Gregg Toland

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Gregg Toland
Gregg Toland.jpg
Gregg Toland in 1947
BornGregg Wesley Toland
(1904-05-29)May 29, 1904
Charleston, Illinois
DiedSeptember 28, 1948(1948-09-28) (aged 44)
Los Angeles, California
NationalityAmerican
OccupationCinematographer
Years active1926–1948
Known forInnovative use of lighting and techniques such as deep focus
Notable workThe Best Years of Our Lives
Citizen Kane
The Grapes of Wrath
The Long Voyage Home
Wuthering Heights
Spouse(s)
Helen Barclay
(m. 1934;div. 1945)

Virginia Thorpe
(m. 1945;his death 1948)
Children3

Gregg Toland, A.S.C. (May 29, 1904 – September 28, 1948) was an American cinematographer known for his innovative use of techniques such as deep focus, examples of which can be found in his work on Orson Welles' Citizen Kane (1941), William Wyler's The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), and John Ford's The Long Voyage Home (1940). Toland was voted as one of the top 10 (actually 11 with a tie) most influential cinematographers in the history of films by the International Cinematographers Guild in 2003. [1] [2]

Cinematographer chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film

A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography.

Deep focus

Deep focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique using a large depth of field. Depth of field is the front-to-back range of focus in an image — that is, how much of it appears sharp and clear. In deep focus the foreground, middle-ground and background are all in focus.

Orson Welles American actor, director, writer and producer

George Orson Welles was an American actor, director, writer and producer who worked in theatre, radio and film. He is remembered for his innovative work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar (1937), a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; in radio, the long-remembered 1938 broadcast "The War of the Worlds"; and in film, Citizen Kane (1941), consistently ranked as one of the greatest films ever made.

Contents

Career

Toland was born in Charleston, Illinois on May 29, 1904 to Jennie, a housekeeper, and Frank Toland. His mother moved to California several years after his parents divorced in 1910.

Charleston, Illinois City in Illinois, United States

Charleston is a city in and the county seat of Coles County, Illinois, United States. The population was 21,838, as of the 2010 census. The city is home to Eastern Illinois University and has close ties with its neighbor, Mattoon. Both are principal cities of the Charleston–Mattoon Micropolitan Statistical Area.

A housekeeper is an individual responsible for the supervision of a house's cleaning staff.

He first demonstrated his chiaroscuro, side-lit style on the short film The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra (1928), on which one of the two 400W bulbs they had available burned out, leaving only a single bulb to light with.

Chiaroscuro use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition in art

Chiaroscuro, in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is also a technical term used by artists and art historians for the use of contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects and figures. Similar effects in cinema and photography also are called chiaroscuro.

<i>The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra</i> 1928 American short silent film directed by Robert Florey

The Life and Death of 9413: a Hollywood Extra is a 1928 American silent experimental short film co-written and co-directed by Robert Florey and Slavko Vorkapić. Considered a landmark of American avant-garde cinema, it tells the story of a man who comes to Hollywood with dreams of becoming a star, only to fail and become dehumanized, with studio executives reducing him to the role of extra and writing the number "9413" on his forehead.

During the 1930s, Toland became the youngest cameraman in Hollywood but soon one of its most sought-after cinematographers. Over a seven-year span (1936–1942), he was nominated five times for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography, including an Academy Award for his work on Wuthering Heights (1939). He worked with many of the leading directors of his era, including John Ford, Howard Hawks, Erich von Stroheim, King Vidor, Orson Welles, and William Wyler.

Hollywood Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California, notable as the home of the U.S. film industry including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.

The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular motion picture.

<i>Wuthering Heights</i> (1939 film) 1939 film by William Wyler

Wuthering Heights is a 1939 American romantic period drama film directed by William Wyler and produced by Samuel Goldwyn. It is based on the novel, Wuthering Heights, by Emily Brontë. The film depicts only sixteen of the novel's thirty-four chapters, eliminating the second generation of characters. The novel was adapted for the screen by Charles MacArthur, Ben Hecht, and John Huston. The film won the 1939 New York Film Critics Award for Best Film. It earned nominations for eight Academy Awards, including for Best Picture and Best Actor in what many consider Hollywood's greatest single year. The 1940 Academy Award for Best Cinematography, black-and-white category, was awarded to Gregg Toland for his work. Nominated for original score was the prolific film composer, Alfred Newman, whose poignant "Cathy's Theme" does so much "to maintain its life as a masterpiece of romantic filmmaking."

