next several years, with MV Agusta effectively the only works team left in the sport until Yamaha (1973) and Suzuki (1974) returned with new two-stroke designs. By this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda, on its return to GP racing, made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and, in 1983, even Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500.

Honda Manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.

Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment.

Suzuki Japanese multinational corporation

Suzuki Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu. Suzuki manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines. In 2016, Suzuki was the eleventh biggest automaker by production worldwide. Suzuki has over 45,000 employees and has 35 production facilities in 23 countries, and 133 distributors in 192 countries. The worldwide sales volume of automobiles is the world's tenth largest, while domestic sales volume is the third largest in the country.

Yamaha Motor Company Limited is a Japanese manufacturer of motorcycles, marine products such as boats and outboard motors, and other motorized products. The company was established in 1955 upon separation from Yamaha Corporation, and is headquartered in Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan. The company conducts development, production and marketing operations through 109 consolidated subsidiaries as of 2012.

Previously, the championship featured a 50cc class from 1962 to 1983, later changed to an 80cc class from 1984 to 1989. The class was dropped for the 1990 season, after being dominated primarily by Spanish and Italian makes. It also featured a 350cc class from 1949 to 1982, and a 750 cc class from 1977 to 1979. Sidecars were dropped from world championship events in the 1990s (see Superside).

Yamaha YZR-M1 MotoGP bike (2006) 2006YamahaYZR-M1-001.jpg
Yamaha YZR-M1 MotoGP bike (2006)

From the mid-1970s through to 2001, the top class of GP racing allowed 500 cc displacement with a maximum of four cylinders, regardless of whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke. This is unlike TT Formula or motocross, where two and four strokes had different engine size limits in the same class to provide similar performance. Consequently, all machines were two-strokes, since they produce power with every rotation of the crank, whereas four-stroke engines produce power only every second rotation. Some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 500s were seen, but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under the rules, typically attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, they lacked the power of the four-cylinder machines.

In 2002, rule changes were introduced to facilitate the phasing out of the 500 cc two-strokes. The premier class was rebranded MotoGP, as manufacturers were to choose between running two-stroke engines up to 500 cc or four-strokes up to 990 cc or less. Manufacturers were also permitted to employ their choice of engine configuration. Despite the increased costs of the new four-stroke engines, they were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals. As a result, by 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field. The 125 cc and 250 cc classes still consisted exclusively of two-stroke machines.

In 2007, the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity reduced to 800 cc for a minimum of five years. As a result of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, MotoGP underwent changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reducing Friday practice sessions and testing sessions, extending the lifespan of engines, switching to a single tyre manufacturer, and banning qualifying tyres, active suspension, launch control and ceramic composite brakes. [5] For the 2010 season, carbon brake discs were banned.

For the 2012 season, the MotoGP engine capacity was increased again to 1,000 cc. [6] It also saw the introduction of Claiming Rule Teams (CRT), which were given more engines per season and larger fuel tanks than factory teams, but were subject to a factory team buying ("claiming") their rival's powertrain for a fixed price. [7] The sport's governing body received applications from sixteen new teams looking to join the MotoGP class. [8] For the 2014 season, the CRT subclass was rebranded Open, as the claiming rule was removed. Also, all entries adopted a standard engine control unit, with factory teams being allowed to run any software, and Open entries using a standard software. For the 2016 season, the Open subclass was dropped, and factory entries switched to a standard engine control unit software.

In 2010, the 250cc two-stroke class was replaced by the new Moto2 600 cc four-stroke class. In 2012, the 125cc two-stroke class was replaced by the Moto3 250cc four-stroke class with a weight limit of 65 kg with fuel.[ citation needed ]

Chronology

Event format

The starting grid is composed of three columns (four for the Moto2 and Moto3 classes) and contains approximately 20 riders. Grid positions are decided in descending order of qualifying speed, with the fastest on the pole or first position. Races last approximately 45 minutes, each race is a sprint from start to finish without pitting for fuel or tires.

In 2005, a flag-to-flag rule for MotoGP was introduced. Previously, if a race started dry and rain fell, officials could red-flag (stop) the race and either restart or resume on 'wet' tyres. Now, when rain falls, a white flag is shown, indicating that riders can pit to swap the motorcycle on which they started the race for an identical one, as long as the tyres are different (that is, intermediates or wets instead of slicks). [17] Besides different tyres, the wet-weather bikes have steel brake rotors and different brake pads instead of the carbon discs and pads used on the 'dry' bikes. This is because the carbon brakes need to be very hot to function properly, and the water cools them too much. The suspension is also 'softened' up somewhat for the wet weather.

