Gregory of Narek

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Gregory of Narek
Grigor Narekatsi 1.jpg
Gregory of Narek depicted on a 1173 manuscript from Cilicia. [lower-alpha 1]
Doctor of the Church
Bornc.945-951
Residence Narek Monastery
Kingdom of Vaspurakan, Bagratid Armenia (present-day Van Province, Turkey)
Diedc.1003-1011 (aged ~60)
Venerated in Armenian Apostolic Church
Western Church
Armenian Catholic Church
Canonized 12 April 2015, St. Peter's Basilica by Pope Francis [3]
Major shrine Chapel-Mausoleum at Narek Monastery [4]
Feast October (Armenian Apostolic Church: Holy Translators Day, a moveable feast) [5] [6]
27 February (Catholic Church) [7]
Influences Neoplatonism, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
InfluencedAll Armenian literature, especially verse: Nerses Shnorhali, Sayat-Nova, Yeghishe Charents [8]
Major worksBook of Lamentations (Narek)

Grigor Narekatsi [lower-alpha 2] (Armenian : Գրիգոր Նարեկացի; anglicized: Gregory of Narek) [lower-alpha 3] (c.950 – 1003/1011) was an Armenian mystical and lyrical poet, monk, and theologian. He is a saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church and was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Francis in 2015.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Anglicisation, occasionally anglification, anglifying, Englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion.

Armenians ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland

Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.

Contents

The son of a bishop, Narekatsi was educated by a relative based at the Narekavank, the monastery of Narek, on the southern shores of Lake Van (modern Turkey). He was based there almost all his life. He is best known for his Book of Lamentations, a major piece of mystical literature.

Narekavank

Narekavank was a tenth-century Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, near the southern shores of Lake Van, in present-day eastern Turkey. The monastery was one of the most prominent in medieval Armenia and had a major school. The poet Gregory of Narek notably flourished at the monastery. It was abandoned in 1915 during the Armenian Genocide, and reportedly demolished around 1951. A mosque now stands on its location.

Lake Van largest lake in Turkey

Lake Van, the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis. It is a saline soda lake, receiving water from numerous small streams that descend from the surrounding mountains. Lake Van is one of the world's largest endorheic lakes —a volcanic eruption blocked the original outlet from the basin in ancient times. Although Lake Van has an altitude of 1,640 m (5,380 ft) in a region with harsh winters, its high salinity prevents most of it from freezing, and even the shallow northern section freezes only rarely.

Life and background

Grigor Narekatsi was based throughout his life at the monastery of Narek (Narekavank), seen here circa 1900. His chapel-mausoleum was located inside the monastery walls before it was destroyed in the mid-20th century. Narekavank.jpg
Grigor Narekatsi was based throughout his life at the monastery of Narek (Narekavank), seen here circa 1900. His chapel-mausoleum was located inside the monastery walls before it was destroyed in the mid-20th century.

Narekatsi was born in the mid-900s: late 940s, 950, 951, 945-951 and died in the early 11th century: 1003 1010, 1011. [8] [11] [12] [13] [14] He lived in the semi-independent Kingdom of Vaspurakan, a part of the larger Bagratid Armenia, with its capital, first, in Kars, then in Ani.

Kingdom of Vaspurakan 908-1021

Vaspurakan was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van. Located in what is now called eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran, the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization.

Bagratid Armenia 885-1045

The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia, was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule. With the two contemporary powers in the region, the Abbasids and Byzantines, too preoccupied to concentrate their forces in subjugating the people of the region and the dissipation of several of the Armenian nakharar noble families, Ashot was able to assert himself as the leading figure of a movement to dislodge the Arabs from Armenia.

Kars Municipality in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. With a population of 73,836 as of 2011, it is the largest city along Turkey's closed border with Armenia..

Little is known about his life. He was born in a village on the southern shores of Lake Van, in what is now eastern Turkey, to Khosrov Andzevatsi, a bishop. His father was suspected of pro-Byzantine Chalcedonian beliefs [14] and was eventually excommunicated by Catholicos Anania Mokatsi for his interpretation of the rank of Catholicos as being equivalent to that of a bishop, based on the works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. [15] Grigor and his elder brother Hovhannes were sent to the Narekavank, the monastery of Narek, where he was given religious education by Anania Narekatsi (Ananias of Narek). The latter was his maternal great-uncle and a celebrated scholar who had elevated the status of Narekavank to new heights. Being raised in an intellectual and religious fervor, Grigor was ordained priest in 977 and taught others theology at the monastery school until his death. [12] [16]

The Principality of Anjewaci or Andzewatsi, was an Armenian dynasty of Median or Carduchian ancestry, who ruled in an eponymous region in southern Armenia. It was located in southeast of Lake Van and northwest of Ake and centered at the castle of Kangvar.

