This article needs additional citations for verification . (November 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway (Russian : Большое кольцо Московской железной дороги) is the common name for a system of connector lines between the railways that radiate from Moscow. The general configuration of the Greater Ring is a ring around the main part of Moscow (outside Moscow). It forms part of the radial-ring structure of the Moscow railways. The Greater Ring crosses the rail lines in all 11 radial directions from the railway stations of Moscow. It totals 584 kilometres (363 mi) in length. For its entire length, the ring is equipped with an automatic locking system, permitting, where necessary, two-way single-track operation; elsewhere, there are two track and multiple track sections.
Moscow Railway is a subsidiary of Russian Railways that handles half of Russia's suburban railway operations and a quarter of the country's passenger traffic. As of 2009 the railway, which has its headquarters near Komsomolskaya Square in Moscow, employed 73 600 people. It manages railway services in much of Central Russia, including Moscow and Moscow Oblast, Smolensk, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Kaluga, Bryansk, Oryol, Lipetsk, and Kursk Oblasts.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Different segments of the Greater Ring were constructed independently from each other, starting from the late 19th century. The entire ring was completed in 1942-1944, during World War II.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
The ring allows freight trains to be transferred from one railway to another without entering Moscow; to a lesser extent, it is used for the same purpose by long-distance passenger trains as well. This reduces the transit traffic volume on the innermost sections of the radial rail lines, and makes more time slots available for running commuter trains between Moscow's terminals and the city's suburbs. The ring also serves transportation needs of towns and industrial customers located along it.
The Greater Ring itself entirely belongs to the three regions of the Moscow Railway:
Yegoryevsk is a town and the administrative center of Yegoryevsk Urban Settlement in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Guslitsa River 114 kilometers (71 mi) southeast of Moscow.
This line is primarily used to let freight traffic bypass Moscow. The two biggest freight stations are Orekhovo and Bekasovo, they are main classification yards for Moscow region, and also have locomotive depots, for freight electric locomotives operating around Moscow.
Some overnight passenger trains also use some segments of Ring to bypass Moscow. Since the late 2000-s most, but not all of these trains run through Moscow instead. Commuter traffic is very low, about 3-5 trains per day, and may be delayed due to overload of freight trains. The most used section is Aleksandrov - Karabanovo - Kirzach - Orekhovo, which was built first as a separate line.
Most of the line is two-track, except the north part. The section Bekasovo - Iksha was converted to one-track in 1990s due to economic crisis. The Dmitrov - Naugolny section was built with one track in wartime, with steepest curves and low speed restriction, so it is rarely used by freight trains. This section is in a state of modernisation in 2010s, with construction of a second track.
Parts of the Greater Ring are located within three regions (federal subjects) of Russia:
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.
Vladimir Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Vladimir, which is located 190 kilometers (120 mi) east of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 1,443,693.
Troitsky Administrative Okrug is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow. The okrug was founded on July 1, 2012.
Pozhitkovo station is situated both in Moscow and Moscow Oblast, split in half by the city boundary; Bekasovo I is similarly divided, with only a small part of being within Moscow Oblast.
Suburban passenger traffic is served by OAO Central PPK.
The Chūō Main Line, commonly called the Chūō Line, is one of the major trunk railway lines in Japan. It connects Tokyo and Nagoya, although it is the slowest direct railway connection between the two cities; the coastal Tōkaidō Main Line is slightly faster, and the Tōkaidō Shinkansen which is currently the fastest rail link between the cities.
The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a 393-mile long (632 km) electrified railway between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham and Newcastle. The line is a key transport artery on the eastern side of Great Britain running broadly parallel to the A1 road.
Various terms are used for passenger rail lines and equipment-the usage of these terms differs substantially between areas:
Rail transport in Russia runs on one of the biggest railroad networks in the world. Russian railways are the third longest by length and third by volume of freight hauled, after the railways of the United States and China. In overall density of operations /length of track, Russia is second only to China. Rail transport in Russia has been described as one of the economic wonders of the 19th, 20th, and 21st century.
