Greater Houston

Last updated

Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land
Aerial views of the Houston, Texas, 28005u.jpg
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Galveston Texas Skyline.jpg
Country United States
State Texas
Principal cities
Area
  Urban
1,660.0 sq mi (4,299.4 km2)
  Metro
10,062 sq mi (26,061 km2)
Highest elevation
430 ft (131 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Density2,978.5/sq mi (1,150.0/km2)
   Urban
4,944,332(7th)
   MSA
6,997,384 (5th)
   CSA
7,197,883 (9th)
 MSA/CSA = 2018, Urban = 2010
Time zone UTC-6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
Interstates I-10.svg I-45.svg I-69.svg I-610.svg

Greater Houston, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land, is the fifth-most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States, encompassing nine counties along the Gulf Coast in Southeast Texas. With a population of 6,997,384 people as of 2018 census estimates and over 7 million in 2019, [2] [3] Greater Houston is the second-most populous in Texas after the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] The approximately 10,000-square-mile (26,000 km2) region centers on Harris County, the third-most populous county in the U.S., which contains the city of Houston—the largest economic and cultural center of the South—with a population of more than 2.3 million. [9] Greater Houston is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion along with the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Greater Austin, and Greater San Antonio. Greater Houston also serves as a major anchor and economic hub for the Gulf Coast. Its Port of Houston is the second largest port in the United States, sixteenth largest in the world, and leads the nation in international trade. [10]

Contents

Greater Houston has historically been among the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States; it was the fastest-growing in absolute terms during the 2013–2014 census year, adding 156,371 people. [11] The area grew 25.2% between 1990 and 2000—adding more than 950,000 people—while the country's population increased only 13.2% over the same period, and from 2000 to 2007 alone, the area added over 910,000 people. [12] The Greater Houston Partnership projected the metropolitan area would add between 4.1 and 8.3 million new residents between 2010 and 2050. [13]

Greater Houston has the seventh-highest metropolitan-area gross domestic product in the United States, valued at $490 billion in 2017. [14] A major trade center anchored by the Port of Houston, Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land has the second-highest trade export value of all metropolitan areas, at over $84 billion in 2016, accounting for 42% of the total exports of Texas. [15] Greater Houston is home to the headquarters of 21 Fortune 500 companies, ranking fourth among all metropolitan statistical areas. [16]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area has a total area of 10,062 square miles (26,060 km²), of which 8,929 sq mi (23,130 km2) are land and 1,133 sq mi (2,930 km2) are covered by water. The region is slightly smaller than the state of Massachusetts and slightly larger than New Jersey. [17] The U.S. Office of Management and Budget combines the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolis with four micropolitan statistical areas (Bay City, Brenham, El Campo, and Huntsville) to form the Houston–The Woodlands, TX combined statistical area.

The metropolitan area is located in the Gulf Coastal Plains biome, and its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland. Much of the urbanized area was built on forested land, marshes, swamp, or prairie, remnants of which can still be seen in surrounding areas. Of particular note is the Katy Prairie to the west, the Big Thicket to the northeast, and the Galveston Bay ecosystem to the south. Additionally, the metropolitan region is crossed by a number of creeks and bayous, which provide essential drainage during rainfall events; some of the most notable waterways include Buffalo Bayou (upon which Houston was founded), White Oak Bayou, Brays Bayou, Spring Creek, and the San Jacinto River. The upper drainage basin of Buffalo Bayou is impounded by two large flood control reservoirs, Barker Reservoir and Addicks Reservoir, which provide a combined 400,000 acre-feet of storage during large rainfall events and cover a total land area of 26,100 acres (106 km2). [18] Greater Houston's flat topography, susceptibility to high-intensity rainfall events, high level of impervious surface, and inadequately-sized natural drainage channels make it particularly susceptible to catastrophic flooding events. [19]

Geology

Underpinning Greater Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, and poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep. The region's geology developed from stream deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of halite, a rock salt. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes, often trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands. This thick, rich soil also provides a good environment for rice farming in suburban outskirts into which the city continues to grow near Katy. Evidence of past rice farming is even still evident in developed areas as an abundance of rich, dark, loamy topsoil exists.

The Houston region is generally earthquake-free. While the city of Houston contains over 150 to 300 [20] active surface faults with an aggregate length of up to 310 miles (500 km), [21] [22] the clay below the surface precludes the buildup of friction that produces ground-shaking in earthquakes. These faults generally move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep".

Weather

Greater Houston has a humid subtropical climate typical of the Southern United States. It is rainy most of the year.