When a rider crashes, track marshals up the track from the incident wave yellow flags, prohibiting passing in that area; one corner farther up the track, a stationary yellow flag is shown. If a fallen rider cannot be evacuated safely from the track, the race is red-flagged. Motorcycle crashes are usually one of two types: lowside, when the bike loses either front or rear tire grip and slides out on the "low" side, and the more dangerous highside, when the tires do not completely slide out, but instead grip the track surface, flipping the bike over to the "high side", usually catapulting the rider over the top. Increased use of traction control has made highsides much less frequent.

Current points system
Position123456789101112131415
Points252016131110987654321

Riders

Current

NameCountryTeamBike Number
Andrea Dovizioso Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Ducati Corse Team04
Marc Márquez Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Repsol Honda Team93
Valentino Rossi Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Monster Energy Yamaha46
Johann Zarco Flag of France.svg  France Red Bull KTM Factory Racing5
Maverick Viñales Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Monster Energy Yamaha12
Danilo Petrucci Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Ducati Corse Team9
Jorge Lorenzo Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Repsol Honda Team99
Cal Crutchlow Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom LCR Honda Castrol35
Dani Pedrosa(1)Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Red Bull KTM Factory Racing26
Andrea Iannone Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Aprilia Racing Team Gresini29
Jack Miller Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Pramac Racing43
Tito Rabat Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Reale Avintia Racing53
Franco Morbidelli Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Petronas Yamaha SRT21
Hafizh Syahrin Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Red Bull KTM Tech 355
Karel Abraham Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Reale Avintia Racing17
Takaaki Nakagami Flag of Japan.svg  Japan LCR Honda IDEMITSU30
Bradley Smith(2)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Aprilia Factory Racing38
Aleix Espargaro Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Aprilia Racing Team Gresini41
Pol Espargaro Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Red Bull KTM Factory Racing44
Alex Rins Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Team Suzuki ECSTAR42
Francesco Bagnaia Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Pramac Racing63
Miguel Oliveira Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Red Bull KTM Tech 388
Joan Mir Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Team Suzuki ECSTAR36
Fabio Quartararo Flag of France.svg  France Petronas Yamaha SRT20
Stefan Bradl(3)Flag of Germany.svg  Germany HCR Honda Racing6
Michele Pirro(2)Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Ducati Team51

(1) Test Rider, no Wildcard events scheduled.

(2) Test Rider with Wildcard entries.

(3) Replaces injured driver

Top riders travel the world to compete in the annual FIM World Championship series. The championship is perhaps most closely followed in Italy and Spain, home of many of the more successful riders early in the 21st century. As for the 2011 season, 25 riders of eight nations participated in the premier class of the championship.

Champions

The Riders' World Championship is awarded to the most successful rider over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.

Giacomo Agostini is the most successful champion in Grand Prix history, with 15 titles to his name (8 in the 500 cc class and 7 in the 350 cc class). The most dominant rider of all time was Mike Hailwood, winning 10 out of 12 (83%) races, in the 250 cc class, in the 1966 season. Mick Doohan, who won 12 out of 15 (80%) of the 500 cc races in the 1997 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season also deserves an honourable mention. Valentino Rossi is the most successful contemporary rider, having won nine titles including six MotoGP titles, and one each at 500 cc, 250 cc and 125 cc levels. [18] The current (2018) champion is Spanish Marc Márquez (5x MotoGP  1x Moto2; 1x 125 cc): 7 titles.

Circuits

Countries marked in green have recently hosted grands prix - those in red have hosted GP races in the past MotoGP world map.png
Countries marked in green have recently hosted grands prix - those in red have hosted GP races in the past

The 2019 MotoGP season consists of 19 Grand Prix held in 15 different countries, the same as in the previous season.

Technical regulations

The following shows the key technical regulations for each class. It was also introduced for the 2005 year, that under rule 2.10.5: 'No fuel on the motorcycle may be more than 15 °C below ambient temperature. The use of any device on the motorcycle to artificially decrease the temperature of the fuel below ambient temperature is forbidden. No motorcycle may include such a device.' This stops an artificial "boost" gained from increasing fuel density by cooling it.