Chalcedonian Christianity refers to the Christian denominations adhering to the christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451. Chalcedonian Christians follow the Definition of Chalcedon, a religious doctrine concerning the divine and human natures of Jesus Christ. The great majority of Christian communions and confessions in the 21st century are Chalcedonian, but from the 5th to the 8th centuries the ascendancy of Chalcedonian Christology was not always certain.

Catholicos Ananias I was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 949 and 968.

Whether Narekatsi led a secluded life or not has become a matter of debate. Arshag Chobanian and Manuk Abeghian believe he did, while Hrant Tamrazian argued that Narekatsi was very well aware of the secular world and his time, had deep knowledge of both peasants and princes and the complexities of the world. Tamrazian believes Narekatsi could not have lived solely on literary ecstasy. [17]

Arshag Chobanian Armenian writer

Arshag Chobanian, was an Armenian short story writer, journalist, editor, poet, translator, literary critic, playwright, philologist, and novelist.

Manuk Abeghian folklorist

Manuk Abeghian was a scholar of Armenian literature and folklore.

Religious ecstasy altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness

Religious ecstasy is a type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional euphoria.

Narekatsi was buried inside the walls of the monastery of Narek. A rectangular-shaped chapel-mausoleum was built on his tomb, [8] [4] which survived until the mid-20th century, when the monastery was destroyed by the Turkish authorities, and later replaced with a mosque. [18] [19] [20]

Works

Book of Lamentations (Narek)

A 1173 manuscript of the Book of Lamentations Narek Matenadaran manuscript.jpg
A 1173 manuscript of the Book of Lamentations

The Book of Lamentations (Classical Armenian: Մատեան ողբերգութեան, Matean voghbergut’yan) is widely considered Narekatsi's masterpiece. [21] It is often simply called Narek (Նարեկ). [22] [23] Completed towards the end of his life, circa 1002-03, [16] [24] the work has been described as a monologue, a personal lyric and confessional poem, mystical and meditative. [25] It is composed of 95 chapters and over 10,000 lines. [8] Almost all chapters (except two) are titled "Words unto God from the Depths of My Heart". [24] The chapters, which are prayers or elegies, vary in length, but all address God. The central theme is the metaphysical and existential conflict between Narekatsi's desire to be perfect, as taught by Jesus, and his own realization that it is impossible and between the divine grace and his own sense of one's own unworthiness to receive that grace. However, the love and mercy of the all-embracing, all-forgiving, and amazing grace of God compensates the unworthiness of man. [26] [27]

The book is considered a masterpiece of Christian spiritual literature [13] and the "most beloved work of Armenian literature." [28] It has been historically kept in Armenian homes. [29] [30] Scholars have described its popularity among Armenians as being second only to the Bible. [lower-alpha 4] In 1853 American missionary H. G. O. Dwight wrote that the book "it is esteemed as one of the best specimens of fine writing in the [Armenian] language." [33] For centuries, Armenians have treasured the book as an enchanted treasure and have attributed to it miraculous powers. For instance, one passage has been read to the ill in expectation of a cure. [34] [23] In the 21st century, psychiatrist Armen Nersisyan has claimed to have developed a unique type of therapy based on the book, which can cure many diseases, at least partly. [35]

The book's first complete publication was done by Voskan Yerevantsi in Marseille, France in 1673. [36] [37] While the first complete commentary was published in Constantinople in 1745. [38] The work has been translated into English, Russian, French, [39] Arabic [40] and Persian. [41] There are three English translations of the book, with the first one appearing in 1977. [42] [43] [44]

Other works

Narekatsi also authored a number of other works. His first extant work is a commentary on the Song of Songs («Մեկնութիւն երգոց երգոյն Սողոմոնի», Meknutiun yergots yergoyn Soghomoni), written in 977, the year he was ordained priest. [45] [25] Ara Baliozian considers it a prose masterpiece. [23] He later wrote hymns, panegyrics on various holy figures, homilies, [25] [16] numerous chants and prayers that are still sung today in Armenian churches. [23] Narekatsi also authored around two dozen tagher (lays), personal poems that are the first religious poems in Armenian literature, and spiritual songs called gandz, both in verse and prose. [46] [47] Narekatsi also composed music for his odes, but they are not considered sharakans (chants). [46]

Outlook and philosophy

"Narekatsi was the first in Armenian literature to express nature in its full texture and color; man was found to be the greatest of nature's adornments."