Prevailing winds come from the south and southeast during most of the year, which bring heat and moisture from the nearby Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay Area. [23]

List of hurricanes

A number of tropical storms and hurricanes have hit the metropolitan area, including:

  • 1900 Galveston Hurricane, which devastated Galveston and was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, killing between 8,000 and 12,000.
  • Hurricane Carla (1961), which was the most recent Category 4 hurricane to strike Texas until Harvey in 2017.
  • Hurricane Alicia (1983), which struck the area as a Category 3, and was at the time, the costliest Atlantic hurricane.
  • Tropical Storm Allison (2001), until Harvey, which brought the worst flooding in Houston history and was the first tropical storm to be retired.
  • Hurricane Rita (2005), which triggered one of the largest evacuations in United States history in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
  • Tropical Storm Erin (2007), a fairly minor tropical storm that struck Texas, but brought severe impacts to Oklahoma.
  • Hurricane Ike (2008), which brought devastating storm surge to the coast and wind damage into the city.
  • Hurricane Harvey (2017), which brought devastating flooding that resulted in excess of $100 billion in damages to Southeast Texas.

Metropolitan counties

Location in the U.S. (red) USstcou2010 HOUSTON.png
Location in the U.S. (red)

As defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, the metropolitan area of Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land encompasses nine counties in Southeast Texas. They are listed below.

Principal communities

Five principal communities are designated within the Greater Houston metropolitan area. The Woodlands is a census-designated place; the rest are cities; the population of each community is according to 2018 census estimates by the American Community Survey except for The Woodlands:

Demographics

Historical populations - Houston Metropolitan Area
CensusPop.
1900 63,786
1910 115,69381.4%
1920 186,66761.3%
1930 359,32892.5%
1940 528,96147.2%
1950 806,70152.5%
1960 1,243,15854.1%
1970 1,985,03159.7%
1980 2,905,35346.4%
1990 3,301,93713.7%
2000 4,177,64626.5%
2010 5,920,41641.7%
Est. 20197,066,14119.4%
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate

As of 2011, Greater Houston has four of Texas's 10 wealthiest communities, which include the wealthiest community, Hunters Creek Village, the fourth-wealthiest community, Bunker Hill Village, the fifth-wealthiest community, West University Place, and the sixth-wealthiest community, Piney Point Village. [29] There were a total of 6,997,384 residents within the metropolitan area as of 2018 and an estimated 7 million in 2019. [30]

County 2017 Estimate2010 CensusChangeAreaDensity
Austin County 29,78628,417+4.82%646.51 sq mi (1,674.5 km2)
Brazoria County 362,457313,166+15.74%1,357.70 sq mi (3,516.4 km2)
Chambers County 41,44135,096+18.08%597.14 sq mi (1,546.6 km2)
Fort Bend County 764,828585,375+30.66%861.48 sq mi (2,231.2 km2)
Galveston County 335,036291,309+15.01%378.36 sq mi (979.9 km2)
Harris County 4,652,9804,092,459+13.70%1,703.48 sq mi (4,412.0 km2)
Liberty County 83,65875,643+10.60%1,158.42 sq mi (3,000.3 km2)
Montgomery County 570,934455,746+25.27%1,041.73 sq mi (2,698.1 km2)
Waller County 51,30743,205+18.75%513.43 sq mi (1,329.8 km2)
Total6,892,4275,920,416+16.42%8,258.25 sq mi (21,388.8 km2)

Economy

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Houston Ship Channel, 2016

Among the 10 most populous metropolitan areas in the U.S., Greater Houston ranked first in employment growth rate and second in nominal employment growth. [31] In 2006, the Greater Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U.S. within the category of "Best Places for Business and Careers" by Forbes . [32]

ConocoPhillips headquarters in the Houston Energy Corridor ConocoPhilipsHQ.JPG
ConocoPhillips headquarters in the Houston Energy Corridor

The Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land area's gross metropolitan product (GMP) in 2005 was $308.7 billion, up 5.4% from 2004 in constant dollars—slightly larger than Austria's gross domestic product. By 2012, the GMP had risen to $449 billion, the fourth-largest of any metropolitan area in the United States. [33] Only 26 countries other than the United States had a GDP exceeding Greater Houston's GAP. [34] Mining, which in the area is almost entirely oil and gas exploration and production, accounted for 11% of Greater Houston's GAP—down from 21% as recently as 1985. The reduced role of oil and gas in Houston's GAP reflects the rapid growth of other sectors—such as engineering services, health services, and manufacturing. [35]

The area's economic activity is centered in the city of Houston, the county seat of Harris County. Houston is second to New York City in Fortune 500 headquarters. The city has attempted to build a banking industry, but the companies originally started in Houston have since merged with other companies nationwide. Banking, however, is still vital to the region.[ citation needed ]