MotoGP class

Casey Stoner in MotoGP at Brno Casey Stoner 2011 Brno 1.jpg
Casey Stoner in MotoGP at Brno
Valentino Rossi in MotoGP at Laguna Seca Vale Rossi Laguna Seca 2009.jpg
Valentino Rossi in MotoGP at Laguna Seca

At the beginning of the new MotoGP era in 2002, 500 cc two-stroke or 990 cc four-stroke bikes were specified to race. The enormous power advantage of the twice as large displacement four-stroke engine over the half the size two-stroke meant that by the following season, no two-stroke bikes were racing. In 2007, the maximum engine capacity was reduced to 800 cc without reducing the existing weight restriction.

MotoGP-class motorcycles are not restricted to any specific engine configuration. However, the number of cylinders employed in the engine determines the motorcycle's permitted minimum weight; the weight of the extra cylinders acts as a form of handicap. This is necessary because, for a given capacity, an engine with more cylinders is capable of producing more power. If comparable bore to stroke ratios are employed, an engine with more cylinders will have a greater piston area and a shorter stroke. The increased piston area permits an increase in the total valve area, allowing more air and fuel to be drawn into the engine, and the shorter stroke permits higher revs at the same piston speed, allowing the engine to pump still more air and fuel with the potential to produce more power, but with more fuel consumption too. In 2004 motorcycles were entered with three-, four-and five-cylinder configurations. A six-cylinder engine was proposed by Blata, but it did not reach the MotoGP grids. Presently four-cylinder engines appear to offer the best compromise between weight, power, and fuel consumption as all competitors in the 2009 series use this solution in either 'V' or in-line configuration.

In 2002, the FIM became concerned at the advances in design and engineering that resulted in higher speeds around the race track; regulation changes related to weight, amount of available fuel and engine capacity were introduced. The amended rules reduced engine capacity to 800 cc from 990 cc and restricted the amount of available fuel for race distance from 26 litres (5.7 imp gal; 6.9 US gal) in year 2004 to 21 litres (4.6 imp gal; 5.5 US gal) in year 2007 and onwards. In addition, the minimum weight of four-cylinder bikes used by all participating teams was increased by 3 kg (6.6 lb).

The highest speed for a MotoGP motorcycle in 125 cc category is 249.76 km/h (155.19 mph) by Valentino Rossi in 1996 for Aprilia and the top speed in the history of MotoGP is 356.4 km/h (221.5 mph), set by Andrea Dovizioso, during the race at the 2018 Italian Grand Prix. [19]

On December 11, 2009, the Grand Prix Commission announced that the MotoGP class would switch to the 1,000 cc motor limit starting in the 2012 season. Maximum displacement was limited to 1,000 cc, maximum cylinders were limited to four, and maximum bore was capped at 81 mm (3.2 inches). [20] Carmelo Ezpeleta, the CEO of Dorna Sports, indicated that the projected changes were received by the teams favorably. [21]

From 2012, teams not entered by one of the major manufacturers could seek "claiming rule team" (CRT) status. Claiming rule team were intended to allow independent teams to be competitive at a lower cost and increase the number of entries in MotoGP. Claiming rule teams benefitted from less restrictive rules on the number of engines that could be used in a season, and with larger fuel allowances during the races. Under the claiming rule, CRTs agree to allow up to four of their engines per season to be claimed, after a race, by one of the major manufacturer teams at a cost of €20,000 each including transmission, or €15,000 each for the engine alone. [22] From the 2014 season, the CRT class was dropped in favour of an "Open Class" specification - allowing teams using the control ECU hardware and software certain benefits to increase their competitiveness. [23]

Moto2 class

Moto2 was initially a 600 cc four-stroke class introduced in 2010 to replace the traditional 250 cc two-stroke class. Engines were supplied exclusively by Honda, tyres by Dunlop and electronics are limited and supplied only by FIM-sanctioned producers. Carbon brake discs are banned, only steel brake discs are allowed. However, there are no chassis limitations. Until 2019, only 600 cc four-stroke Moto2 machines were allowed. [24]

In 2019 Triumph replaced Honda as the sole supplier of Moto2 engines. [25] The Triumph's engine configuration is 765 cc displacement with three cylinders, contrasting with the previous Honda's 600 cc in-line four.

