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Greek Byzantine Catholic Church
|Leader||Bishop Manuel Nin |
Apostolic Exarch of Greece
|Associations||Congregation for the Oriental Churches|
|Headquarters||Holy Trinity Cathedral|
|Origin||June 11, 1911|
|Separated from||Greek Orthodox|
|Branched from||Catholic Church|
|Part of a series on|
| Particular churches sui iuris |
of the Catholic Church
|Particular churches are grouped by rite.|
|East Syriac Rite|
|Latin liturgical rites|
|West Syriac Rite|
| Catholicismportal |
The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church (Greek : Ελληνική Βυζαντινή Καθολική Εκκλησία, Ellinikí Vizantiní Katholikí Ekklisía; Latin : Byzantinum Ecclesia Catholico Graeciae) or the Greek Catholic Church is a sui iuris Eastern Catholic particular church of the Catholic Church that uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in Koine Greek and Modern Greek. Its membership includes inhabitants of Greece and Turkey.
There were several failed attempts to repair the East-West Schism between Greek and Latin Christians: the Council of Bari in 1098, the Council of Lyon in 1274, and the Council of Florence in 1439. Subsequently, many individual Greeks, then under Ottoman rule, embraced communion with Rome. They typically followed the Latin Rite, maintaining their parishes through contact and support mostly from the Venetians.
However, it was not until the 1880s that a particular church specifically for Greek Catholics who followed the Byzantine rite was built in the village of Malgara in Thrace. Before the end of the 19th century, two more such churches were built, one in Constantinople and the other in Chalcedon.
In 1826, Catholic priest John Marangos began a mission among the Orthodox Christians of Constantinople, where he managed the construction of a small community. In 1878, he moved on to Athens, where he died in 1885 after he had founded a church. In addition, he won over two small villages in Thrace to the Catholic faith.
After 1895, the Assumptionists began their mission in Constantinople, a seminary and two other small towns, founded in 1910; there were about 1,000 worshipers with 12 priests, 10 of which were Assumptionists.
In 1907, a native Greek priest, Isaias Papadopoulos, the priest who had built the church in Thrace, was appointed vicar general for the Greek Catholics within the Apostolic Delegation of Constantinople, and in 1911, he received episcopal consecration and was put in charge of the newly established ordinariate for Greek Byzantine Rite Catholics, which later became an exarchate. The particular Church of Byzantine Rite Greek Catholics was being founded. Much more numerous were the Greek Catholics of Latin Rite, who formed the majority of the population in some Aegean islands.
As a result of the conflict between Greece and Turkey after the First World War, the Greek Catholics of Malgara and of the neighbouring village of Daudeli moved to Giannitsa in Macedonia, where today lives a sizeable community, and many of those who lived in Istanbul emigrated or fled to Athens, one being the bishop who had succeeded to the position of exarch, and the religious institute of the Sisters of the Pammakaristos, founded in 1920.
In 1932, the territory of the Exarchate for Byzantine-Rite Greek Catholics was limited to that of the Greek state, and a separate Exarchate of Constantinople was established for those resident in Turkey. Continued emigration and anti-Greek nationalist incidents by Turks, such as the Istanbul Pogrom, extremely reduced the number of the Greek Catholics in Turkey. The last resident Greek-Catholic priest in Constantinople died in 1997 and has not since been replaced. The only regular services in the Greek-Catholic Church of the Holy Trinity there are held by exiled Chaldean Catholics living in the city.
Vocations to the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church are largely drawn from the Greek islands of Syros and Tinos, which both have sizable Catholic populations.
Bishop Manuel Nin (titular bishop of Carcabia) is current Apostolic Exarch of the Byzantine Rite Catholics in Greece.
Byzantine Rite Catholic Greeks in Greece number were mildly rising to 6,016 (6,000 in Greece and 16 in Turkey) as of 2017.In Athens, the main Greek Catholic church is the Holy Trinity Cathedral, Athens.
Although not under the jurisdiction of the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church, a Greek-Catholic community of the descendants of expatriated Greeks exists at Cargèse, in Corsica. A priest based in Athens, Archimandrite Athanasios Armaos, visits Cargèse several times a year to conduct services in the Greek church.
Notable Greek Byzantine, or Eastern, Catholics (also called Unites for favouring the Union of the Churches) include:
Related Institutions outside of Greece:
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as Uniates, are twenty-three Eastern Christian sui iuris (autonomous) particular churches of the Catholic Church, in full communion with the pope in Rome. Although they are distinct from the Latin Church, they are all in full communion with it and with each other.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The Russian Greek Catholic Church, Russian Byzantine Catholic Church or simply Russian Catholic Church, is a sui iuris Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church. Historically, it represents the first reunion of members of the Russian Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church. It is now in full communion with and subject to the authority of the Pope of Rome as defined by Eastern canon law.
