Grand Teton

Last updated
Grand Teton
Grand Teton GTNP1.jpg
Grand Teton from the southeast
Highest point
Elevation 13,775 ft (4,199 m)  NAVD 88 [1]
Prominence 6,530 ft (1,990 m) [2]
Parent peak Gannett Peak [3]
Listing
Coordinates 43°44′28″N110°48′09″W / 43.741207756°N 110.802413942°W / 43.741207756; -110.802413942 Coordinates: 43°44′28″N110°48′09″W / 43.741207756°N 110.802413942°W / 43.741207756; -110.802413942 [1]
Geography
USA Wyoming location map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Grand Teton
Wyoming
Location Grand Teton National Park, Teton County, Wyoming, U.S.
Parent range Teton Range
Topo map USGS Grand Teton, WY
Climbing
First ascent 1872 or 1898. See First ascent
Easiest route Climb, class 5.4.

Grand Teton is the highest mountain in Grand Teton National Park, [2] in Northwest Wyoming, and a classic destination in American mountaineering.

Mountain A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

Grand Teton National Park United States National Park in northwestern Wyoming

Grand Teton National Park is an American national park in northwestern Wyoming. At approximately 310,000 acres, the park includes the major peaks of the 40-mile-long (64 km) Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Grand Teton National Park is only 10 miles (16 km) south of Yellowstone National Park, to which it is connected by the National Park Service-managed John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Along with surrounding national forests, these three protected areas constitute the almost 18,000,000-acre (7,300,000 ha) Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, one of the world's largest intact mid-latitude temperate ecosystems.

Wyoming State in the United States

Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, and the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho and Montana. The state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, which is less than 31 of the most populous U.S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017.

Contents

Geography

Grand Teton, at 13,775 feet (4,199 m), [1] is the highest point of the Teton Range, and the second highest peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming after Gannett Peak. The mountain is entirely within the Snake River drainage basin, which it feeds by several local creeks and glaciers. [2] The Teton Range is a subrange of the Rocky Mountains, which extend from southern Alaska to northern New Mexico.

Teton Range mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America

The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. It extends for approximately 40 miles (64 km) in a north–south direction through the U.S. state of Wyoming, east of the Idaho state line. It is south of Yellowstone National Park and most of the east side of the range is within Grand Teton National Park.

Gannett Peak mountain

Gannett Peak is the highest mountain peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming at 13,810 feet (4,210 m). It lies in the Wind River Range within the Bridger Wilderness of the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Straddling the Continental Divide along the boundary between Fremont and Sublette counties, it has the second greatest topographic prominence in the state (7076') after Cloud Peak (7077'), and is the highest ground for 290 miles in any direction.

Snake River largest tributary of the Columbia River

The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At 1,078 miles (1,735 km) long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean. The Snake River rises in western Wyoming, then flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington.

History

Name

Grand Teton's name was first recorded as Mount Hayden by the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition of 1870. However, the name "the Grand Teton" had early currency. The Edition of April, 1901 of the USGS 1:125,000 quadrangle map of the area shows "Grand Teton" as the name of the peak. A United States National Park named "Grand Teton National Park" was established by law in 1929. By 1931, the name Grand Teton Peak was in such common usage that it was recognized by the USGS Board on Geographic Names. Another shift in usage led the Board to shorten the name on maps to Grand Teton in 1970. [4]

United States Geological Survey Scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

The origin of the name is disputed. The most common explanation is that "Grand Teton" means "large teat" or "large nipple" in French, named by either French-Canadian or Iroquois members of an expedition led by Donald McKenzie of the North West Company. [5] However, other historians disagree, and claim that the mountain was named after the Teton Sioux tribe of Native Americans. [6]

Breast Region of the torso of a primate containing the mammary gland

The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates. In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and secretes milk to feed infants. Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause breast development in female humans and to a much lesser extent in other primates. Breast development in other primate females generally only occurs with pregnancy.

Iroquois Northeast Native American confederacy

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy in North America. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy, and to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy, as they were also Iroquoian-speaking, and became known as the Six Nations.

Donald McKenzie (explorer) American explorer

Donald McKenzie was a Scottish-Canadian explorer, fur trader and Governor of the Red River Colony from 1821 to 1834.

First ascent

Winter on Grand Teton at center with Mount Owen at right and Nez Perce at left. The Middle and South Teton peaks lie west of Nez Perce, out of view. Grand Teton in Winter-NPS.jpg
Winter on Grand Teton at center with Mount Owen at right and Nez Perce at left. The Middle and South Teton peaks lie west of Nez Perce, out of view.

