Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Last updated
Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Disputed islands
Other names: Persian: تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک (Tonb-e Bozorg or Tonb-e Kuchak)
Arabic: طنب الكبرى وطنب الصغرى (Tunb el-Kubra and Tunb el-Sughra)
Strait of Hormuz.jpg
Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands in the Persian Gulf
Geography
Location Persian Gulf
CoordinatesGreater: 26°15′N55°16′E / 26.250°N 55.267°E / 26.250; 55.267
Lesser: 26°14′N55°08′E / 26.233°N 55.133°E / 26.233; 55.133
Total islands2
AreaGreater: 10.3 km2 (4.0 sq mi)
Lesser: 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi)
Administered by
Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Province Hormozgan Province
Claimed by
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates
Emirate Ras al-Khaimah
Demographics
Populationaround 300 [1]

Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Persian : تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک, Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak, Arabic : طنب الكبرى و طنب الصغرى, Tunb el-Kubra and Tunb el-Sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. They lie at 26°15′N55°16′E / 26.250°N 55.267°E / 26.250; 55.267 and 26°14′N55°08′E / 26.233°N 55.133°E / 26.233; 55.133 respectively, some 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from each other and 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the Iranian island of Qeshm. The islands are administered by Iran as part of its Hormozgan Province, but are also claimed by the United Arab Emirates as a territory of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

Persian Gulf An arm of the Indian Ocean in western Asia

The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Strait of Hormuz strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf

The Strait of Hormuz is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. The strait is about 90 nautical miles (167 km) long, with a width varying from about 52 nautical miles (96 km) to 21 nautical miles (39 km).

Contents

Greater Tunb has a surface of 10.3 km2 (4.0 sq mi). It is known for its red soil. There are conflicting descriptions about its population: While some sources state there are between a few dozen and a few hundred inhabitants, [3] others describe the island as having no native civilian population. [4] There is reported to be an Iranian garrison and naval station, an aircraft runway, [5] a fish storage facility and a red-soil mine. Lesser Tunb has a surface of 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi) and is uninhabited with the exception of a small airfield, harbour, and entrenched Iranian military unit.

Trench warfare Type of land warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines, largely comprising military trenches in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. "Trench warfare" has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges, and futility in conflict.

Toponymy

The toponymy of Tonb is in all likelihood of Persian origin. In the local Persian dialect(s) of southern Persia, the noun Tomb andTonb, with its diminutive Tonbu or Tombu, as it applied to Lesser Tonb (Nāmiuh or Nābiuh Tonb), means “hill” or “low elevation” (cfr. Medieval Latin tumba and Ancient Greek tymbos, with the same meaning, roots for "tomb"). The terms have the same meaning in the larger Dari Persian language system; this explains in part the traces of tonb and tonbu in the toponyms found in the Bushehr and Lengeh regions, some 300 miles (480 km) apart. There are other toponyms such as Tonb-e Seh in Tangestān and Tonbānu on Qeshm island. [6]

Medieval Latin Form of Latin used in the Middle Ages

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, and as the working language of science, literature, law, and administration.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Bushehr City in Iran

Bushehr, or Bushire, is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 161,674, in 40,771 families.

Etymologically, the word TNB is also a proper Arabic word, which means to anchor, according to the Medieval Arab linguist Ibn Fares. [7]

Dispute

Reference to Great Tonb as an Iranian island is found in Ibn Balkhi's 12th-century Farsnameh and Hamdallah Mustawfi Kazvini's 14th-century Nuzhat al-Qulub. The Tonbs were dominions of the Kings of Hormuz from 1330 or so until Hormuz's capitulation to the Portuguese in 1507. The Tonbs remained a part of the Hormuzi-Portuguese administration until 1622, when the Portuguese were expelled from the Persian littoral by the Persian central government. During this period, the human geography, commerce, and territorial administration of the Tonbs, along with Abu Musa and Sirri islands, became intimately connected with the Province of Fars, notably the Persian ports of Bandar Lengeh and Bandar Kang, and the nearby Qeshm and Hengam islands. [3]

Ormus kingdom in Persian Gulf, established by Arab princes in 10th c., later under suzerainty of Persia and a client state of the Portuguese Empire

The Kingdom of Ormus was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz. The Kingdom was established by Arab princes in the 10th century who in 1262 came under the suzerainty of Persia, before becoming a client state of the Portuguese Empire.

