Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway

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The Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway (Russian : Большое кольцо Московской железной дороги) is the common name for a system of connector lines between the railways that radiate from Moscow. The general configuration of the Greater Ring is a ring around the main part of Moscow (outside Moscow). It forms part of the radial-ring structure of the Moscow railways. The Greater Ring crosses the rail lines in all 11 radial directions from the railway stations of Moscow. It totals 584 kilometres (363 mi) in length. For its entire length, the ring is equipped with an automatic locking system, permitting, where necessary, two-way single-track operation; elsewhere, there are two track and multiple track sections. [1]

Moscow Railway one of the railway divisions in Russia

Moscow Railway is a subsidiary of Russian Railways that handles half of Russia's suburban railway operations and a quarter of the country's passenger traffic. As of 2009 the railway, which has its headquarters near Komsomolskaya Square in Moscow, employed 73 600 people. It manages railway services in much of Central Russia, including Moscow and Moscow Oblast, Smolensk, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Kaluga, Bryansk, Oryol, Lipetsk, and Kursk Oblasts.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Contents

Different segments of the Greater Ring were constructed independently from each other, starting from the late 19th century. The entire ring was completed in 1942-1944, during World War II.

World War II 1939–1945, between Axis and Allies

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

The ring allows freight trains to be transferred from one railway to another without entering Moscow; to a lesser extent, it is used for the same purpose by long-distance passenger trains as well. This reduces the transit traffic volume on the innermost sections of the radial rail lines, and makes more time slots available for running commuter trains between Moscow's terminals and the city's suburbs. The ring also serves transportation needs of towns and industrial customers located along it.

Operation

The Greater Ring itself entirely belongs to the three regions of the Moscow Railway:

Yegoryevsk Town in Moscow Oblast, Russia

Yegoryevsk is a town and the administrative center of Yegoryevsk Urban Settlement in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Guslitsa River 114 kilometers (71 mi) southeast of Moscow.

This line is primarily used to let freight traffic bypass Moscow. The two biggest freight stations are Orekhovo and Bekasovo, they are main classification yards for Moscow region, and also have locomotive depots, for freight electric locomotives operating around Moscow.

Some overnight passenger trains also use some segments of Ring to bypass Moscow. Since the late 2000-s most, but not all of these trains run through Moscow instead. Commuter traffic is very low, about 3-5 trains per day, and may be delayed due to overload of freight trains. The most used section is Aleksandrov - Karabanovo - Kirzach - Orekhovo, which was built first as a separate line.

Most of the line is two-track, except the north part. The section Bekasovo - Iksha was converted to one-track in 1990s due to economic crisis. The Dmitrov - Naugolny section was built with one track in wartime, with steepest curves and low speed restriction, so it is rarely used by freight trains. This section is in a state of modernisation in 2010s, with construction of a second track.

Administrative regions

Parts of the Greater Ring are located within three regions (federal subjects) of Russia:

Federal subjects of Russia Official constitutional top-level political division of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.

Vladimir Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Vladimir Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Vladimir, which is located 190 kilometers (120 mi) east of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 1,443,693.

Troitsky Administrative Okrug is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow. The okrug was founded on July 1, 2012.

Pozhitkovo station is situated both in Moscow and Moscow Oblast, split in half by the city boundary; Bekasovo I is similarly divided, with only a small part of being within Moscow Oblast.

Passenger operation

Suburban passenger traffic is served by OAO Central PPK.

See also

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