There is a disagreement over who first climbed Grand Teton. Nathaniel P. Langford and James Stevenson claimed to have reached the summit on July 29, 1872. [7] However, some believe their description and sketches match the summit of The Enclosure, a side peak of Grand Teton. The Enclosure is named after a man-made palisade of rocks on its summit, probably constructed by Native Americans. Mountaineer and author Fred Beckey believes that the two climbed the Enclosure because their description better matches it and does not accurately describe the true summit, nor does it mention the formidable difficulties found just above the Upper Saddle. Beckey also believes that they summited the Enclosure because it was traditional with members of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 to build a cairn in such a place, but no such cairn was found when William O. Owen reached the summit of Grand Teton in 1898. [8] In all likelihood, The Enclosure was first climbed by Native Americans as suggested by Langford in 1873. [9] Supporters of Owen included The Wyoming Legislature and Paul Petzoldt, former pioneer American climber. [10] Ironically among Langford's supporters was Franklin Spalding, who led the ascent to the summit and tossed the rope that allowed Owen and the others to follow. [7]

Nathaniel P. Langford Explorer, businessman, historian and vigilante

Nathaniel Pitt Langford was an explorer, businessman, bureaucrat, vigilante and historian from Saint Paul, Minnesota who played an important role in the early years of the Montana gold fields, territorial government and the creation of Yellowstone National Park.

Colonel James D. Stevenson (1840–1888) was an executive officer of the U.S. Geological Survey and a self-taught geologist, naturalist and anthropologist. His geological surveys included Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming and Utah. Stevenson Island in Wyoming was named after him as a result of his assistance to Dr. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Mountaineer and author Leigh Ortenburger researched the controversy in depth, using original source material, for his 1965 climber's guidebook. Ortenburger concluded: "Since historical 'proof' is extremely unlikely to be forthcoming for either side of the argument, perhaps the best way of regarding the problem, short of a detailed analysis of the probabilities, is to state that in 1872 Langford and Stevenson may have climbed the Grand Teton, in 1893 Kieffer, Newell, and Rhyan may have climbed it, and in 1898 Spalding, Owen, Peterson, and Shive definitely did succeed in reaching the summit." [11]

First Ski / Snowboard Descents

Climbing routes

Grand Teton can be climbed via the Owen-Spalding route (II, 5.4). A short section of the route is highly exposed and previous alpine climbing experience is recommended before attempting an ascent; nonetheless, athletes with no prior climbing experience regularly reach the summit. The Owen-Spalding route is named for the climbers who claim to have made the first ascent: William Owen, Franklin Spalding, Frank Peterson, and John Shive. There is some debate as to which group made the first ascent; see that discussion. Notwithstanding the first-ascent controversy, this climbing route has been firmly named after William Owen and Franklin Spalding. The Owen-Spalding route begins at the Lower Saddle [15] which is reached by walking from the Lupine Meadows Trailhead to Garnet Canyon and then up to the Lower Saddle on a trail that's fairly well defined. The more technical & exposed part of the climb begins at the Upper Saddle.

Ski descent

The Grand Teton has been skied by five routes, each requiring at least one rappel. The first descent on skis was made by Bill Briggs in the spring of 1971 down the East Face and Stettner Couloir, it has since been renamed the Briggs Route. This descent required a free rappel, which was completed with skis on. More casually, skiing is possible from the crest of the saddle between the Grand and the Middle Teton, continuously into the valley floor.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Mount Moran mountain

Mount Moran is a mountain in Grand Teton National Park of western Wyoming, USA. The mountain is named for Thomas Moran, an American western frontier landscape artist. Mount Moran dominates the northern section of the Teton Range rising 6,000 feet (1,800 m) above Jackson Lake. Several active glaciers exist on the mountain with Skillet Glacier plainly visible on the monolithic east face. Like the Middle Teton in the same range, Mount Moran's face is marked by a distinctive basalt intrusion known as the Black Dike.

The Exum Ridge is the name of a prominent rock buttress on the Grand Teton, the high point of the Teton Range in Wyoming. Grand Teton towers 13,770 feet above Jackson Hole, with an ascent of 6,700 feet which by any route requires a combination of hiking, rock climbing and rappelling.

Alex Lowe mountaineer

Stewart Alexander "Alex" Lowe was an American mountaineer. He has been described as inspiring "...a whole generation of climbers and explorers with his uncontainable enthusiasm, legendary training routines, and significant ascents of rock climbs, ice climbs, and mountains all over the world...". He died in an avalanche in Tibet. The Alex Lowe Charitable Foundation honors his legacy.