Portuguese people ethnic group

Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity, mainly Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population, especially the younger generations, have no religious affiliation. Historically, the Portuguese people's heritage largely includes the pre-Celts and Celts, who became culturally Romanized during the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans. A number of Portuguese also can trace descent from Germanic tribes who arrived after the Roman period as ruling elites, including the Suebi and Visigoths in northern Portugal and central Portugal. Finally, also limited converted Jewish and Berbers as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, especially in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.

Abu Musa Island near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz

Abu Musa is a 12.8-square-kilometre (4.9 sq mi) island in the eastern Persian Gulf near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz. Due to the depth of sea, oil tankers and big ships have to pass between Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs; this makes these islands some of the most strategic points in the Persian Gulf. The island is administered by Iran as part of its province of Hormozgan, but is also claimed by the United Arab Emirates as a territory of the emirate of Sharjah.

It has been remarked, in the context of the limits of the Persian empire in the Persian Gulf in the middle of the 18th century, that "[a]ll the islands off the Persian coast, from Kharqu and Kharaq in the north to Hormoz and Larak in the south, were rightly Persian, though many were in the hands of Arab tribes". Consistent with this, the British in 1800 were also of the belief that "[a]lthough the King exercises no positive authority over any of the islands of the Persian Gulf, those on the northern shore are all considered as part of the Empire". [6]

Afsharid dynasty dynasty

The Afsharid dynasty was an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Iran (Persia) in the mid-eighteenth century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the brilliant military commander Nader Shah, who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself as of the Shah of Iran.

An 1804 map of German origin[ citation needed ] showed the southern coast of Iran as the habitat of the "Bani Hule" tribe and the islands, coloured in the same orange, were designated as "Thunb unbenohul". The "Bani Hule" or Howalla were a loosely defined grouping of peoples of distant Arab origin but with longstanding residence on the Iranian coast. Regardless of the spelling of the toponym as "Tonb", be it from the Arabic tÂonb (abode) or from the Persian tonb (hill), the attribution to the larger island of this epithet highlighted the islands' intimate association with the Persian coast and its inhabitants. One of the clans belonging to the Howalla or "Bani Hule" of the Persian coast was that of the Qasimi. Their Arab tribal origins are not as clearly established as is, however, their Persian geographical origin immediately prior to their rise to notoriety in the lower Persian Gulf.[ clarification needed ] This occurred in the 18th century. [6]

18th century

During the 1720s, the Qasami had emigrated from the Persian coast and established themselves as a force in Sharjah and Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah, now part of UAE). In the period 1747–59, a branch of the Qasemi from Sharjah established itself on the Persian littoral, but it was expelled in 1767. By 1780, the Qasemi branch was re-established on the Persian coast and began to feud with other coastal tribes over pasturage in the islands off Langeh. The Iranian argument for the ownership of the disputed islands is that the Qasami controlled the islands while they were located on the Persian coast, not when they later emigrated to the UAE coast. In April 1873, the islands were reported as a dependency of the Persian Fars province to the British Resident, which the Resident acknowledged. In the period 1786–1835 the official British opinion, surveys, and maps identified the Tonbs as part of Langeh, subject to the government of the province of Fars. Chief among them were the works of Lt. John McCluer (1786), political counselor John Macdonald Kinneir (1813), and Lt. George Barns Brucks (1829). [6]

19th century

A map by Adolf Stieler showing Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs. Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs in Iran and Turan Map by Adolf Stieler map 1891.JPG
A map by Adolf Stieler showing Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs.

In 1835, the Bani Yas attacked a British ship off Greater Tonb. In the ensuing maritime peace arranged by the British Political Resident Samuel Hennell, a restrictive line was established between Abu Musa and Sirri islands, and pledges were obtained from the tribes of the lower Persian Gulf not to venture their war boats north of the line. In view of Sirri and Abu Musa being pirate lairs themselves, Hennell's successor, Major James Morrison, in January 1836, modified the restrictive line to run from Sham on the Trucial Coast to a point ten miles south of Abu Musa to Sáir Abu Noayr island. In either of its configurations, the restrictive line placed the Tonbs outside of the reach of the war boats of the Qasemi, Bani Yas, and other tribes of the lower Persian Gulf. The 1835 maritime truce was made permanent in 1853 after a series of earlier extensions. Force being no longer a viable option for settlement of disputes, especially on the part of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf, the enforcement of Qasemi's claims to islands such as Abu Musa and Greater Tonb became a subject for the British colonial administration in the Persian Gulf. In that context, the Resident and its agents on several occasions (1864, 1873, 1879, 1881) had been seized with the question of the ownership of the Tonbs, but the British government had refused to go along with the claims of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf. [6]