 —Srbouhi Hairapetian [48]

The central idea of Narekatsi's philosophy is eternal salvation relying solely upon faith and divine grace, and not necessarily upon the institutional church, in which Narekatsi's views are similar to those of the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Narekatsi is believed to have been suspected of heresy and being sympathetic to the Paulicians and Tondrakians—two major sects in medieval Armenia. [49] He notably wrote a treatise against the Tondrakians in the 980s, [50] possibly to clear himself of accusations of being sympathetic to their movement. [46] In the treatise he states some of his theological views. [51] Although Narekatsi does not mention the Tondrakians in the Book of Lamentations, some scholars have interpreted certain chapters as containing anti-Tondrakian elements. [52] In his struggle against the antinomian Tondrakians, Narekatsi followed his predecessor at the monastery of Narek: his great-uncle Anania, who was condemned for supposedly Tondrakian beliefs. [15]

According to Ara Baliozian Narekatsi broke from Hellenistic thought, which was dominant among the Armenian intellectual elite since the 5th-century golden age. [23] He was instead deeply influenced by Neoplatonism. [53] In fact, the Narek school was instrumental in instilling Christian Neoplatonism in Armenian theology. Namely, Christian Neoplatonic concepts such as divinization, the attainment of the power of spiritual vision or discernment through penitential purification of the inner and outer man, and of a symbolic exegetical methodology. [54] He may have been influenced by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, a pivotal author in Christian Neoplatonism, although this view has been criticized. [55] [56] Soviet philologist Vache Nalbandian argued that in Narekatsi's outlook is essentially anti-feudal and humanistic. [57]

The tone of the Book of Lamentations has been compared to that of Confessions by Augustine of Hippo. [58] Some modern scholars have compared Narekatsi's worldview and philosophy to those of later Sufi mystic poets Rumi and Yunus Emre, [59] [60] [61] and 19th century Russian writers Fyodor Dostoevsky [62] and Leo Tolstoy. [63]

Recognition

A 2002 statue of Narekatsi in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district. Grigor Narekats`i (1).JPG
A 2002 statue of Narekatsi in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district.

Narekatsi was the first major Armenian lyrical poet [21] and is considered the most beloved person in Armenian Christianity. [16] Robert W. Thomson described him as the "most significant poet of the whole Armenian religious tradition," [25] while Jos Weitenberg declared him the "most outstanding theological, mystical and literary figure of Armenian culture." [51] James R. Russell lists Narekatsi as one of the three visionaries of the Armenian tradition, along with Mesrop Mashtots and Yeghishe Charents. [64] Agop Jack Hacikyan et al. note that through his "lively, vibrant, and highly individual style" Narekatsi shaped, refined, and greatly enriched Classical Armenian through his works. [45] According to Hrachik Mirzoyan, Narekatsi created up to 2,500 new Armenian words, although many of which are not actively used. [65]

According to Hacikyan et al. Narekatsi "deserves to be known as one of the great mystical writers of medieval Christendom." [28] Vrej Nersessian considers Narekatsi a "poet of world stature" in the "scope and breadth of his intellect and poetic inventiveness, and in the brooding, visionary quality of his language"—on a par with St Augustine, Dante, and Edward Taylor. [27] This view has been echoed by Levon Zekiyan. [66] Armenian-born Russian critic Karen A. Stepanyan writes that Narekatsi's genius makes him comparable with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Dostoevsky. [67]

Critique

France-based Western Armenian writer Shahan Shahnour has bene Narekatsi's most prominent critic. [65] Shahnour targeted him in his novel Retreat Without Song (Նահանջը առանց երգի, published in 1929) through one of his characters. The latter describes the Book of Lamentations as "the most immoral, unhealthy, poisonous book, a work that had debilitated the Armenians as a nation. The Armenians remain defeated in trying to emulate Grigor's miserable, maimed soul." [68] [69]