Moto3 class

The 125 cc class was replaced in 2012 by the Moto3 class. This class is restricted to single-cylinder 250 cc four-stroke engines with a maximum bore of 81 mm (3.2 inches). The minimum total weight for motorcycle and rider is 148 kg (326 lb). The minimum age for the Moto3 class normally is 16, and cannot be older than 28 years, or 25 years for new contracted riders participating for the first time and wild-cards. A change of rules was introduced in 2014, allowing under-age FIM CEV Repsol Moto3 (junior) champions to participate in a subsequent Moto3 series at World Championship level. [26] The first beneficiary of this rule-change was double (2013 and 2014) CEV champion Fabio Quartararo.

MotoE class

The MotoE World Cup is introduced in 2019 and features all-electric motorcycles. The series will be using a spec Energica Ego Corsa motorcycle, manufactured by Energica Motor Company. [27] [28] The first season is contested over 6 rounds (at 5 different Grand Prix weekends).

Engine specifications

SpecificationMotoGPMoto2Moto3
ManufacturerVarious Honda (2010–2018)
Triumph (from 2019)
Various
Configuration75.5°-90° V4/Inline-four Inline-four (2010–2018)
Inline-three (from 2019)
single-cylinder
Displacement1,000  cc (61  cu in )600  cc (37  cu in ) (2010–2018)
765  cc (47  cu in ) (from 2019)
250  cc (15  cu in )
Combustion Four-stroke (from 2012)
Valve-train DOHC, four-valves per cylinder
FuelUnleaded 100 octane (no control fuel) Total unleaded 98 octane (since 2016)
Fuel delivery Fuel injection
Aspiration Natural aspiration
Power260 bhp (190 kW)< 140 bhp (100 kW)< 55 bhp (41 kW)
Power-to-weight ratio1.51 bhp/kg~1 bhp/kg [29] ~0.6 bhp/kg [29]
Lubrication Wet sump
Rev limit17,500 - 18,000 rpm14,000 rpm
Maximum speed361  km/h (224  mph )300.6 km/h (187 mph)248  km/h (154  mph )
CoolingSingle water pump
Spark plugs NGK

Weights

Minimum weight - MotoGP Class
Number of
cylinders
2002 minimum2007 minimum2010 minimum
2135 kg (298 lb)137 kg (302 lb)135 kg (298 lb)
3135 kg (298 lb)140.5 kg (310 lb)142.5 kg (314 lb)
4145 kg (320 lb)148 kg (326 lb)150 kg (330 lb)
5145 kg (320 lb)155.5 kg (343 lb)157.5 kg (347 lb)
6155 kg (342 lb)163 kg (359 lb)165 kg (364 lb)

Tyres

Tyre selection is critical, usually done by the individual rider based on bike 'feel' during practice, qualifying and the pre-race warm-up laps on the morning of the race, as well as the predicted weather. The typical compromise is between grip and longevity—softer compound tyres have more traction, but wear out more quickly; harder compound tyres have less traction, but are more likely to last the entire race. Conserving rubber throughout a race is a specific skill winning riders acquire. Special 'Q' or qualifying tyres of extreme softness and grip were typically used during grid-qualifying sessions until their use was discontinued at the end of the 2008 season, but they lasted typically no longer than one or two laps, though they could deliver higher qualifying speeds. In wet conditions, special tires ('wets') with full treads are used, but they suffer extreme wear if the track dries out.

In 2007 new MotoGP regulations limited the number of tyres any rider could use over the practice and qualifying period, and the race itself, to a maximum of 31 tyres (14 fronts and 17 rears) per rider. This introduced a problem of tyre choice versus weather (among other factors) that challenges riders and teams to optimize their performance on race day. This factor was greeted with varying degrees of enthusiasm by participants. Bridgestone had dominated in 2007 and Michelin riders Valentino Rossi, Nicky Hayden, Dani Pedrosa, and Colin Edwards all acknowledged shortcomings in Michelin's race tyres relative to Bridgestone. Rossi, disappointed with and critical of the performance of his Michelin tyres, switched to Bridgestones for 2008 and won the world championship in dominant fashion. Pedrosa switched to Bridgestones during the 2008 season.

In 2008, the rules were amended to allow more tyres per race weekend—18 fronts and 22 rears for a total of 40 tyres. The lower number of tyres per weekend was considered a handicap to Michelin riders. The only MotoGP team using Dunlop tyres in 2007, Yamaha Tech 3, did not use them in 2008 but switched to Michelin.