In the period 1836–86, the official British surveys, maps, and administrative reports continued to identify the Tonbs as part of Langeh, subject to the government of Fars province. Among them were the works of Lt. Colonel Robert Taylor (1836), the Resident A.B. Kemball (1854), the Resident Lewis Pelly (1864), The Persian Gulf Pilot (1864), an admiralty publication, the 1870 (second) edition of The Persian Gulf Pilot, and the 1886 Map of Persia, which was issued by the intelligence branch of the British war office and showed the Tonbs in the colour of Persia. [6]

Until this date (1886), the British acknowledged Persian ownership of the islands. In February 1887, the Persian central government reorganised the ports of Bushehr, Langeh, and Bandar Abbas, together with their dependent districts and islands, into a new administrative unit called the Persian Gulf Ports and placed it under the charge of a member of the Qajar royal family, dissolving the Qasami governorship later in September. These and other Persian actions prompted the British to change their stance on the ownership of the islands due to suspicion that the new Persian policy was influenced by German and Russian interests. By August 1888, Britain decided to acquiesce in the Persian actions on Sirri, leaving alone the concerns over Tonb, even though the Persian government's rebuff of the British protests had coupled their claim to Sirri with one to Tonb). The British regard for the Persian claim to Sirri (and perhaps Tonb) was affected significantly by the depiction of the Tonbs and Serri in the same colour as that of Persia in the 1886 Map of Persia, which Naser-al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia now astutely cited against the British when they protested the Persian actions on Sirri. The British acquiescence in the Persian claim to Serri demeaned the very theory on which the protest had been based. [6]

The Qasemi administrators of Langa were of the same original stock as the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf; however, their rise on the Persian littoral and to the political administration of Langa and its dependencies were attributable primarily to their distance from the politics and piratical activities of their kinsmen in Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah . Consequently, when the British government pacified the tribes of the lower Persian Gulf, which it had labelled as "pirates" (hence the term "Pirate Coast") in a series of naval engagements in the early 19th century, and then exacted from them a general surrender in 1820 and a maritime truce in the 1830s (hence the term "Trucial" Shaikhdoms), the Qasemi of the Persian coast were spared the ravages and humiliation suffered by their namesake in the lower Persian Gulf. The view that the Qasemi of Langeh had administered the Tonbs, Abu Musa, and Serri islands as the lieutenants of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf was rebutted in later years by a legal adviser at the British foreign office in 1932 and the head of its eastern department in 1934. [6]

Besides the Persian territorial and political ambitions in the Persian Gulf, in the period 1888–1903 the British government was worried equally about French intrigues, and Russian and German naval and economic interests in the region. It had already been determined by the British that the Persian actions on Sirri and elsewhere in the Persian Gulf were inspired by Russia. In pursuit of a forward policy based on Curzon's views, which included the marking of the territories under their direct and indirect colonial control, the British government undertook a project to erect flagstaffs in a number of locations in the Persian Gulf.

In the pursuit of British imperial considerations, the lack of regard for Persian sensibilities was no problem. Already, in 1901, a British government memorandum openly suggested that, where strategic necessity required, Britain would seize any of the Persian islands, and in March 1902 Curzon recommended that the British navy hoist a flag on Qeshm island in the case of necessity. On June 14, 1904, the Persian government removed its presence from Abu Musa and Greater Tonb subject to the reservations, as reported by the British minister. In a note to the British minister, the Persian foreign minister stated that neither party should hoist flags in the islands until the settlement of the question of ownership, but the sheikh of Sharjah hoisted their flags three days later. In the Iranian annals of the diplomatic history of the Tonbs and Abu Musa, the Persian agreement to withdraw from the islands on 14 June 1904, subject to reservations, is known as the "status quo agreement." The re-flagging of the islands by Sharjah three days after the withdrawal of the Persians violated the status quo agreement, rendering moot the legal relevance of any subsequent presence and activity by Sharjah on the islands and also any by Ras al-Khaimah with respect to the Tonbs from 1921 onward. [6]