Author and critic Ara Baliozian argues that Narekatsi is "our greatest writer because nobody reads him." [70] Paruyr Sevak opined that the Narek has not been read by Armenians as much it has been kissed. [65]

Legacy

A bas-relief of Gregory of Narek on the wall of the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral in Moscow. He is depicted as holding the Book of Lamentations with "Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart" engraved on it. Grigor Narekatsi.JPG
A bas-relief of Gregory of Narek on the wall of the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral in Moscow. He is depicted as holding the Book of Lamentations with "Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart" engraved on it.

Literary influence

Narekatsi influenced virtually all Armenian literature that came after him. Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni (c.990–1058) is considered his direct literary successor. [71] Scholars have noted Narekatsi's influence on Armenian poets—medieval and modern ones alike. He inspired prominent medieval poets Hovhannes Imastaser (c. 1047–1129), [72] Nerses Shnorhali (1102–1173) and Frik (c.1230–1310), [8] and in the modern period, Sayat-Nova (1712–95), Hovhannes Tumanyan (1869–1923), [72] Misak Metsarents (1886–1908), Siamanto (1878–1915), Yeghishe Charents (1897–1937), [8] and Paruyr Sevak (1924–1971). [73] Sevak called the Book of Lamentations a "temple of poesy, on which the destructive action of time has had no effect." [34] Charents lauds the "hallowed brows" of Narekatsi and Nahapet Kuchak in his 1920 poem "I Love My Armenia" («Ես իմ անուշ Հայաստանի»). [74] In another poem ("To Armenia"), Charents lists Narekatsi next to Nerses Shnorhali and Naghash Hovnatan.

Ecclesiastical recognition

Armenian churches

Gregory of Narek is a saint of both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic churches. His feast is celebrated on October 13 on the Feast of the Holy Translators. His relic is preserved at the Treasury Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. It was brought out to Etchmiadzin Cathedral on the feast in 2012. [75] Several churches built in Armenia in the 21st century have been named after him, [lower-alpha 5] including the cathedral of the Diocese of Gougark in Vanadzor. [79] The St. Gregory of Narek Armenian Apostolic Church in Richmond Heights, Ohio, near Cleveland, was built in 1964. [80] The Armenian Catholic Diocese of Buenos Aires is called the Eparchy of Saint Gregory of Narek. [81]

Roman Catholic Church

A mosaic depicting Narekatsi, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican Saint Gregory Of Narek.jpg
A mosaic depicting Narekatsi, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican

Narekatsi was often mentioned by Pope John Paul II. In his 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater the Pope called him "one of the outstanding glories of Armenia." [83] Article 2678 of Catechism of the Catholic Church, promulgated by John Paul II in 1992, mentions the tradition of prayer in his works. [84] John Paul II referred to him in addresses in 2000 and 2002. [85] [86] In his February 18, 2001 Angelus address John Paul II described him as "one of Our Lady's principal poets" and "the great doctor of the Armenian Church". [87] In his 2001 Apostolic Letter for the 1,700th Anniversary of the Baptism of the Armenian People the Pope stated that Gregory of Narek "probed the dark depths of human desperation and glimpsed the blazing light of grace that shines even there for believers." [88]

Doctor of the Church

It was announced in February 2015 that Gregory of Narek would be named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Francis. [36] [89] On 12 April 2015, on Divine Mercy Sunday, during a Mass for the centennial of the Armenian Genocide at St. Peter's Basilica, Pope Francis officially proclaimed Gregory of Narek as Doctor of the Church [3] in attendance of Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II, Catholicos of Cilicia Aram I, and Armenian Catholic Patriarch Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni. [90] Francis declared: [3]

Saint Gregory of Narek, a monk of the tenth century, knew how to express the sentiments of your people more than anyone. He gave voice to the cry, which became a prayer, of a sinful and sorrowful humanity, oppressed by the anguish of its powerlessness, but illuminated by the splendour of God’s love and open to the hope of his salvific intervention, which is capable of transforming all things.

