Gregorio de Hinestrosa

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Gregorio de Hinestrosa (fl. 16101647) was Governor of Paraguay from June 27, 1641 February 2, 1647.

Governorate of Paraguay governorate of the Spanish Empire

The Governorate of Paraguay, originally called the Governorate of Guayrá, was a governorate of the Spanish Empire and part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Its seat was the city of Asunción; its territory roughly encompassed the modern day country of Paraguay. The Governorate was created in December 16, 1617 by the royal decree of King Philip III as a split of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata and of Paraguay into its respective halves. The Governorate lasted until 1782, after which the massive Viceroyalty of Peru was split, and Paraguay became an intendency (intendencia) of the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.

Biography

Gregorio de Hinestrosa was born in the Governorate of Chile, part of the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru. [1] His family had a long tradition of service to the Spanish Empire in its government and military. Hinestrosa continued this himself and became an officer; he attained the rank of Maestre de Campo , the commander of a colonial militia in Chile. Hinestrosa also suffered a long captivity as a hostage of hostile Indians in Chile. After his release, he served for a time as mayor of the Atacama region of Chile. [1] He went to peninsular Spain to serve in the Franco-Spanish War and distinguished himself in the Siege of Fuenterrabía of 1638 against the French. As a reward for his service, he was given the title of Governor of Paraguay. [1]

Captaincy General of Chile Spanish 1541-1818 possession in South America

The General Captaincy of Chile or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818. It comprised most of modern-day Chile and southern parts of Argentina. Its capital was Santiago de Chile. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings.

Viceroyalty of Peru Spanish Imperial colony

The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.

Atacama Desert desert in South America

The Atacama Desert is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains. The Atacama desert is one of the driest places in the world, as well as the only true desert to receive less precipitation than the polar deserts. According to estimates, the Atacama Desert occupies 105,000 km2 (41,000 sq mi), or 128,000 km2 (49,000 sq mi) if the barren lower slopes of the Andes are included. Most of the desert is composed of stony terrain, salt lakes (salares), sand, and felsic lava that flows towards the Andes.

Hinestrosa's term as Governor of Paraguay is most remembered for his feud with Bernardino de Cárdenas, the bishop of Paraguay and a member of the Franciscan order. [1] [2] Both Hinestrosa and Cárdenas arrived in the province in 1641. Both men were proud and arrogant, and the resulting clash of personalities soon became a rivalry for power. Both Hinestrosa and Cárdenas were initially popular among the people. In 1644, however, Cárdenas began to win out in popular support. The Jesuits, who ran the nearby Jesuit reductions, threw their support behind Hinestrosa, while the Franciscans and the Paraguayan settlers supported Cárdenas. Cárdenas railed against the Jesuits, claiming they were teaching "heretical principles" to the Indians, while Hinestrosa and the Jesuits claimed that Cárdenas's ordination as bishop in 1638 by civil authorities had been invalid due to the lack of a papal order. [2] Hinestrosa ordered the Jesuit college of Asunción guarded, but unsure of the loyalty of the local militia, took the unprecedented step of asking the Jesuit's Indian armies for aid. While previous Governors of Paraguay had requested the assistance of the Jesuits against the Portuguese or hostile Indians, asking for Indian support against the Paraguayan settlers was considered an insult by the Paraguayans. Under Hinestrosa's orders, Cárdenas was disavowed as bishop by the local diocese, and Cárdenas was ordered to leave Paraguay. Cárdenas continued his propaganda campaign against Hinestrosa from Corrientes. [2] The province remained in a state of disorder into 1647, with the conclusion of Hinestrosa's tenure as governor. [1]

Bernardino de Cárdenas y Ponce, O.F.M., (1579?–1668) was a friar of the Franciscan order and Bishop of Asunción and later Santa Cruz de la Sierra. He served as Governor of Paraguay from March 4, 1649 – October 1, 1649. He ordered the first expulsion of the Jesuits from the Governorate of Paraguay, although this expulsion did not last; he was deposed as governor following a battle against the Jesuit armies.

Asunción City & District in Capital District, Paraguay

Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay. The city is located on the left bank of the Paraguay River, almost at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo, on the South American continent. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city. The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department.

Corrientes City in Argentina

Corrientes is the capital city of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, about 1,000 km (621 mi) from Buenos Aires and 300 km (186 mi) from Posadas, on National Route 12. It has a population of 346,334 according to the 2010 Census. It lies opposite its twin city, Resistencia, Chaco.

Hinestrosa was succeeded by Diego de Escobar y Osorio as governor. Escobar y Osorio rebuked Hinestrosa for construction performed on the home he'd taken for his personal quarters from an army widow. [3] After Escobar y Osorio's death in 1649, the Paraguayans would elect Hinestrosa's hated rival Bishop Cárdenas as governor. [2]

Diego de Escobar y Osorio was Governor of Paraguay from February 2, 1647 – February 22, 1649.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Zinny, Antonio (1887). Historia de los gobernantes del Paraguay, 1535-1887 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires. pp. 72–80.
  2. 1 2 3 4 López, Adalberto (2007) [first published 1976]. The Colonial History of Paraguay: The Revolt of the Comuneros, 1721-1735. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. pp. 60–63. ISBN   978-0-7658-0745-8.
  3. "Origen de la Casa de los Gobernadores". ABC Color . July 24, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2013.