Galveston Bay and the Buffalo Bayou together form one of the most important shipping hubs in the world. The Port of Houston, the Port of Texas City, and the Port of Galveston are all major seaports located in this Greater Houston area. [36] The area is also one of the leading centers of the energy industry, particularly petroleum processing, and many companies have large operations in this region. [37] The metropolitan area also comprises the largest petrochemical manufacturing area in the world, including for synthetic rubber, insecticides, and fertilizers. [38] The area is also the world's leading center for building oilfield equipment. Greater Houston is also a major center of biomedical research, aeronautics, and high technology. [39]

Imperial Sugar offices in Sugar Land, Texas FortBend 379.JPG
Imperial Sugar offices in Sugar Land, Texas

Much of the metro area's success as a petrochemical complex is enabled by its busy man-made Houston Ship Channel. [40] Because of these economic trades, many residents have moved to the Houston area from other U.S. states, as well as hundreds of countries worldwide. Unlike most places, where high fuel prices are seen as harmful to the economy, they are generally seen as beneficial for Houston, as many are employed in the energy industry. Baytown, Pasadena, La Porte, and Texas City have some of the area's largest petroleum/petrochemical plants, though major operations can be found in Houston, Anahuac, Clute, and other communities. Galveston has the largest cruise-ship terminal in Texas (and the 12th-largest in the world). The island, as well the Clear Lake area, are major recreation and tourism areas in the region. [41]

Houston is home to the Texas Medical Center—the largest medical center in the world. [42] Galveston is home to one of only two national biocontainment laboratories in the United States. [43]

The University of Houston System's annual impact on the Houston-area's economy equates to that of a major corporation: $1.1 billion in new funds attracted annually to the Houston area, $3.13 billion in total economic benefit, and 24,000 local jobs generated. [44] [45] This is in addition to the 12,500 new graduates the UH System produces every year who enter the workforce in Houston and throughout Texas. These degree-holders tend to stay in Houston; after five years, 80.5% of graduates are still living and working in the region. [45]

Sugar Land is home to the second-largest economic activities and fifth-largest city in the metropolitan area. It has the most important economic center in Fort Bend County. The city holds the Imperial Sugar (its namesake), Nalco Champion, and Western Airways headquarters. Engineering firms and other related industries have managed to take the place as an economic engine.[ citation needed ]

Sports

Major professional teams

ClubSportFoundedLeagueVenue
Houston Astros Baseball1962 MLB Minute Maid Park
Houston Rockets Basketball1967 NBA Toyota Center
Houston Texans Football 2002 NFL NRG Stadium
Houston Dynamo Soccer2005 MLS BBVA Compass Stadium
Houston Dash Women's soccer2014 NWSL BBVA Compass Stadium
Houston SaberCats Rugby Union2018 MLR Aveva Stadium

Minor league and semipro teams

ClubSportFoundedLeagueVenue
Houston Energy Football2001 WPFL The Rig
Houston Roughnecks Football2018 XFL TDECU Stadium
Houston Red Storm Basketball2006 ABA John H. Reagan HS
Sugar Land Skeeters Baseball2010 ALPB Constellation Field
Houston Dutch Lions Soccer2011 PDL HDLFC Soccer Complex
Houston Aces Women's soccer2012 UWS Carl Lewis Stadium
Houston Hotshots Indoor soccer2015 PASL TBD

College sports (Division I)

Greater Houston is home to five NCAA Division I programs, with four located within Houston proper. The University of Houston and Rice University play in Division I (FBS). [46] The University of Houston plays in the American Athletic Conference, while Rice belongs to Conference USA. Both schools were once part of the Southwest Conference. Texas Southern University, which is a member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, plays in Division I (FCS). [46] Houston Baptist University currently plays in Division I (FCS), mainly in the Southland Conference. [47] Rice and Houston Baptist are widely noted for their student-athlete graduation rates, which number at 91% for Rice (tied for highest in the nation according to a 2002 Sports Illustrated issue on best college sports programs) and 80% for HBU.

SchoolFoundedNicknameConference
Prairie View A&M University 1876 Prairie View A&M Panthers Southwestern Athletic Conference
Rice University 1912 Rice Owls Conference USA
Texas Southern University 1927 Texas Southern Tigers Southwestern Athletic Conference
University of Houston 1927 Houston Cougars American Athletic Conference
Houston Baptist University 1960 Houston Baptist Huskies Southland Conference

Events

Houston is or has been home to various nationally known sporting events. The most notable is the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, which is the world's largest livestock exhibition and rodeo event. Other events of importance on greater Houston include the Shell Houston Open (a PGA Tour event), the U.S. Men's Clay Court Championships (ATP tour), the Houston Marathon, and the Texas Bowl college football bowl game. From 1959 to 1987, Houston hosted the Bluebonnet Bowl. Houston has also played host to three Super Bowls (VIII, XXXVIII, LI), the 1968, 1986, and 2004 MLB All-Star Games, 2017 World Series, 2005 World Series, and the 1989, 2006, 2013 NBA All-Star Games. Houston has also played host to various high school and college sporting events, including the Big 12 Championship Game and hosted the 2011 NCAA Men's Final Four, 2010 NCAA Men's Regional Finals, and 2010 MLS All-Star Game. Houston has held two WrestleMania events, WrestleMania X-Seven and WrestleMania XXV, which is considered the biggest pro-wrestling event of the year, seen as the Super Bowl of pro-wrestling. Houston was also considered a candidate for the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games.