He became the 36th and the first Armenian Doctor of the Church. [91] He is also the "second saint coming out of the Eastern Church" [92] and the only Doctor "who was not in communion with the Catholic Church during his lifetime." [93]

His name is listed among the saints for 27 February in the Roman Martyrology , where he is defined as "monk, doctor of the Armenians, distinguished for his writings and mystic science." [7] During a mass on June 25, 2016 in Vartanants Square in Gyumri, Francis stated that he "wished to draw greater attention" to Gregory of Narek by making him a Doctor of the Church. He further added: [94]

It is hard to find his equal in the ability to plumb the depths of misery lodged in the human heart. Yet he always balanced human weakness with God’s mercy, lifting up a heartfelt and tearful prayer of trust in the Lord... Gregory of Narek is a master of life, for he teaches us that the most important thing is to recognize that we are in need of mercy. Despite our own failings and the injuries done to us, we must not become self-centred but open our hearts in sincerity and trust to the Lord...

In Yerevan's Republic Square Pope Francis suggested that Gregory can "be defined as a 'Doctor of Peace'." [95]

St. Gregory's proclamation as a Doctor of the Church was commemorated by the Vatican City state with a postage stamp [96] put into circulation September 2, 2015. [97] On 5 April 2018 a two-meter-high bronze statue of Narekatsi, erected by Davit Yerevantsi, was unveiled at the Vatican Gardens by Mikael Minasyan, Armenia's Ambassador to the Holy See. The inaugural ceremony was attended by Pope Francis, Armenia's President Serzh Sargsyan, Armenian Apostolic leaders Karekin II and Aram I. [98] [99]

Tributes

Narekatsi depicted on a 2001 stamp of Armenia. ArmenianStamps-235.jpg
Narekatsi depicted on a 2001 stamp of Armenia.

The male name "Narek" is highly popular among Armenians. In 2018 it was the second most common name given to baby boys. [100] It originates from the village and monastery of Narek and owns its popularity to Gregory of Narek and the Book of Lamentations, popularlily known as "Narek." [101]

The Narekatsi Professorship of Armenian Language and Culture, established in 1969, is the oldest endowed chair of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). [102] In Yerevan, a public school (established in 1967 and renamed in 1990) and a medical center (established in 2003) are named after Narekatsi. [103] [104] Narekatsi is depicted on a postage stamp issued by Armenia in 2001. [105]

A statue of Narekatsi was erected in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district in 2002. [106] A large stone resembling an old manuscript with inscribed lines and images from the Book of Lamentations was unveiled in the Narekatsi quarter of Yerevan's Avan district in 2010. [107]

The Naregatsi Art Institute (Նարեկացի Արվեստի Միություն), a nonprofit organization registered in the U.S., [108] has its headquarters in Yerevan, Armenia (since 2004) and a center in Shushi, Karabakh (since 2006). [109]

Soviet composer Alfred Schnittke composed music for the Russian translation of the Book of Lamentations in 1985. [110]

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References

Notes

  1. Ms. 1568, kept at the Matenadaran, in Yerevan, Armenia. It was created by Grigor Mlichetsi at the monastery of Skevra, near Lambron, in Cilicia. The Armenian text reads ՍԲՆ ԳՐԻԳՈՐ ՃԳՆԱՒՈՐ "St. Gregory the Hermit". [1] [2]
  2. Also transliterated as Narekac'i. Western Armenian: Krikor Naregatsi.
  3. Latinized: Gregorius Narecensis; [9] Italian: Gregorio di Narek [10]
    • Agop Jack Hacikyan et al.: "it is accorded an importance second only to that of the Bible itself." [28]
    • Vahan Kurkjian: "Narek, the Book of Prayer, was once regarded with veneration but little short of that accorded to the Bible itself." [22]
    • Vrej Nersessian: "After the Bible and the Book of Lamentations (Narek) of Grigor Narekatsi, 'Jesus the Son' was the most widely read book among the Armenians..." [31]
    • Robert W. Thomson: "Indeed, this book is often known simply as 'Narek', and it traditionally held a place in the Armenian household hardly less honourable than that of the Bible." [16]
    • Armenian Catholic independent researcher and writer Nareg Seferian said, describing it as "a mystical prayer book," only "second to the Bible as a holy work." [32]
  4. e.g. churches in Alaverdi (completed in 2001), [76] Vanadzor (completed in 2005) and Armavir (completed in 2014) [77] [78]