The Catholic Church in Georgia, since the 11th-century East–West Schism, has been composed mainly of Latin-Rite Catholics; Catholic communities of the Armenian Rite have existed in the country since the 18th century.
The Greek Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia, sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Byzantine Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia, is a particular Eastern Catholic church which is in full union with the Catholic Church. It consists of the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Križevci, covering Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Ruski Krstur, covering Serbia. The Eparchy of Križevci was headed by Bishop Nikola Kekić until his retirement in March 2019, and since then the eparchy is governed by apostolic administrator Milan Stipić. The Eparchy of Ruski Krstur is headed by Bishop Đura Džudžar since his appointment in 2003.
The Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. Indigenous Roman Catholic Greeks number about 50,000-70,000 and are a religious and not an ethnic minority. Most of them are a reminiscence of Venetian and Genoese rule in southern Greece and many Greek islands from the early 13th until the late 18th century, Greeks who converted to Catholicism or descendants of the thousands of Bavarians that came to Greece in the 1830s as soldiers and civil administrators, accompanying King Otto. One very old but still common term to reference to them is Φράγκοι, or "Franks", dating to the times of the Byzantine Empire, when medieval Greeks would use that term to describe all Catholics.
The Catholic Church in Turkey is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and the canonical leadership of the curia in Rome that is submitted to the Pope.
The Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church, sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Bulgarian Byzantine Catholic Church is a sui juris particular church in full union with the Catholic Church.
The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church is sui juris Eastern Catholic church in full union with the Catholic Church which uses the Macedonian language in the liturgy. The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church comprises a single eparchy, the Macedonian Catholic Eparchy of the Blessed Virgin Mary Assumed in Strumica-Skopje.
The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church in full union with the Catholic Church. Its liturgical rite is the Byzantine Rite. L'Osservatore Romano of January 31, 2008 reported that, in Slovakia alone, it had some 350,000 faithful, 374 priests and 254 parishes. In addition, the 2012 Annuario Pontificio gave its Canadian Eparchy of Saints Cyril and Methodius of Toronto as having 2,000 faithful, 4 priests and 5 parishes. The Slovak Greek Catholic Church is in full communion with the Holy See.
Georgian Byzantine Rite Catholics were Catholics of Georgian nationality or origin who are of Byzantine or "Greek" rite. According to published sources, Georgian Byzantine Rite Catholics no longer exist.
The Greek Catholic Eparchy of Ruski Krstur is an eparchy (diocese) of the Catholic Church for Eastern Catholics of the Byzantine Rite in Serbia. It was founded in 2003 as the "Apostolic Exarchate of Serbia and Montenegro" and reduced to the territory of Serbia in 2013. In 2018, it was elevated to an eparchy by Pope Francis. Since 2003, it is headed by bishop Đura Džudžar.
Greek Catholics in Montenegro are Eastern Catholic Christians who are practicing liturgy in the Byzantine Rite. Since 2013, there is no longer any Eastern Catholic jurisdiction covering Montenegro, and all Greek Catholics in the country are under jurisdiction of local bishops of the Latin Rite.
Đura Džudžar is Serbian eparchial bishop of the Greek Catholic Eparchy of Ruski Krstur since 2018. He was previously titular bishop of Acrassus (2001-2018), auxiliary bishop of the Ruthenian Eparchy of Mukachevo (2001-2003), apostolic exarch of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2013) and Serbia (2013-2018).
Bishop Isaias Papadopoulos was the first Exarch of the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church.
The Greek Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Istanbul is the senior of two missionary pre-diocesan Eastern Catholic jurisdictions that constitute the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church of the Byzantine Rite in the Greek language.
The Greek Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Greece is the presence of the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church in Greece. It is an Eastern Catholic particular church which practices the Byzantine Rite in the Greek language.
The Bulgarian Eparchy of Saint John XXIII of Sofia is the fourth, so far last and sole jurisdiction, covering Bulgaria, of the Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church.
The Bulgarian Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Constantinople was the first missionary, pre-diocesan jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church sui iuris. As Apostolic Vicariate it was exempt, i.e. directly dependent on the Holy See, and entitled to a titular bishop. It was created in 1861 and reorganized in 1883.
Holy Trinity Greek Catholic Cathedral in Istanbul, also called Holy Trinity Rum Catholic Church, is the cathedral of the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church in Istanbul, Turkey. It is located on Hamalbaşı Caddesi in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul and is currently used as a church for the local Chaldean Catholic community.