20th century

During the 20th century, several attempts at negotiations were made. On 29 November 1971, shortly before the end of the British protectorate and the formation of the UAE, Iran seized semi-control of Abu Musa under an agreement of joint administration together with Sharjah, with both sides nominally upholding their separate claims. A day later, on 30 November 1971, Iran forcibly seized control of the Tunb Islands and Abu Musa, against the resistance of the tiny Arab police force stationed there. The Iranians were instructed not to open fire, and the first [8] shots came from the Arab resistance which killed four Iranian marines and injured one.[ citation needed ] In his book Territorial foundations of the Gulf states, Schofield states that according to some sources, the Arab civilian population of Greater Tunb of about 120 was then deported to Ras Al Khaimah, but according to other sources the island had already been uninhabited for some time. [9]

Present situation

In the following decades, the issue remained a source of friction between the Arab states and Iran. The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf repeatedly declared support for the UAE claims. Bilateral talks between the UAE and Iran in 1992 failed. The UAE have attempted to bring the dispute before the International Court of Justice, [10] but Iran refuses to do so. Tehran says the islands always belonged to it as it had never renounced possession of the islands, and that they are an integral part of Iranian territory. [11] The emirate of Ras al-Khaimah argue that the islands were under the control of Qasimi sheikhs, a branch of which administered the port of Bandar Lengeh for the Persian government from ca. 1789 to 1887, [6] and UAE as the successor to the tribal patrimony of the tribe, may inherit their rights. Iran counters by stating that the local Qasimi rulers during a crucial part of the previous centuries were actually based on the Iranian, not the Arab, coast, and had thus has been Persian subjects. [12] The UAE refers to the islands as "occupied". [13]

See also

Notes

  1. Journal of Middle Eastern geopolitics: Volume 2; Volume 2 (2007), Università degli studi di Roma "La Sapienza." Dipartimento di studi geoeconomici statistici storici per l'analisi regionale, Università degli studi di Roma "La Sapienza." Dipartimento di studi geoeconomici statistici storici per l'analisi regionale, page 68
  2. Vaidya, Sunil K. (2009-04-09). "UAE gets strong backing in island dispute with Iran". Gulf News. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
    - Henderson, Simon (7 December 2007). "Unwanted Guest: The Gulf Summit and Iran". The Washington Institute For Near East Policy. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
    - "Abu Musa and the Tumbs: The Dispute That Won't Go Away, Part Two". The Estimate. 4 August 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  3. 1 2 Guive Mirfendereski
  4. Radio Free Europe
  5. https://www.google.com/maps/place/26%C2%B014'51.0%22N+55%C2%B013'24.0%22E/@26.2556513,55.3112294,1364m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x0:0x0!8m2!3d26.2475!4d55.223333?hl=en
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "TONB (GREATER AND LESSER)". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  7. http://shamela.ws/browse.php/book-21710#page-1438 Accessed 13 April 2018
  8. Life and memoirs of Amir Abbas Hoveyda, Eskandar Doldam, Tehran, Golfam publication, ISBN   964634500X
  9. Schofield, Richard. "Borders and territoriality in the Gulf and the Arabian peninsula during the twentieth century". In: Schofield (ed.) Territorial foundations of the Gulf states. London: UCL Press, 1994. 1–77. References on p. 38.
  10. Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Safa Haeri
  12. Schofield: 35–37
  13. "Islands issue mars Iran-UAE ties, Abdullah tells FNC", Gulf News, 20 April 2010

Related Research Articles

History of the United Arab Emirates aspect of history

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a country in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula located on the southeastern coast of the Persian Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. The UAE consists of seven emirates and was founded on 2 December 1971 as a federation. Six of the seven emirates combined on that date. The seventh, Ras al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. The seven sheikdoms were formerly known as the Trucial States, in reference to the treaty relations established with the British in the 19th Century.

Geography of the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates is situated in the Middle East/southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is at a strategic location along the northern approaches to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil. The UAE lies between 22°50′ and 26° north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. It shares a 19 km (12 mi) border with Qatar on the northwest, a 530 km (330 mi) border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450 km (280 mi) border with Oman on the southeast and northeast.

Ras Al Khaimah Emirate in United Arab Emirates

Ras Al Khaimah (RAK), to an extent identified with the historical area of Julfar, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is also transliterated as Ras al Khaimah and Ras al-Khaimah. The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes simply abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the emirate and home to most of the emirate's residents.

Umm Al Quwain Emirate in United Arab Emirates

Umm Al Quwain is the least populous of the seven constituent emirates in the United Arab Emirates, located in the north of the country. The closest body of water near it is the Persian Gulf. The emirate is ruled by Saud bin Rashid Al Mualla. It had 72,000 inhabitants in 2007 and has an area of 770 km2 (300 sq mi).

Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi (1781–1866) was the Sheikh of the Al Qasimi and ruler variously of the towns of Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah, Jazirah Al Hamra and Rams. A dependent of the first Saudi Kingdom, his rule over Ras Al Khaimah ran from 1803–1809, when he was deposed by order of the Saudi Amir and restored in 1820, going on to rule until his death in 1866 at the age of 85. He was Ruler of Sharjah from 1814–1866, with a brief disruption to that rule in 1840 by his elder son Saqr.

Ajman Metropolis in Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Ajman is the capital of the emirate of Ajman in the United Arab Emirates, located along the Persian Gulf.

Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs

The Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs describes the Iranian takeover of Abu Musa and the Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb islands in 30 November 1971, when British forces withdrew from the islands in the Strait of Hormuz. After the British forces had withdrawn, the Imperial Iranian Navy took territorial control of the islands.

The Shihuh is a tribe of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman. In the singular, the name is Al Shehhi, a common family name in the UAE and Oman today. Inhabiting the northern part of the Hajar Mountain range, the tribe has long been influential in the affairs of both the east and west coast settlements of the northern UAE and Oman and has fiercely maintained both its identity and independence.

This article deals with territorial disputes between states of in and around the Persian Gulf in Southwestern Asia. These states include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman

General Maritime Treaty of 1820

The General Maritime Treaty of 1820 was a treaty initially signed between the rulers of Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain and Ras Al Khaimah and the British in January 1820, with the nearby island state of Bahrain acceding to the treaty in the following February. Its full title was, "General Treaty for the Cessation of Plunder and Piracy by Land and Sea, Dated February 5, 1820".

Sheikh Khalid bin Saqr Al Qasimi is the former Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ras al-Khaimah, the northernmost Emirate of the United Arab Emirates. He is the eldest son of Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi, who ruled Ras Al Khaimah from 1948 until his death in 2010

Trucial States British protectorate 1820–1971, precursor to United Arab Emirates

The Trucial States was the name the British government gave to a group of tribal confederations in south-eastern Arabia which had been known as the "Pirate Coast". The name derived from the territories whose principal sheikhs had signed protective treaties with the British government from 1820 until 1892. They remained an informal British protectorate until the treaties were revoked on 1 December 1971. The following day six of the sheikhdoms formed the United Arab Emirates; the seventh – Ras Al Khaimah – joined the Federation on 10 February 1972.

Iran–United Arab Emirates relations Diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Arab Emirates

Relations between the neighboring countries of Iran and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are deeply historic, dating back centuries prior to the establishment of the modern-day United Arab Emirates. Both the countries maintain diplomatic relations with each other, having embassies in each other's capitals, and have close economic ties.

Piracy in the Persian Gulf

Piracy in the Persian Gulf describes the naval warfare that was prevalent until the 19th century and occurred between seafaring Arabs in Eastern Arabia and the British Empire in the Persian Gulf. It was perceived as one of the primary threats to global maritime trade routes, particularly those with significance to British India and Iraq. Many of the most notable historical instances of piracy, referred to as resistance by modern Emirati historians, were perpetrated by the Al Qasimi tribe. This led to the British mounting the Persian Gulf campaign of 1809, a major maritime action launched by the British to bombard Ras Al Khaimah, Lingeh and other Al Qasimi ports. The current ruler of Sharjah, Sultan bin Muhammad Al Qasimi argues in his book The Myth of Piracy in the Gulf that the allegations of piracy were simply excuses used by the British to impose imperialism.

Commemoration Day or Martyrs' Day is marked annually on December 01 in the United Arab Emirates, recognising the sacrifices and dedication of Emirati martyrs who have given their life in the UAE and abroad in the field of civil, military and humanitarian service. The Commemoration Day was previously observed on 30 November (pre-2019).

Sheikh Mohammed bin Hamad Al Sharqi was the Ruler of Fujairah, one of the Trucial States which today form the United Arab Emirates (UAE), from 1938–1975. In 1952 he was to see his father's long-held dream of independence for Fujairah recognised, as well as shortly afterwards to help take the UAE to independence as a nation, in 1971.

The Sudan is an Arab tribe in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and other Gulf states.

References

Coordinates: 26°14′51″N55°13′24″E / 26.24750°N 55.22333°E / 26.24750; 55.22333