Education

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University of Houston
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Rice University

Five separate and distinct state universities are located within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The University of Houston is a nationally recognized Tier One research university, and is the flagship institution of the University of Houston System. [48] [49] [50] The third-largest university in Texas, the University of Houston has nearly 43,000 students on its 667-acre campus in southeast Houston. [51] The University of Houston–Clear Lake and the University of Houston–Downtown are standalone universities; they are not branch campuses of the University of Houston. The metropolitan area is home to the two largest historically black institutions in the state: Texas Southern University and Prairie View A&M University. The University of Texas Medical Branch and Texas A&M University at Galveston, a branch campus of Texas A&M University, are located in Galveston.

Several private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized Tier One research university—are located within the metropolitan area. The University of St. Thomas is the only Catholic institution of higher education in Houston. Houston Baptist University, located in the Sharpstown area, was founded in 1960. Rice University is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and consistently ranks among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. [52]

Three community college districts exist with campuses in and around Houston. The Houston Community College System serves most of Houston. The northwestern through northeastern parts of the metropolitan area are served by various campuses of the Lone Star College System, while the southeastern portion of the city and some surrounding areas are served by San Jacinto College.

Eastern portions of the area and small sections of the city are served by Lee College. Portions of Fort Bend County are served by Wharton County Junior College. Portions of Galveston County are served by College of the Mainland and Galveston College. Portions of Brazoria County are served by Alvin Community College and Brazosport College. Blinn College serves portions of Austin County. The Houston Community College and Lone Star College systems are within the 10 largest institutions of higher learning in the United States.

Culture

Houston's concentration of consular offices ranks third in the nation and first in the South, with 90 countries represented. [53] The city of Houston is now known as a center of Black and African American political power, education, economic prosperity, and culture, often called the new black mecca after Atlanta, Georgia. [54] [55] Houston and its metropolitan area also has a sizable Hispanic and Latin American community. [56] CNN/Money and Money magazine have recognized cities in the Greater Houston area the past three years as part of its "100 Best Places to Live in the United States". In 2005, Sugar Land, southwest of Houston in northeast Fort Bend County, was ranked 46th in the nation, and one of only three Texas cities among the Top 100. In 2006, the magazine recognized Sugar Land again, this time as the third-best city on its list. [57] Also making the 2006 list were League City (65th) in northern Galveston County and The Woodlands (73rd) in southern Montgomery County. In 2007, another Houston suburb, Friendswood, made the list ranked 51st in the nation. The 2006 list only includes cities with at least 50,000 residents, and the 2007 list contains only cities with less than 50,000 residents.

Greater Houston is widely noted for its ethnic diversity and strong international community. In its 2010 publication "Urban Elite", [58] A.T. Kearney added the city to their list of the 65 most important world cities and ranks Houston 35th, as "...a magnet for a diverse population and business services...". The Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network ranks Houston as a Beta- World City, "an important world city instrumental to linking their region or state to the world economy." [59]

Media

Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting at the University of Houston Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting.jpg
Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting at the University of Houston

Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area is served by a public television station and one public radio station. KUHT (HoustonPBS) is a PBS member station and is the first public television station in the United States. Houston Public Radio is listener-funded radio and comprises one NPR member station, KUHF (KUHF News). The University of Houston System owns and holds broadcasting licenses to KUHT and KUHF. The stations broadcast from the Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting, located on the campus of the University of Houston. The metropolitan area is also served by ABC13 Houston (KTRK-TV) and Fox 26 Houston (KRIV-TV), owned-and-operated stations of ABC and Fox News, and NBC and CBS-affiliates KPRC 2 Houston and KHOU 11.

The Houston area is served by the Houston Chronicle , its only major daily newspaper with wide distribution. The Hearst Corporation, which owns and operates the Houston Chronicle, bought the assets of the Houston Post —its long-time rival and main competition—when Houston Post ceased operations in 1995. The Houston Post was owned by the family of former Lieutenant Governor Bill Hobby of Houston. The only other major publication to serve the city is the Houston Press —a free alternative weekly with a weekly readership of more than 300,000. [60]

The Galveston County Daily News , founded in 1842, is that city's primary newspaper and the oldest continuously printed newspaper in Texas. [61] It currently serves as the newspaper of record for Galveston, as well as Galveston County. Radio station KGBC, on air since 1947, has also served as a local media outlet. [62]

Transportation

Highways

Interstate 610 in Uptown Houston RF - Houston West Loop South.1.jpeg
Interstate 610 in Uptown Houston

Houston's freeway system includes 575.5 miles (926.2 km) of freeways and expressways in the 10-county metro area. [35] The State of Texas plans to spend $65 billion on Houston area highways by 2025. Houston freeways are heavily traveled and often under construction to meet the demands of continuing growth.