The Saint Petersburg–Hiitola railway is a 170-kilometer (110 mi) long railway with 1,520 mm broad gauge located in St. Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast and Republic of Karelia, which links Finlyandsky Rail Terminal to Khiytola through Devyatkino, Vaskelovo, Sosnovo, Priozersk and Kuznechnoye. Originally built by Finnish State Railways in the Grand Duchy of Finland, the railway was part of a trunk line from Vaasa by the Gulf of Botnia to St. Petersburg. In the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty the territory was ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union. The railroad is now operated by the Russian Railways. The railroad is used by passenger trains between St. Petersburg and Sortavala. The track between Khiytola and Sortavala is a part of the Vyborg–Joensuu railroad completed in 1894.
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey, abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines. TCDD was formed on 4 June 1929 as part of the nationalisation of railways in Turkey.
The Munich–Rosenheim railway is a 65 kilometre-long double-track main line of the German railways. It connects Munich Hauptbahnhof with Rosenheim station, where it connects with the Rosenheim–Salzburg railway, which connects with the line to Vienna at Salzburg, and the line to Kufstein, which continues to Innsbruck and the Brenner line to Italy. The line is part of the "Main line for Europe", connecting Paris with Bratislava and Budapest and the almost identical line 17 of Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T). It is part of the line 1 of TEN-T. It is electrified at 15 kV, 16.7 Hz. It was opened between Munich and Rosenheim in 1871.
The first section of the Berlin–Magdeburg Railway was opened in 1838 as the Berlin-Potsdam Railway and was the first railway line in Prussia. In 1846 it was extended to Magdeburg.
The Berlin–Dresden railway is a double track, electrified main line railway in the German states of Berlin, Brandenburg and Saxony, which was originally built and operated by the Berlin-Dresden Railway Company. It runs from Berlin through the southern Teltow countryside and then between Lower Lusatia and Fläming Heath through Elsterwerda and the Großenhainer Pflege countryside to Dresden.
Wustermark station is a railway station in the town of Wustermark in the Havelland region of the German state of Brandenburg, to the west of Berlin. The station is located on the Berlin–Lehrte railway and is connected with the Jüterbog–Nauen railway, part of which became part of the Berlin outer ring in the 1950s. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 5 station.
The Kiyevsky Suburban Direction of Moscow Railway is one of ten directions used for suburban railway connections between Moscow, Russia, and surrounding areas in Moscow Oblast and Kaluga Oblast. The Kiyevsky Suburban Direction connects Moscow with the station in the southwest, in particular, with the towns of Aprelevka, Naro-Fominsk, Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, and Kaluga. The stations the direction serves are located in Moscow, as well as in Odintsovsky and Naro-Fominsky Districts of Moscow Oblast, and Borovsky and Maloyaroslavetsky Districts and the city of Kaluga of Kaluga Oblast. The suburban trains have their northeastern terminus at Moscow Kiyevsky railway station. In the southwestern direction, the suburban trains terminate at the stations of Solnechnaya, Novoperedelkino, Lesnoy Gorodok, Aprelevka, Bekasovo-1, Nara, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga-1, and Kaluga-2. The stretch between Tikhonova Pustyn and Kaluga-1 follows the railway which proceeds further to Aleksin. The direction is served by the Moscow Railway.
The Soviet locomotive class P36 was a Soviet mainline passenger steam locomotive type. Between 1950 and 1956, 251 locomotives were built. The locomotives were nicknamed "Generals" because of the red stripe down the side. The P36 had the same power as a class IS locomotive but the axle loading of 18 tons allowed its use on the vast majority of Russian railway lines, replacing class Su 2-6-2s and significantly increasing the weight of passenger trains. The P36 was the last type of mainline steam locomotive built in Russia and the last one built, P36-0251, was the last steam locomotive produced by Kolomna Works. Though sometimes described as the "Victory" type locomotive, that moniker actually belongs to the class L 2-10-0 built between 1945 and 1947.
The Naro-Fominsk rail crash occurred on 20 May 2014 when a freight train derailed near Naro-Fominsk, Moscow Oblast, Russia. The train was run into by a passenger train. Nine people were killed and 51 were injured.
The Moscow Central Circle or MCC, designated Line 14 or just Encircle Line and marked in a strawberry red/white color is a 54-kilometre-long (34 mi) orbital urban/metropolitan rail line that encircles historical Moscow. The line is rebuilt from the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway and opened to passengers on 10 September 2016. and is operated by the Moscow Government owned company MKZD through the Moscow Metro, with the state-run Russian Railways selected as the operation subcontractor. The infrastructure, trackage and platforms are owned and managed by Russian Railways, while most station buildings are owned by MKZD.