Mount Owen (Wyoming) mountain in Wyoming

Mount Owen is the second highest peak in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The peak is named after William O. Owen, who organized the first documented ascent of the Grand Teton in 1898. Mount Owen is part of the Cathedral Group of high Teton peaks, a collection of peaks in the central section of the range that are particularly rugged. The 40-mile (64 km) long Teton Range is the youngest mountain chain in the Rocky Mountains, and began its uplift 9 million years ago, during the Miocene. Several periods of glaciation have carved Mount Owen and the other peaks of the range into their current shapes. Valhalla Canyon is situated on the west slopes of Mount Owen.

Middle Teton mountain in United States of America

Middle Teton is the third highest peak in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. The peak is immediately southwest of Grand Teton and the two are separated from one another by the lower saddle, a broad high ridge at 11,600 feet (3,540 m). The Middle Teton Glacier is located on the eastern slopes of the peak. Middle Teton is a classic pyramidal shaped alpine peak and is sometimes included as part of the Cathedral Group of high Teton peaks. The 40-mile (64 km) long Teton Range is the youngest mountain chain in the Rocky Mountains, and began their uplift 9 million years ago, during the Miocene. Several periods of glaciation have carved Middle Teton and the other peaks of the range into their current shapes. From the lower saddle, a distinctive feature known as the black dike appears as a straight line running from near the top of the mountain down 800 feet (240 m). The black dike is a basaltic intrusion that occurred long after the surrounding rock was formed.

South Teton mountain in United States of America

South Teton is the fifth-highest peak in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park, in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The peak is south of Middle Teton and just west of Cloudveil Dome and is part of the Cathedral Group of high Teton peaks. The 40-mile-long (64 km) Teton Range is the youngest mountain chain in the Rocky Mountains, and began their uplift 9 million years ago, during the Miocene. Several periods of glaciation have carved South Teton and the other peaks of the range into their current shapes.

Symmetry Spire mountain in United States of America

Symmetry Spire is located in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The mountain, first climbed via the east ridge route on August 20, 1929 by Fritiof Fryxell and Phil Smith, towers above the northwest shore of Jenny Lake and Cascade Canyon. The scenic Lake of the Crags, a cirque lake or tarn, is located northwest of the summit and is accessed by way of Hanging Canyon. Popular with mountaineers, the spire has numerous challenging cliffs.

Teepe Pillar mountain in United States of America

Teepe Pillar is located in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, immediately south of Grand Teton. The peak is the seventh highest in the Teton Range. Teepe Pillar is separated from Grand Teton by a col which drops sharply to the east and west. Northeast of and well below the summit, the Teepe Glacier is situated in a cirque. From Jackson Hole, Teepe Pillar is difficult to observe except from the northeast as it is hidden from view by Disappointment Peak.

Disappointment Peak (Wyoming) mountain in United States of America

Disappointment Peak is in the Teton Range of Wyoming, in Grand Teton National Park and immediately southeast of Grand Teton. The peak is part of the Cathedral Group, a region of the Tetons noted for particularly rugged mountains. Disappointment Peak rises to the north of Garnet Canyon and to the west of Amphitheater and Surprise lakes. The peak has a variety of mountaineering routes, including the most difficult in the range.

Glenn Exum numbers among the premier mountaineers in American climbing history. Exum is best remembered for ascents in the Teton Range. In 1931, while only in his teens, Exum was the first to climb the exposed ridge to the summit of Grand Teton which now bears his name. The Exum Ridge remains one of the most popular routes to the summit of Grand Teton. After traveling Europe and seeing mountain guides there essentially pull their clients up the mountain, Exum, along with his friend Paul Petzoldt, founded a climbing school to teach clients climbing skills to allow them to fully participate in ascending the mountain. The school they founded, now known as Exum Mountain Guides, still operates today within Grand Teton National Park.

<i>Fifty Classic Climbs of North America</i> book by Steve Roper

Fifty Classic Climbs of North America is a climbing guidebook and history written by Steve Roper and Allen Steck. It is considered a classic piece of climbing literature, known to many climbers as simply "The Book", and has served as an inspiration for more recent climbing books, such as Mark Kroese's Fifty Favorite Climbs. Though much of the book's contents are now out of date, it is still recognized as a definitive text which goes beyond the traditional guidebook.

The Lower Exum Ridge Route is the lower section of a technical rock climbing route up the Grand Teton's Exum Ridge in Wyoming. This section is often bypassed on hiking terrain by climbers who wish to do only the technically easier Upper Exum Ridge Route. The complete route is listed as the Direct Exum Ridge Route in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America.

The Upper Exum Ridge Route is the upper section of a technical rock climbing up the Grand Teton's Exum Ridge in Wyoming.