For 2009, 2010 and 2011, a 'spec' tyre supplier, Bridgestone, was appointed by the FIM (with Michelin no longer supplying any tyres to MotoGP). For the whole season Bridgestone provided four different specifications of front tyre, six of rear, and a single wet specification—with no qualifying specification. For each round Bridgestone provided only two specifications for front and rear. Tyres are assigned to riders randomly to assure impartiality. [32] Jorge Lorenzo has publicly supported the mono tyre rule. [33]

At the end of the 2015 season, Bridgestone withdrew as tyre supplier of MotoGP. [34] Following a formal tender, French tyre manufacturer Michelin became the official supplier for the 2016 season, and testing began in Aragon immediately after the end of the 2015 season. [35]

MotoGP motorcycles are estimated to be worth approximately US$2 million, although executives within MotoGP have deemed them priceless due in part that they are prototypes and cannot easily be replicated.

In media

Early Grand Prix videogames include Grand Prix 500 cc (1987), Cycles: International GP Racing (1989), Grand Prix 500 2 (1991) and GP-1 (1993). The first simulator was GP 500 , launched in 1999. In the early 2000s, THQ published five videogames for Windows and Xbox platforms, whereas Namco published five videogames for PlayStation platforms. In 2007, Capcom became the new PlayStation publisher. In 2008, THQ lost the MotoGP licence and Capcom became the exclusive publisher.

MotoGP 2010, an iOS game made in 2010 by I-Play, released on September 3, 2010 and was not received well by critics after having a 43% rating on Metacritic. MotoGP 10/11 was released by Capcom on March 15, 2011, for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. Metacritic gave the game a rating of 72%. [36] MotoGP 13 was released on June 21, 2013 on PlayStation Vita, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360. The game received mixed reviews and scored 73%. [37]

Milestone got the MotoGP licence in 2012. The current MotoGP game is MotoGP 19. It received positive reviews and was released on June 6, 2019. The company's first title was MotoGP 13 . That game came out on June 21, 2013.

See also

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50 cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing

The 50 cc class was the ultra-lightweight class in Grand Prix motorcycle racing, and formed part of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) World Championships from 1962 until 1983; when the class was replaced by 80 cc.

The 2002 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 54th Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) Road Racing World Championship season. The season consist of 16 races, which started with the Japanese Grand Prix on 7 April and ended with the Valencian Community Grand Prix on 3 November.

Supersport World Championship

The Supersport World Championship, short WorldSSP, is a motorcycle racing competition on paved surfaces, based on mid-sized sports motorcycles. Competition machines are based on 600-750cc - depending on the number of cylinders - production-based motorcycles. The championship runs as a support class to the Superbike World Championship, which is similarly based on large production-based sports motorcycles. The championship, organized and promoted as its parent series by FGSport—renamed Infront Motor Sports in 2008—until 2012 and by Dorna from the 2013 season onwards, is sanctioned by the FIM.

2009 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season sports season

The 2009 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 61st F.I.M. Road Racing World Championship season. Valentino Rossi won his sixth MotoGP title, seventh in the top class and ninth title in total after getting the better of teammate Jorge Lorenzo in a season-long battle. In the final 250cc championship, Hiroshi Aoyama became the third Japanese rider to win that title, after Tetsuya Harada and Daijiro Kato. In the 125cc class, Julián Simón won the title after taking seven victories during the season.

Pramac Racing

Pramac Racing is a motorcycle racing team currently competing in the MotoGP and MotoE World Championships. The team was created in 2002 by Italian company Pramac. In 2005 Pramac Racing joined forces with d'Antin MotoGP to form Pramac d'Antin and in 2007 the team became part of the Pramac Group. After d'Antin left the team in 2008, the team became known as Pramac Racing.

Suzuki MotoGP is the official factory-backed team of Suzuki in the MotoGP World Championship, running under the Team Suzuki Ecstar MotoGP moniker for sponsorship purposes. Suzuki withdrew from competition at the end of the 2011 season. However, in June 2013, Suzuki announced they would end their hiatus and return to MotoGP with a factory team in 2015.

MV Agusta 500 racers Motorcycles used to compete in 500cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing series

The MV Agusta 500cc road racers were motorcycles that the manufacturer MV Agusta built and which were used to compete in 500cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing series between 1950 and 1976. 18 500cc world championship titles were achieved with these machines ridden by John Surtees, Gary Hocking, Mike Hailwood, Giacomo Agostini and Phil Read between 1958 and 1974.

References

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