Just before his death, he was concentrating on the "ultimate focus" lens, which makes both near and far objects equally distinct. "Just before he died he had worked out a new lens with which he had made spectacular shots. He carried in his wallet a strip of film taken with this lens, of which he was very proud. It was a shot of a face three inches from the lens, filling one-third of the left side of the frame. Three feet from the lens, in the center of the foreground, was another face, and then, over a hundred yards away was the rear wall of the studio, showing telephone wires and architectural details. Everything was in focus, from three inches to infinity". [3]

He died in his sleep, in Los Angeles, California on September 28, 1948 of coronary thrombosis at age 44. He is interred in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Hollywood, California. [4]

Coronary thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel of the heart. This blood clot restricts blood flow within the heart. It is associated with narrowing of blood vessels subsequent to clotting. The condition is considered as a type of ischaemic heart disease.

Hollywood Forever Cemetery cemetery in Los Angeles, California, United States

Hollywood Forever Cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Los Angeles, California. Located at 6000 Santa Monica Boulevard in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, it was founded in 1899 as Hollywood Cemetery, and later known as Hollywood Memorial Park until 1998 when it was given its current name. The studios of Paramount Pictures are located at the south end of the same block, on 40 acres (16 ha) that were once part of the cemetery but held no interments.

Contributions on Citizen Kane

Orson Welles and Gregg Toland at work on Citizen Kane (1941); the camera appears to be one of the very few brand-new Mitchell Camera Corp BNCs which were made before the World War II embargo on the manufacture of new production cameras (excepting those intended for the U.S. Army Signal Corps and U.S. allies). Citizen-Kane-Filming-Low-Angle.jpg
Orson Welles and Gregg Toland at work on Citizen Kane (1941); the camera appears to be one of the very few brand-new Mitchell Camera Corp BNCs which were made before the World War II embargo on the manufacture of new production cameras (excepting those intended for the U.S. Army Signal Corps and U.S. allies).

Some film historians believe Citizen Kane's visual brilliance was due primarily to the contributions of Toland, rather than director Orson Welles. However, many Welles scholars maintain that the visual style of Kane is similar to many of Welles's other films, and hence should be considered the director's work. Nevertheless, the Welles movies that most resemble Citizen Kane ( The Magnificent Ambersons , The Stranger , and Touch of Evil ) were shot by Toland collaborators Stanley Cortez and Russell Metty (at RKO).[ citation needed ]

At the time Kane was produced and released, Welles and Toland (among others) insisted that Welles gave lighting instructions that fall normally under the director of photography's responsibility. Many of the transitions in the film are done as lighting cues on set (such as the transition at the opening of the film from the outside of Xanadu into Kane's bedroom for his death), where lights are dimmed up and down on stage. Apparently, Welles was unaware that one could achieve the effects optically on a film so he instructed the crew to dim the lights the way you would on a theater production, which led to the unique dissolves. Different areas of the frame dissolve at different times, based on the lighting cue. However, the visuals were truly a collaboration, as Toland contributed great amounts of technical expertise that Welles needed so that he could achieve his vision. Years later, Welles acknowledged, "Toland was advising him on camera placement and lighting effects secretly so the young director would not be embarrassed in front of the highly experienced crew." [5]

Innovations in The Long Voyage Home (1940) and Citizen Kane (1941)

Toland's techniques were revolutionary in the art of cinematography. Cinematographers before him used a shallow depth of field to separate the various planes on the screen, creating an impression of space as well as stressing what mattered in the frame by leaving the rest (the foreground or background) out of focus.

In Toland's lighting schemes, shadow became a much more compelling tool, both dramatically and pictorially, to separate the foreground from the background and so to create space within a two-dimensional frame while keeping all of the picture in focus. According to Toland, this visual style was more comparable with what the eyes see in real life since vision blurs what is not looked at rather than what is.

For John Ford's The Long Voyage Home (1940), Toland leaned more heavily on back-projection to create his deep focus compositions, such as the shot of the island women singing to entice the men of the SS Glencairn. He continued to develop the technologies that would allow for him to create his images in Citizen Kane.

