|Great Needle Peak|
Great Needle Peak from Bransfield Strait
|Elevation||1,679.5 metres (5,510 feet)|
|Prominence||ca. 480 metres (1,575 feet)|
(key col Shipka Saddle)
|Location||Livingston Island, Antarctica|
|Parent range||Tangra Mountains|
|First ascent||8 January 2015 Doychin Boyanov, Nikolay Petkov and Aleksander Shopov|
Great Needle Peak (Bulgarian : Голям Иглен връх, romanized: Golyam Iglen vrah, IPA: [ɡoˈʎam ˈiɡlɛn ˈvrɤx] ; variant name in Spanish : pico Falsa Aguja, lit. 'False Needle Peak') is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.
Bulgarian is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of Bulgarians.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
The peak's name derives from the Spanish name form pico Falsa Aguja (False Needle Peak) that probably dates back to 1957, m situated near Samuel Point 8 km away.with ‘great’ becoming established in usage and considered more suitable than ‘false’ as this heavily glaciated, major peak could hardly be associated with the ‘true’ Needle Peak (pico Aguja), a sharp rocky peak of elevation just 370
Samuel Point is on the coast of Bransfield Strait forming the southwest side of the entrance to Brunow Bay on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The point is situated on the east side of Rozhen Peninsula, surmounted by Needle Peak (370 m), a conspicuous offshoot of Friesland Ridge.
The first ascent and GPS survey of Great Needle Peak was made on 8 January 2015 by the Bulgarian mountaineers Doychin Boyanov, Nikolay Petkov and Aleksander Shopov from Camp Academia locality (541 m) via Lozen Saddle (437 m) and Plana Peak (740 m). Their measured peak elevation of 1,679.5 m) updated the previously existing estimate (1,690 m according to the Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05 ), and confirmed that the summit of both the mountains and the island is indeed the 1700.2 m high Mount Friesland.
Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.
Lozen Saddle is a 437 m high saddle situated between Lozen Nunatak and Zograf Peak in Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica which provides overland access from the Wörner Gap area to the Shipka Valley. The saddle was first crossed by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 17 December 2004, and takes its name from the adjacent Lozen Nunatak.
Plana Peak is a mostly ice-covered peak on the Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Huron Glacier to the north and its tributaries to the east and west. First ascent by D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and A. Shopov on 8 January 2015. The peak is named after Plana Mountain in Western Bulgaria.
The peak is located 6.7 km east of Mount Friesland, 3.32 km east by south of Levski Peak, 2.21 km south-southeast of Plana Peak, 2.54 km south of Sitalk Peak and 1.84 km south of Tutrakan Peak, 2.15 km southwest of Helmet Peak, 3.32 km northwest of M'Kean Point, 1.29 km north of Serdica Peak, and 470 m southeast of Sofia Peak (1655 m) with which it forms a twin peak.
Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.
Levski Peak is a mountain in Antarctica, rising to approximately 1,430 m (4,692 ft) in the western extremity of Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Macy Glacier to the south. The peak was named after Vasil Levski (1837–1873), a national hero of the Bulgarian liberation movement.
Sitalk Peak is a rocky peak of elevation 600 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated at the end of a side ridge rinning northwards from Great Needle Peak, and linked to a rocky part of that ridge featuring Tutrakan Peak to the south by a 100-metre long ice-covered saddle. Surmounting Huron Glacier and its tributaries to the north, east and west. The peak is named after the Thracian King Sitalk, 431-424 BC.
The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.
Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.
Atanasoff Nunatak is a nunatak, a sharp peak rising to 523 m in the east extremity of Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island, Antarctica. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the south and east, and Struma Glacier to the north. The peak is “named in honour of the Bulgarian American John Atanasoff (1903-1995) who constructed the first electronic digital computer”.
Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.
Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.
Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.
Peshev Ridge is a crescent-shaped ridge in central Tangra Mountains extending 2 km (1.2 mi) along the northeast coast of Brunow Bay and southeast of Macy Glacier, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its east extremity is formed by the summit St. Naum Peak, separated from Balchik Ridge to the east by Starosel Gate. The ridge was named in honour of Dimitar Peshev (1894–1973), who led the nationwide campaign that kept Bulgaria’s Jews safe during the Holocaust.
Plovdiv Peak is a peak rising to 1,040 m in the east extremity of Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Magura Glacier to the south and Iskar Glacier to the north-northeast.
Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.
Radichkov Peak rises to 500 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Srebarna Glacier to the southwest and Magura Glacier to the northeast and has steep and ice-free eastern slopes. An offshoot extending 900 m in south direction ends up in Kalofer Peak, forming M'Kean Point to the southeast.
Serdica Peak rises to approximately 1,200m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Linked to Silistra Knoll to the west-southwest by Kotel Gap. Surmounting Macy Glacier to the west, Boyana Glacier to the southwest, and Srebarna Glacier to the southeast.
Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.
St. Boris Peak is an ice-covered mountain rising to 1,698 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is the second highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland. The two are connected by a short saddle dominated by ‘The Synagogue’, a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting upon St. Boris Peak. The peak is also connected to Simeon Peak by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and west, and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The peak's central summit is rising to 1,685 m, while its highest point ‘The Synagogue’ rises to 1,699 m. The local ice relief is subject to change; according to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 m in December 2016, making St. Boris Peak the summit of both Tangra Mountains and the island in that season. According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’.
St. Ivan Rilski Col is an ice-covered col linking the Great Needle Peak and Levski Peak in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.
Vitosha Saddle is a narrow ice-covered saddle of elevation 1050 m extending in southwest-northeast direction between Great Needle Peak and Vihren Peak in the Levski Ridge of Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Huron Glacier to the north and Magura Glacier to the south.
Helmet Peak is a conspicuous peak rising to 1,254 metres (4,114 ft) in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica just southward of the mouth of Huron Glacier. It is bounded by Devnya Valley to the west, Iskar Glacier to the northeast, and Magura Glacier to the southeast, and has precipitous west and east slopes. It was named by Discovery Investigations personnel during the period 1926–32.
Sofia Peak is the ice covered peak rising to 1655 m in Levski Ridge, central Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, 470 m northwest of the summit point of Great Needle Peak with which it forms a twin peak. The feature is named after the capital city of Bulgaria.
This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.