Grenada

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Coordinates: 12°07′N61°40′W / 12.117°N 61.667°W / 12.117; -61.667

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Contents

Grenada
Motto: "Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build and Advance as One People" [1]
Anthem:  Hail Grenada

Grenada in its region.svg
Map indicating the location of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles
Capital
and largest city
St. George's
12°03′N61°45′W / 12.050°N 61.750°W / 12.050; -61.750
Official languages
Recognised regional languages Grenadian Creole English
Grenadian Creole French
Ethnic groups
(2011 [2] )
Demonym(s) Grenadian [3]
Government Unitary two-party parliamentary system under a constitutional monarchy
  Monarch
Elizabeth II
Cécile La Grenade
Keith Mitchell
Legislature Parliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Formation
3 March 1967
7 February 1974
13 March 1979
 Constitution Restoration
4 December 1984
Area
 Total
348.5 km2 (134.6 sq mi)(185th)
 Water (%)
1.6
Population
 2016 estimate
107,317 [4] (185th)
 Density
318.58/km2 (825.1/sq mi)(45th)
GDP  (PPP)2019 estimate
 Total
$1.801 billion [5]
 Per capita
$16,604 [5]
GDP  (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$1.249 billion [5]
 Per capita
$11,518 [5]
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.772 [6]
high ·  75th
Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Time zone UTC−4
Driving side left
Calling code +1-473
ISO 3166 code GD
Internet TLD .gd
  1. Plus trace of Arawak  / Carib.

Grenada ( /ɡrɪˈndə/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) grih-NAY-də) is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres (134.6 sq mi), and it had an estimated population of 107,317 [4] in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove.

West Indies Island region in the Caribbean

The West Indies is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagos: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

Caribbean Sea A sea of the Atlantic Ocean bounded by North, Central, and South America

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America.

Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and later by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island. Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974 (except for a period of French rule between 1779 and 1783). From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974.

European colonization of the Americas settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Island Caribs group of people who live in Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles islands

The Island Carib, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Greater and Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They have descended from the Mainland Caribs (Kalina) of South America as well as the Arawakan people of the Greater Antilles. The women and children spoke an Arawakan language known as Eyeri. Meanwhile the men spoke a carib pidgin language of Karina origins.

Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister. On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was later freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers, and replaced with a military council chaired by Hudson Austin. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System (RSS) invaded Grenada in a U.S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury . The invasion was highly criticised by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989.

Eric Gairy Prime Minister of Grenada

Sir Eric Matthew Gairy PC was the first Prime Minister of Grenada, serving from his country's independence in 1974 until his overthrow in a coup by Maurice Bishop in 1979. Gairy also served as head of government in pre-independence Grenada as Chief Minister from 1961 to 1962, and as Premier from 1967 to 1974.

Marxism–Leninism political ideology

In political science, Marxism–Leninism was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union (USSR), of the parties of the Communist International, after their Bolshevisation, and is the ideology of Stalinist political parties. As Stalin's synthesis of Leninism, the political praxis of Lenin, and of Marxism, the politico-economic theories of Karl Marx, the purpose of Marxism–Leninism is the transformation of a capitalist state into a socialist state, by way of two-stage revolution, guided and led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries, drawn from the proletariat. To realise the two-stage transformation of the state, the vanguard party establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, which determines policy with democratic centralism.

New Jewel Movement political party in Grenada

The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM) was a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada that was led by Maurice Bishop. Established in 1973, the NJM issued its manifesto prior to the granting of Independence to Grenada in 1974. The movement took control of the country with a successful revolution in 1979 and ruled by decree as the People's Revolutionary Government until 1983. In 1983, its leader Maurice Bishop was killed by paramilitaries affiliated with hard-liners in his own party. This led to a military government, which was deposed by the US military in a 1983 invasion.