Citations

  1. "Ս. Գրիգոր Նարեկացի (951-1003)". sacredtradition.am (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 29 December 2016.
  2. Nersessian, Vrej (2001). "The Book of Lamentations, 1173". Treasures from the Ark: 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art. Getty Publications. p.  162. ISBN   9780892366392.
  3. 1 2 3 "Message of His Holiness Pope Francis on the 100th anniversary of "Metz Yeghern" and proclamation of St. Gregory of Narek as a Doctor of the Church". vatican.va. 12 April 2015.
  4. 1 2 Hasratyan, Murad (1982). "Նարեկավանք [Narekavank]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Vol. 8 (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. p.  203.
  5. "Saints and Feasts (According to the Liturgical Calendar of the Armenian Apostolic Church)". Holy See of Cilicia. Holy Translators – Mesrob, Yeghishe, Moses (Movses) the Poet, David (Tavit) the Philosopher, Gregory of Nareg, Nerses of Kla (grace-filled)
  6. "Armenian Church of the Holy Translators". armenianchurchofmetrowest.org. Armenian Church of the Holy Translators.
  7. 1 2 "Gregory of Narek is declared a Doctor of the Church". La Stampa . 23 February 2015.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Գրիգոր Նարեկացի [Grigor Narekatsi]". armenianlanguage.am (in Armenian). Institute for Armenian Studies of Yerevan State University. 2007.
  9. "Quibus Sanctus Gregorius Narecensis Doctor Ecclesiae universalis renuntiatur". vatican.va.
  10. Tornielli, Andrea (23 February 2015). "Gregorio di Narek sarà dottore della Chiesa". La Stampa (in Italian).
  11. Tamrazyan, G. G.; Manukyan, S. S.; Arevshatyan, A. S. (8 September 2011). "Григор Нарекаци (Grigor Narekatsi)". Orthodox Encyclopedia (in Russian). Russian Orthodox Church.
  12. 1 2 Hacikyan et al. 2002, pp. 274-275.
  13. 1 2 La Porta 2016, pp. 336-337.
  14. 1 2 Thomson 1997, p. 231.
  15. 1 2 La Porta 2016, pp. 343-344.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 Thomson 1983, p. 453.
  17. Avagyan 2017, p. 119.
  18. Suciyan, Talin (7 April 2007). "Holy Cross survives, diplomacy dies" (PDF). The Armenian Reporter (6). p. A7. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2014.
  19. Nişanyan, Sevan (2006). Eastern Turkey: A Travellers Handbook. Istanbul: Boyut Yayin Grubu. p. 239. ISBN   978-9752301962.
  20. Hampikian, Nairy (2000). "The Architectural Heritage of Vaspurakan". In Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 103. ISBN   978-1-56859-130-8.
  21. 1 2 de Laet, Sigfried J., ed. (1994). "Armenians". History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p.  665. ISBN   9789231028137.
  22. 1 2 Kurkjian, Vahan (1964) [1958]. A History of Armenia. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p.  374.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 Baliozian, Ara (1980). The Armenians: Their History and Culture. New York: AGBU Ararat Press. pp. 52–53.
  24. 1 2 Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 277.
  25. 1 2 3 4 Thomson, Robert W. (2010). "Review of two French books on Narekatsi". The Journal of Theological Studies . 61 (1): 389–390. doi:10.1093/jts/flp172. JSTOR   43665092.
  26. Hacikyan et al. 2002, pp. 277-278.
  27. 1 2 Nersessian, Vrej (2001). "Armenian". In France, Peter (ed.). The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation. Oxford University Press. p.  191. ISBN   9780199247844.
  28. 1 2 3 Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 274.
  29. Douglas, John M. (1992). The Armenians. J.J. Winthrop Corporation. p. 177. It was a custom for every Armenian household to have a copy of Nareg.
  30. Svajian, Stephen G. (1977). A Trip Through Historic Armenia. GreenHill Pub. p. 79. Krikor Naregatzi, a mystic Armenian poet of the Xth Century, wrote his masterpiece, the Nareg, which had replaced the Bible in many Armenian homes.
  31. Nersessian, Vrej (2001). The Bible in the Armenian Tradition. The Bible in the Armenian Tradition. p.  48. ISBN   9780892366408.