Deep focus technique and lighting schemes

Toland innovated extensively on Citizen Kane, creating deep focus on a sound-stage, collaborating with set designer Perry Ferguson so ceilings would be visible in the frame by stretching bleached muslin to stand in as a ceiling, allowing placement of the microphone closer to the action without being seen in frame. He also modified the Mitchell Camera to allow a wider range of movement, especially from low angles. ″It was Toland who devised a remote-control system for focusing his camera lens without having to get in the way of the camera operator who would now be free to pan and tilt the camera." [6]

The main way to achieve deep focus was closing down the aperture, which required increasing the lighting intensity, lenses with better light transmission, and faster film stock. On Citizen Kane, the cameras and coated lenses used were of Toland's own design working in conjunction with engineers from Caltech. His lenses were treated with Vard Opticoat [7] to reduce glare and increase light transmission. He used the Kodak Super XX film stock, which was, at the time, the fastest film available, with an ASA film speed of 100. Toland had worked closely with a Kodak representative during the stock's creation before its release in October 1938, and was one of the first cinematographers using it heavily on set. [8]

Lens apertures employed on most productions were usually within the f/2.3 to f/3.5 range; Toland shot his scenes in between f/8 and f/16. This was possible because several elements of technology came together at once: the technicolor three strip process, which required the development of more powerful lights, had been developed and the more powerful Carbon Arc light was beginning to be used. By utilizing these lights with the faster stock, Toland was able to achieve apertures previously unattainable on a stage shoot. [9]

Optical print shots and in-camera composites on Citizen Kane

Gregg Toland collaborated on a number of shots with special-effects cinematographer Linwood G. Dunn. Although these looked like they were using deep focus, they were actually a composite of two different shots. Some of these shots were composited with an optical printer, a device which Dunn improved upon over the years, which explains why foreground and background are both in focus even though the lenses and film stock used in 1941 could not allow for such depth of field.

But Toland hated this technique, since he felt he was "duping," (i.e. a copy of a copy) thereby lowering the quality of his shots. Thus other shots (like the shot of Susan Alexander Kane's bedroom after her suicide attempt, with a glass in the foreground and Kane entering the room in the background) were in-camera composites, meaning the film was exposed twice—another technique that Linwood Dunn improved upon.

Similarities between Citizen Kane and The Long Voyage Home

Toland had already had experience with heavy in-camera compositing, and many of the shots in Kane look similar in composition and dynamics to a number of shots in John Ford's The Long Voyage Home .

For instance, both movies contain shots that create an artificial lighting situation such that a character is lit in the background and walks or runs through dark areas to the foreground, where his arrival triggers, off-screen, a light not on before. The result is so visually dramatic because a character moves, only barely visible, through vast pools of shadow, only to exit the shadow very close to the camera, where his whole face is suddenly completely lit. This use of much more shadow than light, soon one of the main techniques of low-key lighting, heavily influenced film noir.

The Long Voyage Home and Citizen Kane share a number of other striking similarities:

Other important works

Although Citizen Kane is his most well-regarded achievement, his style was much more varied than most people realize. For The Grapes of Wrath (1940), he took inspiration from Dorothea Lange's photographs, achieving a rare (for Hollywood) gritty and realist look. For one of his final projects, Toland turned to Technicolor film. Made for Disney, the 1946 Song of the South combined animation with live action in bright, deeply saturated Technicolor. In The Best Years of Our Lives his deep focus cinematography served to highlight all the aspects of the characters' lives. [10]

Service during World War II

When the Office of the Coordinator of Information (predecessor to the Office of Strategic Services and later the Central Intelligence Agency) was created by Franklin Delano Roosevelt before the United States' entry into World War II, Toland was recruited to work in the agency's film unit. [11] Toland was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Navy's camera department, which led to his only work as a director, December 7th: The Movie (1943); this documentary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, which Toland co-directed with John Ford, is so realistic in its restaged footage that many today mistake it for actual attack footage. This 82-minute film took the Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject).

Media

In addition to sharing a title card with Orson Welles on Kane—an indication of the high esteem the director held for his cameraman—Welles also gave Toland a cameo in the film as the reporter who is slow to ask questions when Kane returns from Europe.

The final ending Title Card for Citizen Kane , placing Toland on same card as Orson Welles, the Director, because Welles felt he deserved it; there was only one beginning Title Card, which stated, simply, "CITIZEN KANE", in total silence. Title Card for Citizen Kane.jpg
The final ending Title Card for Citizen Kane , placing Toland on same card as Orson Welles, the Director, because Welles felt he deserved it; there was only one beginning Title Card, which stated, simply, "CITIZEN KANE", in total silence.

