Great Needle Peak

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Great Needle Peak
Great-Needle.jpg
Great Needle Peak from Bransfield Strait
Highest point
Elevation 1,679.5 metres (5,510 feet) [1]
Prominence ca. 480 metres (1,575 feet)
(key col Shipka Saddle)
Coordinates 62°40′11″S60°03′15″W / 62.66972°S 60.05417°W / -62.66972; -60.05417 Coordinates: 62°40′11″S60°03′15″W / 62.66972°S 60.05417°W / -62.66972; -60.05417
Geography
Location Livingston Island, Antarctica
Parent range Tangra Mountains
Climbing
First ascent 8 January 2015 Doychin Boyanov, Nikolay Petkov and Aleksander Shopov

Great Needle Peak (Bulgarian : Голям Иглен връх, romanized: Golyam Iglen vrah, IPA:  [ɡoˈʎam ˈiɡlɛn ˈvrɤx] ; variant name in Spanish : pico Falsa Aguja, lit.  'False Needle Peak') is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.

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Contents

History

The peak's name derives from the Spanish name form pico Falsa Aguja (False Needle Peak) that probably dates back to 1957, [2] with ‘great’ becoming established in usage and considered more suitable than ‘false’ as this heavily glaciated, major peak could hardly be associated with the ‘true’ Needle Peak (pico Aguja), a sharp rocky peak of elevation just 370 m situated near Samuel Point 8 km away. [3] [4]

Samuel Point

Samuel Point is on the coast of Bransfield Strait forming the southwest side of the entrance to Brunow Bay on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The point is situated on the east side of Rozhen Peninsula, surmounted by Needle Peak (370 m), a conspicuous offshoot of Friesland Ridge.

The first ascent and GPS survey of Great Needle Peak was made on 8 January 2015 by the Bulgarian mountaineers Doychin Boyanov, Nikolay Petkov and Aleksander Shopov from Camp Academia locality (541 m) via Lozen Saddle (437 m) and Plana Peak (740 m). [5] Their measured peak elevation of 1,679.5 m) [1] updated the previously existing estimate (1,690 m according to the Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05 [6] [4] ), and confirmed that the summit of both the mountains and the island is indeed the 1700.2 m [7] [8] high Mount Friesland. [9]

Camp Academia Antarctic camp

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Lozen Saddle

Lozen Saddle is a 437 m high saddle situated between Lozen Nunatak and Zograf Peak in Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica which provides overland access from the Wörner Gap area to the Shipka Valley. The saddle was first crossed by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 17 December 2004, and takes its name from the adjacent Lozen Nunatak.

Plana Peak

Plana Peak is a mostly ice-covered peak on the Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Huron Glacier to the north and its tributaries to the east and west. First ascent by D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and A. Shopov on 8 January 2015. The peak is named after Plana Mountain in Western Bulgaria.

Location

The peak is located 6.7 km east of Mount Friesland, 3.32 km east by south of Levski Peak, 2.21 km south-southeast of Plana Peak, 2.54 km south of Sitalk Peak and 1.84 km south of Tutrakan Peak, 2.15 km southwest of Helmet Peak, 3.32 km northwest of M'Kean Point, 1.29 km north of Serdica Peak, and 470 m southeast of Sofia Peak (1655 m) with which it forms a twin peak.

Mount Friesland

Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.

Levski Peak (Antarctica) mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Levski Peak is a mountain in Antarctica, rising to approximately 1,430 m (4,692 ft) in the western extremity of Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Macy Glacier to the south. The peak was named after Vasil Levski (1837–1873), a national hero of the Bulgarian liberation movement.

Sitalk Peak

Sitalk Peak is a rocky peak of elevation 600 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated at the end of a side ridge rinning northwards from Great Needle Peak, and linked to a rocky part of that ridge featuring Tutrakan Peak to the south by a 100-metre long ice-covered saddle. Surmounting Huron Glacier and its tributaries to the north, east and west. The peak is named after the Thracian King Sitalk, 431-424 BC.