The Greater Houston area has a hub-and-spoke freeway structure with multiple loops. The innermost is Interstate 610, forming a roughly 42-mile (70 km)-circumference loop around downtown. The nearly square Loop 610 is quartered into "North Loop", "South Loop", "West Loop", and "East Loop". The roads of Beltway 8 and their freeway core, the Sam Houston Tollway, are the next loop, at a diameter around 83 miles (134 km). A planned highway project, State Highway 99 (the Grand Parkway), will form the third loop outside of Houston. Currently, a completed portion of State Highway 99 runs from U.S. Highway 59, Near New Caney, to U.S. Highway 59 in Sugar Land, southwest of Houston, and was completed in 2016. Another segment of State Highway 99 from Interstate 10 south to Farm-to-Market Road 1405 in Chambers County was completed in 2008. The next portion to be constructed is from the current terminus at U.S. Highway 290 to U.S. Highway 59 in Montgomery County. Freeways also include the Westpark Tollway, which runs from U.S. Hwy 59 to Texas Hwy 99 and the Fort Bend Parkway, which runs from U.S. Hwy 90-A to Texas Hwy 6 in Missouri City. When completed in the future, Interstate 69, will start at the Mexico–US border, go through the Greater Houston area, and continue on to Michigan at the Canada–US border. All of Interstate 69 has been completed in the Greater Houston area and is co-signed with U.S. Highway 59. Interstate 45, which starts at State Highway 75 in Dallas provides transport from Houston to Dallas.

Mass transit

METRORail in downtown Houston METRORail 4.jpg
METRORail in downtown Houston

The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas, or METRO, provides public transportation in the form of buses, trolleys, and lift vans.

METRO began running light rail service (METRORail) on January 1, 2004. Currently, the track is rather short — about 22.7 miles (20.6 km) from Northline Transit Center Station through downtown Houston to the Texas Medical Center and Reliant Park, and lines from downtown to the East End and the University of Houston/Lower 3rd Ward. Still, the system is traveled by about 61,000 people daily, giving it the second-highest ridership per track mile in the nation. The Uptown Light Rail Line has been converted to a BRT Line and began construction in the late 2nd quarter of 2016. The BRT Line will run between the former NW Mall (which is in the process of redevelopment) and the WestPark TC. METRO's various forms of public transportation still do not connect multiple suburbs to the inner city (defined by the 610 loop), causing Houstonians to rely on the automobile as a primary source of transportation. The problem is one due the lack of a central metropolitan area transportation authority, primarily due to a few suburban counties refusing to cooperate with METRO. For example, there are multiple coach bus services that run into downtown Houston. METRO is in the late planning stages of the US 90 Commuter line which will service the Ft Bend County and SW Harris County suburban region. Prior to the opening of METRORail, Houston was the largest major city in the United States without a rail transit system.

Following a successful referendum held locally in 2004, METRO is currently in the beginning design phases of a 10-year expansion plan to add five more sections to connect to the current rail system. An 8.3-mile (13.4-km) expansion has been approved to run the service from Uptown through Texas Southern University, ending at the University of Houston campus.

Some areas in east Harris County are served by Harris County Transit.

Airports

Houston's largest airport (and Texas's second-largest), George Bush Intercontinental Airport, is located in north Houston. It is the second largest hub for United Airlines.

In 2010, Continental Airlines moved its headquarters from downtown Houston to downtown Chicago upon its merger with United Airlines. The southeast of Houston has William P. Hobby Airport, the second-largest commercial passenger airport. Houston's third-largest airport is Ellington Field, which houses several National Guard and Air National Guard units, as well as a United States Coast Guard air station and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center's fleet of jets that are used to train astronauts. Sugar Land has the Sugar Land Regional Airport, which is the fourth-largest airport in the metropolitan area. Both Sugar Land Regional and Ellington Field serve as reliever airports for the Houston Airport System.