Etymology

The origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada. [7] By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use. [8]

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Granada Municipality in Andalusia, Spain

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro. It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have actually named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción". [7]

Voyages of Christopher Columbus 1492-1502 voyages to the Americas; beginning of the Columbian exchange

In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, continents which were largely unknown in Europe and were outside the Old World political and economic system. The four voyages of Columbus began the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer

Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas. Columbus discovered the viable sailing route to the Americas, a continent which was not then known to the Old World. While what he thought he had discovered was a route to the Far East, he is credited with the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans.

Mary, mother of Jesus religious figure and mother of Jesus of Nazareth

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", which is how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years.

In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos (Little Granadas), presumably after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island. [9]

After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. The British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time. [10]

History

About 2 million years ago, Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Grenada was inhabited by Arawaks and, subsequently, Island Caribs before it was invaded and colonized by Europeans. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world.

French colony (1649–1763)

In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the island was completely subjugated by the French. [11] The indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they were marginalised—the last distinct communities disappeared during the 1700s.

Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The French named their new colony La Grenade, and the economy was initially based on sugar cane and indigo. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal (later St. George). To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would often take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort Royal. The British captured Grenada during the Seven Years' War in 1762.

British colony (1763–1974)

Grenada was formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during the American Revolutionary War, after Comte d'Estaing won the bloody land and naval Battle of Grenada in July 1779. However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Britain was hard pressed to overcome a pro-French revolt in 1795–96 led by Julien Fedon.

Nutmeg was introduced to Grenada in 1843 when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies. The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly 40% of the world's annual crop. [12]

In 1877 Grenada was made a Crown colony. Theophilus A. Marryshow founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921–22 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a modified Crown colony government. This modification granted Grenadians the right to elect five of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote. [13] Marryshow was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1943.

Toward independence (1950–1974)

In 1950 Eric Gairy founded the Grenada United Labour Party, initially as a trades union, which led the 1951 general strike for better working conditions. This sparked great unrest—so many buildings were set ablaze that the disturbances became known as the "red sky" days—and the British authorities had to call in military reinforcements to help regain control of the situation. On October 10, 1951, Grenada held its first general elections on the basis of universal adult suffrage, [14] with Gairy's party winning six of the eight seats contested. [14] From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies.

On March 3, 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974.

Post-independence coups (1974–1983)

Maurice Bishop visiting East Germany, 1982 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1982-0610-101, Berlin, Besuch Regierungsdelegation Grenada, Bootsfahrt.jpg
Maurice Bishop visiting East Germany, 1982

Independence was granted on February 7, 1974, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada.

Civil conflict gradually broke out between Eric Gairy's government and some opposition parties including the Marxist New Jewel Movement (NJM). Gairy's party won elections in 1976. The opposition did not accept the result, accusing it of fraud.

In March 1979, the New Jewel Movement launched a coup which removed Gairy, suspended the constitution, and established a People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop who declared himself prime minister. His Marxist–Leninist government established close ties with Cuba, Nicaragua, and other communist bloc countries. All political parties except for the New Jewel Movement were banned and no elections were held during the four years of PRG rule.

Invasion by the United States (1983)

Members of the Eastern Caribbean Defence Force during the 1983 invasion of Grenada Eastern Caribbean Defense Force.jpg
Members of the Eastern Caribbean Defence Force during the 1983 invasion of Grenada

Coup and execution of Maurice Bishop

Some years later a dispute developed between Bishop and certain high-ranking members of the NJM. Though Bishop cooperated with Cuba and the USSR on various trade and foreign policy issues, he sought to maintain a "non-aligned" status. Bishop had been taking his time making Grenada wholly socialist, encouraging private-sector development in an attempt to make the island a popular tourist destination. Hardline Marxist party members, including communist Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard, deemed Bishop insufficiently revolutionary and demanded that he either step down or enter into a power-sharing arrangement.

On October 19, 1983, Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. These actions led to street demonstrations in various parts of the island. Bishop had enough support from the population that he was eventually freed after a demonstration in the capital. When Bishop attempted to resume power, he was captured and executed by soldiers along with seven others, including government cabinet ministers.[ clarification needed ] The Coard regime then put the island under martial law.