Maps

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

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See also

Tangra Mountains mountain range

Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Notes

  1. 1 2 N. Petkov. Livingston Island, Falsa Aguja and Sofia Peak. American Alpine Journal: Climbs And Expeditions, 2016. (Complete expedition report by N. Petkov and D. Boyanov)
  2. Helmet Peak. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. (The narrative includes details of the origins of the place name pico Falsa Aguja misidentified as relating to Helmet Peak.)
  3. L.L. Ivanov et al., Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands (from English Strait to Morton Strait, with illustrations and ice-cover distribution), 1:100000 scale topographic map, Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, Sofia, 2005.
  4. 1 2 Ivanov, L. and N. Ivanova. Antarctic: Nature, History, Utilization, Geographic Names and Bulgarian Participation. Sofia: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2014. 368 pp. (in Bulgarian) ISBN   978-619-90008-1-6 (Second revised and updated edition, 2014. 411 pp. ISBN   978-619-90008-2-3)
  5. M. Dimitrova. Our mountaineers have conquered Great Needle Peak. Politika Weekly, 16–22 January 2015. ISSN   1312-3734 (in Bulgarian)
  6. L.L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert, Snow and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2010. ISBN   978-954-92032-9-5 (First edition 2009. ISBN   978-954-92032-6-4)
  7. D. Gildea. Antarctica, Antarctic Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Second Ascent of Mt. Friesland and New Altitude. American Alpine Journal, 2004. Vol. 46, Issue 78, pp. 329–331.
  8. Expedition Omega Livingston 2003. The Omega Foundation, USA, 2003.
  9. N. Petkov and D. Boyanov. Report of the project The Peaks of Tangra Mountains. Sofia, 2015. (in Bulgarian)
Tangra-Mountains-View-1822.png
North view of Tangra Mountains depicting (left to right) Great Needle Peak, Levski Peak, Lyaskovets Peak, Mount Friesland, St. Boris Peak and Simeon Peak, with Desolation Island in the foreground; fragment of an illustration to George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands

Related Research Articles

Atanasoff Nunatak

Atanasoff Nunatak is a nunatak, a sharp peak rising to 523 m in the east extremity of Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island, Antarctica. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the south and east, and Struma Glacier to the north. The peak is “named in honour of the Bulgarian American John Atanasoff (1903-1995) who constructed the first electronic digital computer”.

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Levski Ridge

Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.

Lyaskovets Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.

Peshev Ridge

Peshev Ridge is a crescent-shaped ridge in central Tangra Mountains extending 2 km (1.2 mi) along the northeast coast of Brunow Bay and southeast of Macy Glacier, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its east extremity is formed by the summit St. Naum Peak, separated from Balchik Ridge to the east by Starosel Gate. The ridge was named in honour of Dimitar Peshev (1894–1973), who led the nationwide campaign that kept Bulgaria’s Jews safe during the Holocaust.

Plovdiv Peak

Plovdiv Peak is a peak rising to 1,040 m in the east extremity of Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Magura Glacier to the south and Iskar Glacier to the north-northeast.

Presian Ridge

Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.

Radichkov Peak

Radichkov Peak rises to 500 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Srebarna Glacier to the southwest and Magura Glacier to the northeast and has steep and ice-free eastern slopes. An offshoot extending 900 m in south direction ends up in Kalofer Peak, forming M'Kean Point to the southeast.

Serdica Peak

Serdica Peak rises to approximately 1,200m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Linked to Silistra Knoll to the west-southwest by Kotel Gap. Surmounting Macy Glacier to the west, Boyana Glacier to the southwest, and Srebarna Glacier to the southeast.

Simeon Peak

Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.

St. Boris Peak

St. Boris Peak is an ice-covered mountain rising to 1,698 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is the second highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland. The two are connected by a short saddle dominated by ‘The Synagogue’, a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting upon St. Boris Peak. The peak is also connected to Simeon Peak by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and west, and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The peak's central summit is rising to 1,685 m, while its highest point ‘The Synagogue’ rises to 1,699 m. The local ice relief is subject to change; according to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 m in December 2016, making St. Boris Peak the summit of both Tangra Mountains and the island in that season. According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’.

St. Ivan Rilski Col

St. Ivan Rilski Col is an ice-covered col linking the Great Needle Peak and Levski Peak in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

Vitosha Saddle

Vitosha Saddle is a narrow ice-covered saddle of elevation 1050 m extending in southwest-northeast direction between Great Needle Peak and Vihren Peak in the Levski Ridge of Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Huron Glacier to the north and Magura Glacier to the south.

Helmet Peak (Livingston Island) mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Helmet Peak is a conspicuous peak rising to 1,254 metres (4,114 ft) in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica just southward of the mouth of Huron Glacier. It is bounded by Devnya Valley to the west, Iskar Glacier to the northeast, and Magura Glacier to the southeast, and has precipitous west and east slopes. It was named by Discovery Investigations personnel during the period 1926–32.

Sofia Peak

Sofia Peak is the ice covered peak rising to 1655 m in Levski Ridge, central Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, 470 m northwest of the summit point of Great Needle Peak with which it forms a twin peak. The feature is named after the capital city of Bulgaria.

References


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.