Intercity rail

Amtrak provides intercity rail service to the Houston station. [63]

Intercity bus

Greyhound Bus Lines operates services from three bus stations in the City of Houston:

In addition, Greyhound operates services from two stops [67]

Greyhound also operates services to stops within other cities in the Greater Houston area, including:

Three Megabus stations additionally serve the Houston area:

Politics

Politically, the Greater Houston area has historically been divided between areas of strength of the Republican and Democratic parties. [74]

The city of Houston has historically voted Democratic except for its affluent western and west-central portions, including the River Oaks, Westchase, Memorial, and Uptown areas, as well as the Kingwood and Clear Lake City master-planned communities on Houston's far northeast and southeast sides, respectively. All these areas favor and are almost entirely represented both in Congress and in the Texas Legislature by Republicans. Democrats' strongest areas are within Loop 610, and in the largely poor and minority northern, eastern, and southern portions of Houston. Most of these areas have sizable Hispanic populations, though some northern and southern parts of the city have mostly notable large African American communities. Democrats are also stronger in the more liberal Neartown area, which is home to a large artist and LGBT community, and Alief, which houses a sizable Asian American population.[ citation needed ] In 2008, almost every county in the region voted for Republican John McCain; only Harris County was won by Democratic candidate Barack Obama, by a small margin (51%–49%). [75] Galveston has long been a staunch Democratic stronghold, with the most active Democratic county establishment in the state. [76]

Houston's suburbs are also politically divided. Such examples:

United States Congress

SenatorsNamePartyFirst electedLevel
 Senate Class 1 Ted Cruz Republican 2012Junior Senator
 Senate Class 2 John Cornyn Republican 2002Senior Senator
RepresentativesNamePartyFirst electedArea(s) of Greater Houston represented
 District 2 Dan Crenshaw Republican 2018Kingwood portion of Houston, Spring, northeast Harris County (including Baytown, Humble and La Porte), western and southern Liberty County
 District 7 Lizzie Pannill Fletcher Democratic 2018West Houston, Memorial Villages, Bellaire, West University Place, west and northwest Harris County
 District 8 Kevin Brady Republican 1996Montgomery and San Jacinto counties; northern Liberty County
 District 9 Al Green Democratic 2004Alief, Southwest Houston, Houston's Southside, portions of Fort Bend County (Mission Bend, eastern portion of Stafford, northern and eastern portions of Missouri City, county's entire share of Houston)
 District 10 Michael McCaul Republican 2004Northwest Harris County; Austin and Waller counties; most of the Greater Katy area
 District 18 Sheila Jackson Lee Democratic 1994Downtown Houston, Bush IAH, northwest and northeast Houston, inner portions of Houston's Southside
 District 22 Pete Olson Republican 2008most of Fort Bend County (Sugar Land, Rosenberg, the southern portion of Greater Katy, plus western and southern portions of Missouri City), northern Brazoria County (including Pearland), portions of Galveston County (La Marque), southern and central Pasadena, Deer Park
 District 29 Sylvia Garcia Democratic 2018East Houston, northern Pasadena, Galena Park, Channelview (all Harris County)
 District 36 Brian Babin Republican 2014Southeastern and eastern parts of Harris County (including the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center)

Texas Legislature

Texas Senate

DistrictNamePartyFirst electedArea(s) of Greater Houston represented
 3 Robert Nichols Republican 2006Northern and western Montgomery County (including Conroe), San Jacinto County
 4 Brandon Creighton Republican 2014Southern Montgomery County (including The Woodlands), Kingwood, Liberty County, Chambers County, far eastern portions of Baytown
 6 Carol Alvarado Democratic 2018Houston Ship Channel, eastern portions of Houston, Jacinto City, Galena Park, northern Pasadena, western portion of Baytown
 7 Paul Bettencourt Republican 2015Memorial Villages, Memorial/Spring Branch area, Addicks Reservoir, Northwest Harris County
 11 Larry Taylor Republican 2013Northern and central Brazoria County, southeastern portions of Houston and Harris County, the Galveston County mainland, and all areas roughly north of SH 87 on Galveston Island.
 13 Borris Miles Democratic 2017Downtown Houston, Texas Medical Center, southwest and northeast Houston, Houston's Southside, northern portions of Missouri City, Stafford
 15 John Whitmire Democratic 1983Northwest Houston, Bush IAH, southern portion of Humble, eastern Harris County
 17 Joan Huffman Republican 2008Meyerland, Bellaire, West University Place, much of Katy area, far west Houston, Barker Reservoir, portions of Fort Bend County (Sugar Land and southern Missouri City) southern Brazoria County, the area of Galveston Island south of SH 87, entire Bolivar Peninsula, and Port Arthur.
 18 Lois Kolkhorst Republican 2015Austin, Waller and Wharton counties; western Fort Bend County