The North Ridge of the Grand Teton is a technical rock climbing location up the Grand Teton in Wyoming. The route is recognized in the historic climbing text Fifty Classic Climbs of North America and considered a classic around the world.

Robert L. M. Underhill American mountain climber

Robert Lindley Murray Underhill was an American mountaineer best known for introducing modern Alpine style rope and belaying techniques to the U.S. climbing community in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

William Octavius Owen (1859–1947) was a surveyor and civil engineer. On August 11, 1898, William Owen organized the first ascent of Grand Teton which at 13,775 feet (4,199 m)) is the highest peak in the Teton Range, in the U.S. state of Wyoming. Known by his nickname "Billy" even in adulthood due to his small stature, Owen served as the U.S. Mineral Surveyor for Wyoming and as U.S. Examiner of Surveys for the Department of the Interior until 1914. Owen was also elected as Wyoming State Auditor and served four years (1895–1899).

Garnet Canyon Trail

The Garnet Canyon Trail is a 4.8-mile (7.7 km) long hiking trail in Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The trailhead is at the Lupine Meadows parking area and climbs steeply more than 2,500 feet (760 m) in just under 5 miles (8.0 km) into Garnet Canyon. At the 2-mile (3.2 km) point, the trail forks from the Amphitheater Lake Trail and heads south and then west into Garnet Canyon. Garnet Canyon is the most popular approach route for climbers attempting to summit not only Grand Teton but also Middle Teton, South Teton, Teepe Pillar and Disappointment Peak. Though the trail becomes unmaintained once it enters boulder fields at approximately the 9,500-foot (2,900 m) elevation point, climbers continue on to other destinations such as the Lower Saddle, a high altitude mountain pass situated between Middle and Grand Teton. The altitude gain from the Lupine Meadows trailhead to the Lower Saddle is nearly 5,000 feet (1,500 m).

The Owen-Spalding route is a technical climbing route on Grand Teton, the highest peak in the Teton Range in Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming. It was pioneered by William O. Owen, Franklin Spalding, Frank Peterson, and John Shive on August 11, 1898, during the mountain's first ascent. While Owen, who had made previous attempts in 1891 and 1897, organized the 1898 effort Spaulding was the more experienced mountaineer and first on the summit.

George Lowe (American alpinist) American rock climber and alpinist

George Henry Lowe III is an American rock climber and alpinist, noted for his history of alpine-style mountaineering on difficult and infrequently repeated routes and his development of traditional climbing routes in the Western United States. He pioneered winter ascents in the North American Rockies along with cousins Jeff Lowe (climber), Mike Lowe, and Greg Lowe. He is also known for his technically difficult ascents of mixed climbing faces in the Himalayas including the unclimbed North Ridge of Latok I and the first ascent of the East Face of Mt. Everest, where the Lowe Buttress bears his name. Lowe is currently a resident of Colorado.

Irene Beardsley is an American mountaineer, and along with Vera Komarkova, the first woman to climb Annapurna, the tenth highest mountain in the world.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 "Grand Teton, Wyoming". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  3. "America's 57: The Ultras". Peaklist.org. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  4. "Grand Teton". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  5. Mattes, Merrill J. (1962). ""Le Trois Tetons": The Golden Age of Discovery, 1810-1824". Colter's Hell and Jackson's Hole. Yellowstone Library and Museum Association.
  6. Macdonald Jr., James S. "Historical Origins of Mountain Names in Yellowstone". The Magic of Yellowstone.
  7. 1 2 "Grand Tetons -- Wyoming Tales and Trails". www.wyomingtalesandtrails.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  8. Beckey, Fred (1982). Mountains of North America . San Francisco: Sierra Club Book. p.  105. ISBN   0-87156-320-7.
  9. Jackson, Reynold G. (1999). "Park of the Matterhorns". In John Daugherty (ed.). A Place Called Jackson Hole. Grand Teton Natural History Association.
  10. "The Grand Question: Who climbed it first?". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  11. Ortenburger, Leigh (1965). A Climber's Guide to the Teton Range (rev. ed.). San Francisco: Sierra Club. p. 108.
  12. "No Zen on a Powder Day". skinet.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  13. "Tele Like You Mean It with A. J. Cargill". Skiing Magazine .
  14. "Vert Tracker". skiingthebackcountry.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  15. Rossiter, Richard (23 October 1994). "Teton Classics: 50 Selected Climbs in Grand Teton National Park". Globe Pequot Press. Retrieved 23 October 2017 via Google Books.
  16. A Climber's Guide to the Teton Range, 3rd Ed.
  17. Roper, Steve; Steck, Allen (1979). Fifty Classic Climbs of North America . San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN   0-87156-292-8.