  32. Martone, James (16 March 2016). "Armenians Await June Visit from Pope Francis". America . Society of Jesus.
  33. Dwight, H. G. O. (1853). "Catalogue of All Works Known to Exist in the Armenian Language, of a Date Earlier than the Seventeenth Century". Journal of the American Oriental Society . 3: 241–288. doi:10.2307/3217820. JSTOR   3217820.
  34. 1 2 Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 279.
  35. Tovmasyan, Satenik (9 March 2015). "Narek Therapy: Armenians read medieval monk's verses as cure for ailments". ArmeniaNow .
  36. 1 2 McCarthy, Emer (23 February 2015). "Pope Francis declares Armenian saint Doctor of the Church". Vatican Radio.
  37. Ishkhanyan, Rafael (1981). "Մարսելի հայկական տպագրություն [Armenian printing of Marseille]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 7 (in Armenian). p.  340.
  38. Nazaryan 1990, p. 75.
  39. Mahé, Jean-Pierre (2007). Paroles à Dieu de Grégoire de Narek (in French). Peeters.
  40. Mkrtchyan, Hasmik (1995). "Գրիգոր Նարեկացու "Մատեան ողբերգութեան" պոեմի արաբերեն թարգմանությունը". Etchmiadzin (in Armenian). 51 (1): 99–102.
  41. Apresyan, A. (2016). "Գրիգոր Նարեկացու "Մատեան ողբերգութեան" պոեմի թարգմանությունները [Translations of Grigor Narekatsi's "The Book of Lamentations"]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (2): 205–212.
  42. Lamentations of Narek: mystic soliloquies with God, translated by Mischa Kudian, published by Mashtots Press in London in 1977
  43. St. Grigor Narekatsi: Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart, translated by Thomas J. Samuelian, published by Vem Press in Yerevan in 2001, ISBN   978-9993085317; 2nd edition, published in 2005, ISBN   978-9993085348)
  44. The Book of sadness, translated by Khachatur Khachaturyan, published by Nairi in Yerevan in 2007 ISBN   9785550012116
  45. 1 2 Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 275.
  46. 1 2 3 Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 276.
  47. Conybeare, Fred. C. (January 1906). "The Hymnal of the Armenian Church". The Journal of Theological Studies . 7 (26): 291. JSTOR   23947198.
  48. Hairapetian, Srbouhi (1995). A History of Armenian Literature from Ancient Times to the Nineteenth Century. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books. p. 241. ISBN   978-0-88206-059-0.
  49. Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 278.
  50. Nazaryan 1990, p. 78.
  51. 1 2 Weitenberg, Jos J. S. (2008). "Reviewed Work: Saint Grégoire de Narek théologicien et mystique. Colloque international tenu à l'Institut Pontifical Oriental... 20-22 janvier 2005 by Jean-Pierre Mahé, Boghos Levon Zekiyan". Vigiliae Christianae . 62 (1): 100–101. JSTOR   20474849.
  52. Nazaryan 1990, pp. 76-77.
  53. Mesrob, Levon (1958). "Գրիգոր Նարեկացու մասին [On Grigor Narekatsi]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian) (3): 267–270.
  54. La Porta 2016, p. 336.
  55. Tamrazian, Hrachya (2010). "Դիոնիսիոս Արեոպագացին եւ Գրիգոր Նարեկացին [Dionysius the Areopagitc and Gregory of Narek]". Etchmiadzin (in Armenian). Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. 86 (11): 50–73.
  56. Terian 2016, p. xxii.
  57. Nalbandian, V. S. (1988). "Աշխարհը և նրա ապագան Գրիգոր Նարեկացու պատկերացմամբ [The Universe and Its Future According to Grigor Narekatsi]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian) (3): 29–44.
  58. Kebranian, N. (2012). "Armenian poetry and poetics". In Cushman, Stephen; Cavanagh, Clare; Ramazani, Jahan; Rouzer, Paul (eds.). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4th ed.). Princeton University Press. p.  83. ISBN   9781400841424.
  59. Stepaniants, Marietta T. (1994). Sufi Wisdom. Albany: State University of New York Press. p.  41. ISBN   9780791417966.