Texas House of Representatives

DistrictNamePartyFirst electedArea(s) of Greater Houston represented
 3 Cecil Bell Jr. Republican 2013Waller County, Montgomery County
 13 Leighton Schubert Republican 2015Austin County
 15 Mark Keough Republican 2014The Woodlands, southern Montgomery County
 16 Will Metcalf Republican 2015Northern and central Montgomery County (including Conroe)
 18 Ernest Bailes Republican 2017San Jacinto County, Liberty County, Walker County
 23 Wayne Faircloth Republican 2015Galveston, Texas City, Bolivar Peninsula, Chambers County
 24 Greg Bonnen Republican 2013Hitchcock, La Marque, Santa Fe, Dickinson, League City, Friendswood (all in Galveston County)
 25 Dennis Bonnen Republican 1996Southern Brazoria County (Lake Jackson, Angleton, Freeport)
 26 Rick Miller Republican 2013Sugar Land
 126 Kevin Roberts Republican 2017Champions/FM 1960
 127 Dan Huberty Republican 2011Kingwood, Lake Houston, Crosby, Wallisville
 128 Briscoe Cain Republican 2017East Harris County (Baytown, Deer Park, La Porte)
 129 Dennis Paul Republican 2015Southeast Harris County (Clear Lake City Area, NASA Johnson Space Center)
 130 Tom Oliverson Republican 2017Northwest Harris County (including Tomball and Cypress-Fairbanks areas)
 131 Alma Allen Democratic 2004Outer portions of Houston's Southside
 132 Mike Schofield Republican 2015West Harris County (including county's share of Katy and unincorporated western parts of the Katy area)
 133 Jim Murphy Republican 2006West Houston, western portion of Memorial/Spring Branch, part of the Energy Corridor
 134 Sarah Davis Republican 2006Inner western portions of Houston (including Meyerland, River Oaks and Memorial Park), Texas Medical Center, West University Place, Bellaire, Southside Place
 135 Gary Elkins Republican 1994Parts of northwest Harris County (including Jersey Village) and southeastern segments of the Champions/FM 1960 area
 136 Beverly Woolley Republican 1994Memorial Villages and surrounding areas
 137 Gene Wu Democratic 2013Southwest Houston (including Sharpstown, Westwood and Fondren Southwest)
 138 Dwayne Bohac Republican 2002Northwest Houston and parts of the Memorial/Spring Branch area north of I-10, Addicks Reservoir
 139 Jarvis Johnson Democratic 2016North Houston and Aldine west of I-45
 140 Armando Walle Democratic 2008North Houston and Aldine east of I-45
 141 Senfronia Thompson Democratic 1972Northeast Houston, Bush IAH, Greenspoint, southern portion of Humble
 143 Ana Hernandez Democratic 2005 (special election filling the unexpired term of Joe Moreno)East Houston within Loop 610, Houston Ship Channel, Galena Park, Jacinto City, northern Pasadena
 ;144 Mary Ann Perez Democratic 2017Southern Pasadena, far southeast Houston
 145 Carol Alvarado Democratic 2009Inner southeastern portions of Houston (mainly east of I-45), South Houston (not part of the city of Houston)
 146 Shawn Thierry Democratic 2017Inner portions of Houston's Southside
 147 Garnet Coleman Democratic 1991 (special election filling the unexpired term of Larry Evans)Downtown Houston, inner southeastern portions of Houston (mainly west of I-45)
 148 Jessica Farrar Democratic 1994Northwest Houston mainly within Loop 610 (including Houston Heights)
 149 Hubert Vo Democratic 2004Far west Houston, Alief, unincorporated portions of Katy area east of Fry Rd, Barker Reservoir
 150 Valoree Swanson Republican 2017Northern Harris County (Spring, Klein, northern Humble)

See also

Related Research Articles

Houston Largest city in Texas

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 population of 2,320,268. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, with a population of 6,997,384 in 2018.

Harris County, Texas County in Texas

Harris County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas, located in the southeastern part of the state near Galveston Bay. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,092,459, making it the most populous county in Texas and the third most populous county in the United States. Its county seat is Houston, the largest city in Texas and fourth largest city in the United States. The county was founded in 1836 and organized in 1837. It is named for John Richardson Harris, who founded the town of Harrisburg on Buffalo Bayou in 1826. According to a July 2018 census estimate, Harris County's population had grown to 4,698,619, comprising over 16% of Texas's population. Harris County is included in the nine-county Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area, which is the fifth most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

Galveston County, Texas U.S. county in Texas

Galveston County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas, located along the Gulf Coast adjacent to Galveston Bay. As of the 2010 U.S. Decennial Census, the population was 291,309. The county seat is the City of Galveston, founded the following year of 1839, located on Galveston Island; the most populous municipality in the county is League City, a suburb of Houston at the northern end of the county, which surpassed Galveston in population during the early 2000s. The county was founded in 1838.

Fort Bend County, Texas U.S. county in Texas

Fort Bend County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. According to 2019 census estimates, its population was 811,688 and Texas's 10th-most populous county. In 2015 Fort Bend County became Texas's wealthiest county, with a median household income of $95,389 and a median family income of $105,944, surpassing Collin and Rockwall Counties since the 2000 census. The county seat is Richmond, and its largest city is Sugar Land.