Toland was the subject of an "Annals of Hollywood" article in The New Yorker, "The Cameraman," by Hilton Als (June 19, 2006, p. 46).

Academy Award nominations

Filmography

Legacy

The results of a survey conducted in 2003 by the International Cinematographers Guild placed Toland in the top ten of history's most influential cinematographers. [13]

The 2006 Los Angeles edition of CineGear assembled a distinguished panel composed of Owen Roizman, László Kovács, Daryn Okada, Rodrigo Prieto, Russell Carpenter, Dariusz Wolski, and others. Called "Dialogue With ASC Cinematographers," the panel was asked to name two or three other cinematographers, living or dead, who had influenced their work or whom they considered to be the best of the best. Each panel member cited Gregg Toland first.

Related Research Articles

<i>Citizen Kane</i> 1941 American drama film directed by Orson Welles

Citizen Kane is a 1941 American mystery drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-screenwriter, director and star. The picture was Welles's first feature film. Nominated for Academy Awards in nine categories, it won an Academy Award for Best Writing by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Welles. Considered by many critics, filmmakers, and fans to be the greatest film ever made, Citizen Kane was voted as such in five consecutive British Film Institute Sight & Sound polls of critics, and it topped the American Film Institute's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list in 1998, as well as its 2007 update. Citizen Kane is particularly praised for Gregg Toland's cinematography, Robert Wise's editing, its music, and its narrative structure, all of which have been considered innovative and precedent-setting.

Cinematography art or science of motion picture photography

Cinematography is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.

Andrew Lesnie Australian cinematographer

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Frazier lens special camera lens designed by Australian photographer Jim Frazier

The Frazier lens is a special camera lens designed by Australian photographer Jim Frazier. The Frazier lens provides an appearance of a massive depth of field, allowing the foreground and background of an image to be in focus. Frazier's lenses have been widely used in Hollywood and wildlife cinematography. In addition to its unique depth of field properties, the Frazier lens is significantly smaller than previous deep focus lenses allowing more versatility and flexibility to cinematographers. The main feature of the lens, an extended tube with a rotating prism, allows cinematographers to place the camera in a variety of positions for a given shot. Cinematographers then rotate the prism to correct the horizon. This feature allows directors and cameramen to achieve shots in minutes that previously took cinematographers hours in rigging and designing special sets to accommodate shooting positions.

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References

  1. "Top 10 Most Influential Cinematographers Voted on by Camera Guild". IGN Boards. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  2. "ICG Announces Top 10 Influential Cinematographers". Creative Planet Network. 2014-06-09. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  3. Wyler, William. Sequence #8, Summer 1949, p. 09
  4. "Gregg Toland (1904 - 1948) - Find A Grave Memorial". www.findagrave.com. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  5. Gregg Toland
  6. Wallace, Roger Dale “Gregg Toland—His Contributions to Cinema,” University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, 1976. p. 35
  7. Ogle, Patrick “Technological and Aesthetic Influences Upon the Development of Deep Focus Cinematography in the United States,” Screen vol. 13, no. 1, Spring 1972. p. 95-96. Among the many technical advances discussed by Ogle in his article is the “Vard” opticoating system, where chemicals are applied to the lenses enabling an increase in speed such that the lens can be further stopped down, creating more depth of field. Developed at Caltech with the input of Toland, they were scarce before their use in Kane, the only major example being the use of Bausch & Lomb lenses for the projection of Gone with the Wind in theatres.
  8. Dale, Wallace Roger “Gregg Toland—His Contributions to Cinema,” University Microfilms International, 1976 p. 48
  9. Mitchell, George: “A Great Cameraman,” Films in Review, December 1956, p. 508.
  10. Wallace, p. 154. “Obviously, Best Years performed no greater function than that of forcing people to focus, much in the fashion of Toland’s camera, on all the elements that constituted the reality of the times.
  11. P. 111 in Persico, Joseph E. 2001. Roosevelt's Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage. New York: Random House. 536 pp.
  12. "New York Times: December 7th". NY Times. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  13. "Top 10 Most Influential Cinematographers Voted on by Camera Guild," October 16, 2003. Retrieved January 28, 2011.