  60. Safarian, Al. V. (1993). "Գրիգոր Նարեկացու ու սուֆի բանաստեղծների ստեղծագործություններում ավանդական պատկերների "ադապտացման" մասին". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (2): 103–113.
  61. Safarian, A. V. (1990). "О гуманизме Григора Нарекаци и поэтов-суфиев [On the humanism of Girgor Narekatsi and sufi poets]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Russian) (7): 62–68.
  62. Zulumyan, Burastan (2013). "Путь к человеку: Григор Нарекаци и Федор Достоевский [Path to humanity: Grigor Narekatsi and Fyodor Dostoevsky]" (PDF). In Stepanyan, Karen (ed.). Достоевский и мировая культура [Dostoevsky and international culture] (in Russian). Moscow: International Dostoevsky Society. pp. 149–177. ISBN   9785857352465.
  63. Darbinyan-Melikyan, Margarita (2015). "И с горной выси я сошёл..." Literaturnaya Gazeta (in Russian) (6). (archived) "Думается мне, что с Григором Нарекаци и своим творчеством, и как личность сопоставим граф А.К. Толстой, отличавшийся редким благородством как души, так и внешности."
  64. Russell, James R. (2005). Armenian and Iranian Studies. Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780935411195. A number of studies also deal with the visionaries of the Armenian tradition—Mashtots’, Narekats’i, Ch’arents’.
  65. 1 2 3 Ashughyan, Karine (23 October 2017). "Աստվածախույզ Նարեկացու "մոդայիկ" դառնալու լույսն ու ստվերը". Grakan tert (in Armenian). Writers Union of Armenia.
  66. Zekiyan, Levon (2015). "Գրիգոր Նարեկացի՝ Տիեզերական Վարդապետ [Grigor Narekatsi: Doctor of the Universal Church]" (PDF). Banber Matenadarani (in Armenian). Matenadaran. 22: 10.
  67. Vinogradov, Leonid (15 September 2018). "Карен Степанян о Достоевском, читавшем Сервантеса, и поисках Бога в литературе". pravmir.ru (in Russian). Orthodoxy and the World. Archived from the original on 28 December 2018.
  68. Pynsent, Robert B., ed. (1993). Reader's encyclopedia of Eastern European literature. HarperCollins. p. 356. ISBN   9780062700070. Shanour's main target is GRIGOR NAREKATSI and his book of elegies. It is, we are told, the most immoral, unhealthy, poisonous book, a work that had debilitated the Armenians as a nation. The Armenians remain defeated in trying to emulate GRIGOR'S miserable, maimed soul."We are Orientals and we believe in what is called fate — what is written on our forehead. Some of it is inscribed with indelible Chinese ink; the rest is jotted down with pencil and then there are smudges of dust. It is up to us to change these last."
  69. Karagulyan, Hasmik (2006). "Շահան Շահնուրի "Նահանջը առանց երգի" վեպը [Shahan Shahnur's Novel "The Digression without a Song"]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian) (3): 109. Շահնուրը «Նարեկին» վերագրում է մեծ դեր, այն դարեր շարունակ հայի համար եղել է Աստվածաշունչ, դարեր շարունակ ազդել է հայ մարդու ոգու և անհատականության վրա` նրան դարձնելով կրավորական, համբերատար, հանդուրժող, նրա մեջ խեղդելով ազատատենչ ոգին: Նարեկացու խիստ քննադատությամբ երևում է Սուրենի ոչ միայն կրոնի նկատմամբ ունեցած հակակրանքը, այլև` նրա ժխտողական վերաբերմունքը մեր անցյալ պատմության, մշակույթի հանդեպ: Անցյալը Շահնուրի համար անողոք քննության նյութ է եղել, որն էլ ժամանակին խիստ դժգոհության տեղիք է տվել:
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  71. Mkhitarian, S. M. (2001). "X-XII դարերի հայ բանաստեղծությունը Ղ.Ալիշանի գնահատմամբ [Armenian poetry of the 10th - 12th centuries in estimation of Gh.Alishan]". Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (in Armenian) (2): 104. Գր. Նարեկացու անմիջական հաջորդ ու նրա ավանդները շարունակողը Գր. Մագիստրոս Պահլավունին (990-1058) է:
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  86. "General Audience". vatican.va. 13 November 2002. Let us now listen to a teacher of the Armenian tradition, Gregory of Narek (c. 950-1010), who in his Panegyric Address to the Blessed Virgin Mary says to her: "Taking refuge under your most worthy and powerful intercession...
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Bibliography

Further reading