Chambers County, Texas U.S. county in Texas

Chambers County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,096. The county seat is Anahuac.

Sealy, Texas City in Texas, United States

Sealy is a city in Austin County in southeastern Texas, United States, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The population was 6,019 at the 2010 census. Sealy is located 49 miles (79 km) west of the downtown Houston area.

Alvin, Texas City in Texas, United States

Alvin is a city in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land metropolitan area and Brazoria County. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 24,236. Alvin's claim to fame is Baseball Hall of Famer Nolan Ryan, who moved with his family to the city in 1947 as an infant and lived there until he moved to Round Rock in 2003. The Nolan Ryan Museum is in the Nolan Ryan Foundation and Exhibit Center on the campus of Alvin Community College.Alvin Glass 1029 FM 517

Rosenberg, Texas City in Texas, United States

Rosenberg is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area and Fort Bend County. The population was 30,618 at the 2010 census, up from 24,043 at the 2000 census. As of 2018, the population had risen to an estimated 38,061.

Sugar Land, Texas City in Texas, United States

Sugar Land is a city in Fort Bend County, Texas, United States, located in the southwestern part of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. Located about 19 miles (31 km) southwest of downtown Houston, Sugar Land is a populous suburban municipality centered around the junction of Texas State Highway 6 and U.S. Route 59.

Pasadena, Texas City in Texas, United States

Pasadena is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the city's population is 149,043, making it the seventeenth most populous city in the state of Texas, as well as the second-largest city in Harris County. The area was founded in 1893 by John H. Burnett of Galveston, who named the area after Pasadena, California, because of the perceived lush vegetation.

Prairie View, Texas City in Texas, United States

Prairie View is a city in Waller County, Texas, United States, situated on the northwestern edge of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The population was 5,576 at the 2010 census. The current estimated population is 6,428.

Baytown, Texas City in Texas, United States

Baytown is a city within Harris County and partially in Chambers County in the Gulf Coast region of the U.S. state of Texas. Located within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area, it lies on the northern side of the Galveston Bay complex near the outlets of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou. It is the sixth-largest city within this metropolitan area. Major highways serving the city include State Highway 146 and Interstate 10. As of 2010, Baytown had a population of 71,802, and it had an estimated population of 77,024 in 2018.

Friendswood, Texas City in Texas, United States

Friendswood is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is part of the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The city lies in Galveston and Harris Counties. As of the 2010 census, the population of Friendswood was 35,805.

Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex Conurbation in Texas, United States

The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, officially designated Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, is a conurbated metropolitan statistical area in the U.S. state of Texas encompassing 11 counties. It is the economic and cultural hub of North Texas. Residents of the area also refer to it as DFW, or the Metroplex. The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan statistical area's population is 7,573,136 according to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2019 population estimates, making it the most populous metropolitan area in both Texas and the Southern United States, the fourth-largest in the U.S., and the tenth-largest in the Americas. In 2016, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex ascended to the number one spot in the U.S. in year-over-year population growth.

Geographic areas of Houston

The geographic areas of Houston are generally classified as either being inside or outside Interstate 610, known as the "Loop." Inside the loop generally encompasses the Central business district and the "island cities" of West University Place, Southside Place and a portion of Bellaire.

This is a documentation of the routes, highways, parking requirements, or anything related to transportation in Houston.

Geography of Houston

Houston, the most populous city in the Southern United States, is located along the upper Texas Gulf Coast, approximately 50 miles (80 km) northwest of the Gulf of Mexico at Galveston. The city, which is the ninth-largest in the United States by area, covers 601.7 square miles (1,558 km2), of which 579.4 square miles (1,501 km2), or 96.3%, is land and 22.3 square miles (58 km2), or 3.7%, is water.

Texas is the second most populous U.S. state, with an estimated July 2019 population of 28.996 million. In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

Greater San Antonio Metropolitan area in Texas, United States

San Antonio–New Braunfels is an eight-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Texas defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The metropolitan area straddles South Texas and Central Texas and is on the southwestern corner of the Texas Triangle. The official 2018 U.S. Census estimate showed the metropolitan area's population at 2,550,960—up from a reported 1,711,103 in 2000—making it the 24th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Austin–Round Rock lies about 80 miles northeast of Greater San Antonio.

Texas Triangle Megaregion of the U.S. in Texas, United States ----

The Texas Triangle is one of 11 megaregions in the United States. These are urban areas that are much greater in scale than a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), defined by the US Census Bureau. These regions also are known as megapolitan areas. The Texas Triangle is formed by the state's four main urban centers, Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Austin, connected by Interstate 45, Interstate 10, and Interstate 35.

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Further reading