Gravelines

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Gravelines

Grevelingen
0 Gravelines - Pont de l'Arsenal et place Charles Valentin.jpg
Place Charles Valentin
Blason ville fr Gravelines (Nord) ornext.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Gravelines
Gravelines
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Gravelines
Hauts-de-France region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Gravelines
Coordinates: 50°59′09″N2°07′42″E / 50.9858°N 2.1283°E / 50.9858; 2.1283 Coordinates: 50°59′09″N2°07′42″E / 50.9858°N 2.1283°E / 50.9858; 2.1283
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Department Nord
Arrondissement Dunkerque
Canton Grande-Synthe
Intercommunality Communauté urbaine de Dunkerque
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Bertrand Ringot
Area
1
22.66 km2 (8.75 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [1]
11,132
  Density490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Gravelinois
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
59273 /59820
Elevation0–25 m (0–82 ft)
(avg. 3 m or 9.8 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Gravelines ( /ɡrævˈln/ , grav-LEEN; French pronunciation:  [gʁavlin] ; Dutch : Grevelingen) is a commune in the Nord department in Northern France. It lies at the mouth of the river Aa 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Dunkirk. It was formed in the 12th century around the mouth of a canal built to connect Saint-Omer with the sea. As it was on the western borders of Spanish territory in Flanders it became heavily fortified, some of which still remains.

Contents

There is a market in the town square (Place Charles Valentin) on Fridays. The "Arsenal" approached from the town square is home to an extensive and carefully displayed art collection. There are modern bronze statues in the grounds. The town is also home to French basketball club BCM Gravelines.

History

Gravelines Belfry, one of 56 listed Belfries of Belgium and France. 0 Gravelines - Hotel de ville (1).jpg
Gravelines Belfry, one of 56 listed Belfries of Belgium and France.

In the early 12th century, Saint-Omer was an important port in western Flanders. Silting gradually cut it off from the North Sea, resulting in the construction of a canal to the new coast at what is now Gravelines. The name is derived from the Dutch Gravenenga, meaning Count's Canal. The new town became heavily fortified as it guarded the western borders of Spanish territory in Flanders.

Gravelines was taken by Henry le Despenser's English forces during the Norwich Crusade of 1383 and was that year destroyed on his orders as the English retreated towards Calais. [2]

The moat, the drawbridge, the western walls and the bastion of the Mill 0 Gravelines - Fort de Vauban (1).jpg
The moat, the drawbridge, the western walls and the bastion of the Mill

There was a famous meeting at Gravelines in 1520, between the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. There were two battles fought nearby: the first was a land battle in 1558 resulting in a victory by Spanish forces of Lamoral, Count of Egmont over the French under Marshal Paul des Thermes, while the second was a naval attack using fire ships in 1588 launched by England's Royal Navy under Lord Howard against the Spanish Armada at anchor. Gravelines was also the setting for Sir Philip Sidney's failure to deliver the town from Spanish occupation in July 1586, which is described in the anonymous A Discourse of the enterprise of Gravelines.

The town was captured and recaptured several times by the French and Spanish between 1639 and 1658. It was finally annexed to France in the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659.

Only in the 19th century did the population become entirely French-speaking.

On May 24, 1940, during the Fall of France, German Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, commanding Army Group A, ordered his armoured divisions to close up the "Canal Line" of Lens-Gravelines, and halt there.

Politics

Presidential elections, second round

ElectionCandidateParty%
2017 Marine Le Pen FN 56.12
2012 François Hollande PS 60.45
2007 Ségolène Royal PS 55.71
2002 Jacques Chirac RPR 73.62

[3]

Twin towns

The charter between Dartford and Gravelines was signed in Gravelines on the 22 September 1991 by The Mayor, Councillor Tony Gillham, on behalf of Dartford Borough Council and Councillor A. May on behalf of the Dartford and District Twinning Association together with The Mayor of Gravelines, Monsieur A. Denvers and Monsieur C. Marquis, Chairman of their Jumelage (which is Gravelines' equivalent to Dartford's Twinning Association).[ citation needed ]

Economy

Today, the small town is famous for its nuclear energy plant. It also hosts two OVH data centers, GRA-1 and GRA-2. [4] [5] [6]

Gare de Gravelines on the TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais system. Gare de Gravelines.jpg
Gare de Gravelines on the TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais system.

See also

Notes

  1. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. Allington-Smith, Henry Despenser the Fighting Bishop, chapter 4
  3. "Résultats Gravelines - Présidentielle 2017 - 1er et 2nd tour". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  4. OVH. "Gravelines, le plus grand centre de données d'Europe". Actualités OVH (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-11-10. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
  5. "OVH installe des datacenters en Allemagne et en Angleterre - Le Monde Informatique". LeMondeInformatique (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-11-10. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
  6. "OVH investit 180 millions d'euros à Gravelines et recrute 500 personnes". LeMagIT (in French). Archived from the original on 2017-11-10. Retrieved 2017-11-10.

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