Great Construction Projects of Communism (Russian : Великие стройки коммунизма) is a phrase that used to identify a series of the most ambitious construction projects and had great importance for the National Economy of the Soviet Union. The projects were initiated in 1950s on the command of Joseph Stalin.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning, design, and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use.
The economy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning. The economy was characterised by state control of investment, public ownership of industrial assets, macroeconomic stability, negligible unemployment and high job security.
A 1952 book Hydrography of the USSR lists the following projects in irrigation, navigation, and hydroelectric power.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation.
The Zhiguli Hydroelectric Station or Zhigulyovskaya Hydroelectric Station, formerly known as Kuybyshev Hydroelectric Station is a large dam and hydroelectric station on the Volga River, located near Zhigulyovsk and Tolyatti in Samara Oblast of Russia. It is the sixth stage of the Volga-Kama Cascade of dams, and the second of them by installed power.
Samara Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Samara. From 1935 to 1991, it was known as Kuybyshev Oblast. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the oblast was 3,215,532.
The Volga Hydroelectric Station or Volga GES also known as the 22nd Congress of the CPSU Stalingrad/Volgograd Hydroelectric Power Station, is the largest hydroelectric station in Europe, and it is the last of the Volga-Kama Cascade of dams, immediately before the Volga River flows into the Caspian Sea. It was the largest powerstation in the world between 1960 and 1963. Today, it is operated by the electricity company RusHydro.
The Northern river reversal or Siberian river reversal was an ambitious project to divert the flow of the Northern rivers in the Soviet Union, which "uselessly" drain into the Arctic Ocean, southwards towards the populated agricultural areas of Central Asia, which lack water.
The Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature, also known as Stalin's plan for the transformation of nature, was proposed by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union in the second half of the 1940s, for land development, agricultural practices and water projects to improve agriculture in the nation. Its propaganda motto and catchphrase was “the great transformation of nature”.
Nova Kakhovka is a city in Kherson Oblast of southern Ukraine, recognized as the Monument of Architecture, and was part of the Great Construction Projects of Communism. Population: 46,906 (2015 est.)
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points. Opened in 1952, the length of the waterway is 101 km (63 mi), 45 km (28 mi) through rivers and reservoirs.
GOELRO plan was the first-ever Soviet plan for national economic recovery and development. It became the prototype for subsequent Five-Year Plans drafted by Gosplan. GOELRO is the transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for "State Commission for Electrification of Russia".
The Vakhsh (River), also known as the Surkhob (Сурхоб), in north-central Tajikistan, and the Kyzyl-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, is a Central Asian river, and one of the main rivers of Tajikistan. It is a tributary of the Amu Darya river.
Tsimlyansk Reservoir or Tsimlyanskoye Reservoir is an artificial lake on the Don River in the territories of Rostov and Volgograd Oblasts at. Completed in 1952, the reservoir is one of the largest in Russia, providing power and irrigation to the Rostov and Volgograd regions. Crops grown around the lake include wheat, rice, cotton, maize, alfalfa, fruit, grapes, and vegetables.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River. Volga–Baltic Waterway connects the biggest lake on Earth, the Caspian Sea to the World Ocean. Its overall length between Cherepovets and Lake Onega is 368 kilometres (229 mi).
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhia, Ukraine. It is the fifth step of Dnieper hydroelectric stations cascade that provides electric power for Donets–Kryvyi Rih Industrial region.
The Saratov Hydroelectric Station or the Saratov GES also known as the Lenin Komsomol Saratov Hydroelectric Power Station is a hydroelectric power plant on the River Volga that is located in Balakovo, Saratov Oblast, 130 km northeast from the city of Saratov, Russia.
The Nizhny Novgorod Hydroelectric Station or Nizhny Novgorod GES is a hydroelectric station on the Volga river. Located near Zavolzhye, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, it belongs to the Volga-Kama Cascade of dams.
Hydroproject is a Russian hydrotechnical design firm. Based in Moscow, it has a number of branches around the country. Its main activities are design of dams, hydroelectric stations, canals, sluices, etc.
The Eurasia Canal is a proposed 700-kilometre-long (430 mi) canal connecting the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea along the Kuma-Manych Depression. Currently, a chain of lakes and reservoirs and the shallow irrigation Kuma-Manych Canal are found along this route.
The Main Turkmen Canal was a large-scale irrigation project in Soviet Turkmenistan. The canal was intended to transport water from the Amu Darya river to Krasnovodsk, a city in Turkmenistan on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The canal was going to use the course of the ancient dry Uzboy River bed.
Lubov Rabinovich, was a Soviet Russian painter most noted for her works depicting rural life and particularly life in the newly created settlements of the Virgin Lands Campaign.
The legacy of the Soviet Union lives on in the infrastructure of Central Asia. As it crumbles, or gets patched up, much of what was built in Central Asia is the backbone of the existing infrastructure for transportation, goods delivery and energy distribution. Much of the industrial infrastructure underwent precipitous decline in the 1990s, after the fall of the Soviet Union, especially in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The roads, railroads and energy lines are thus oriented towards the Russian Federation and away from other regional neighbors, such as China, Afghanistan or Iran.
The North Crimean Canal is a land improvement canal for irrigation and watering of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine, and the Crimean Peninsula. The canal also has multiple branches throughout Kherson Oblast and the Crimean Peninsula.
The Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station is a run-of-river power plant on the Dnieper River in Kakhovka, Ukraine. Kakhovka is a port city located on the reservoir's southern bank. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation, irrigation and navigation. It is the 6th and the last dam in the Dnieper cascade.
Sevan–Hrazdan Cascade is a complex of hydroelectric power plants on the Hrazdan River and its tributaries between the Lake Sevan and Yerevan in Armenia. They use irrigation water flow from the Lake Sevan and streams waters of Hrazdan River that gives an opportunity to irrigate 70% of Armenian agricultural lands. The cascade is owned by the International Energy Corporation (IEC), a subsidiary of RusHydro.