The Yaroslavsky Suburban Direction of Moscow Railway is one of ten directions used for suburban railway connections between Moscow, Russia, and surrounding areas, mostly in Moscow Oblast. The Yaroslavsky Suburban Direction connects Moscow with the stations in the northeast, in particular, with the towns of Mytishchi, Korolyov, Fryazino, Shchyolkovo, Pushkino, Krasnoarmeysk, Sergiyev Posad, Strunino, and Alexandrov. The stations the direction serves are located in Moscow, as well as in Mytishchinsky, Shchyolkovsky, Noginsky, Pushkinsky, and Sergiyevo-Posadsky Districts of Moscow Oblast, as well as Alexandrovsky District of Vladimir Oblast and the towns of Korolyov, Fryazino, and Krasnoarmeysk. The suburban trains have their northern terminus at Moscow Yaroslavskaya railway station in Moscow. In the northwestern direction, the suburban trains terminate at the stations of Bolshevo, Fryazino Passazhirskaya, Monino, Shchyolkovo, Fryazevo, Pushkino, Sofrino, Krasnoarmeysk, Sergiyev Posad, Alexandrov, and Balakirevo. The direction is served by the Moscow Railway.
The Gorkovsky Suburban Direction of Moscow Railway is one of ten directions used for suburban railway connections between Moscow, Russia, and surrounding areas, mostly in Moscow Oblast. The Nizhegorodsky Suburban Direction connects Moscow with the station in the east, in particular, with the towns of Reutov, Balashikha, Elektrougli, Elektrostal, Noginsk, Pavlovsky Posad, Elektrogorsk, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Pokrov, Petushki, Kosteryovo, Lakinsk, and Vladimir. The stations the direction serves are located in Moscow, as well as in Balashikha Urban Okrug, Pavlovo-Posadsky and Orekhovo-Zuyevsky Districts of Moscow Oblast and in Petushinsky District, Sobinsky District, and the city of Vladimir of Vladimir Oblast. The suburban trains have their western terminus at Moscow Kurskaya railway station in Moscow. In the eastern direction, the suburban trains terminate at the stations of Balashikha, Zheleznodorozhnaya, Kupavna, Fryazevo, Zakharovo, Elektrogorsk, Petushki, and Vladimir. The direction is served by the Moscow Railway. The suburban direction follows the railway which connects Moscow with Nizhny Novgorod via Vladimir. It is fully electrified. Between Moscow and Vladimir, there are two tracks. The distance between Moscow Kurskaya railway station and Vladimir is 190 kilometres (120 mi).
Jüterbog station in a station in the town of Jüterbog in the German state of Brandenburg. It was opened in 1841, which makes it one of the oldest railway stations in Brandenburg. The Jüterbog–Röderau railway has branched off the Berlin–Halle railway (Anhalterbahn) at the station since 1848. Its importance grew with the opening of further railway lines. Some of these lines have now been closed.
The Leipzig-Engelsdorf–Leipzig-Connewitz railway is a double-track, electrified main line in the Leipzig area in the German state of Saxony. It was originally built as part of the Leipzig Freight Ring, but since December 2013 it has also been mainly used for the operations of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland. At the former Tabakmühle junction the line now transitions into the Tabakmühle junction–Leipzig Bayer Bf railway and the approximately 800 m-long section from Tabakmühle junction to the beginning of Leipzig-Connewitz station is closed.
Hurworth Burn railway station was a railway station on the Castle Eden branch of the North Eastern Railway (NER) from 1880 to 1931. It was located between the embankment carrying the railway over Hurworth Burn Reservoir and the bridge carrying the line over the Hart to Trimdon road. As well as serving the then relatively new reservoir, the station primarily served a few scattered hamlets though it was also the nearest station to the village of Sheraton.
The Grünau Cross–Berlin Brandenburg Airport railway is a railway line in the south of Berlin, the capital of Germany, and in the adjacent areas of Brandenburg. It is used by the Berlin S-Bahn. The first, 5.9 kilometre-long section was opened in 1962 and served mainly as a connection to Berlin Schönefeld Airport and the associated long-distance station. In 2011, a 7.7 kilometre-long extension went into operation to connect with Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER). Due to delays in the start-up of the new airport, this section is not yet used for public transport.