After the execution of Bishop, the People's Revolutionary Army (PRA) formed a Military-Marxist government with General Hudson Austin as chairman. The army declared a four-day total curfew, during which anyone leaving their home without approval would be shot on sight. [15]

United States and allied response and reaction

M102 howitzers of 320th Field Artillery Regiment firing during the 1983 invasion of Grenada M102 howitzers during Operation Urgent Fury.jpg
M102 howitzers of 320th Field Artillery Regiment firing during the 1983 invasion of Grenada

The overthrow of a moderate government by one which was strongly pro-communist worried the administration of US President Ronald Reagan. Particularly worrying was the presence of Cuban construction workers and military personnel who were building a 10,000-foot (3,000 m) airstrip on Grenada. [16]

Bishop had stated the purpose of the airstrip was to allow commercial jets to land, but US military analysts argued that the only reason for constructing such a long and reinforced runway was so that it could be used by heavy military transport planes. The contractors, American and European companies, and the EEC, which provided partial funding, all claimed the airstrip did not have military capabilities. [16] Reagan was worried that Cuba under the direction of the Soviet Union would use Grenada as a refuelling stop for Cuban and Soviet aeroplanes loaded with weapons destined for Central American communist insurgents. [17]

On October 25, 1983, combined forces from the United States and from the Regional Security System (RSS) based in Barbados invaded Grenada in an operation codenamed Operation Urgent Fury . The US stated this was done at the behest of Prime Minister Eugenia Charles of Dominica. While the Governor-General of Grenada, Sir Paul Scoon, later stated that he had also requested the invasion, [18] it was highly criticised by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago, and Canada. The United Nations General Assembly condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" by a vote of 108 in favour to 9, with 27 abstentions. [19] [20] The United Nations Security Council considered a similar resolution, which was supported by 11 nations and opposed by only one — the United States, which vetoed the motion. [21]

Post-invasion arrests

After the invasion of the island nation, the pre-revolutionary Grenadian constitution came into operation once again. Eighteen members of the PRG and the PRA (army) were arrested after the invasion on charges related to the murder of Maurice Bishop and seven others. The eighteen included the top political leadership of Grenada at the time of the execution as well as the entire military chain of command directly responsible for the operation that led to the executions. Fourteen were sentenced to death, one was found not guilty and three were sentenced to 45 years in prison. The death sentences were eventually commuted to terms of imprisonment. Those in prison have become known as the Grenada 17.

Grenada since 1983

When US troops withdrew from Grenada in December 1983, Nicholas Brathwaite of the National Democratic Congress was appointed prime minister of an interim administration by Scoon until elections could be organised. The first democratic elections since 1976 were held in December 1984, and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize who served as prime minister until his death in December 1989.

Ben Jones succeeded Blaize as prime minister and served until the March 1990 election, which was won by the National Democratic Congress under Nicholas Brathwaite who returned as prime minister for a second time until he resigned in February 1995. He was succeeded by George Brizan who served until the June 1995 election which was won by the New National Party under Keith Mitchell who went on to win the 1999 and 2003 elections and served for a record 13 years until 2008.

In 2000–02, much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission. The commission was chaired by a Roman Catholic priest, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, Bishop's regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. George's tasked some of his senior students with conducting a research project into the era and specifically into the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. [22] Paterson also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era and a feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed.

On September 7, 2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane Ivan. Ivan struck as a Category 3 hurricane and damaged or destroyed 90% of the island's homes. On July 14, 2005, Hurricane Emily, a Category 1 hurricane at the time, struck the northern part of the island with 80-knot (150 km/h; 92 mph) winds, causing an estimated USD $110 million (EC$297 million) worth of damage. By December 2005, 96% of all hotel rooms were open for business and to have been upgraded in facilities and strengthened to an improved building code.[ citation needed ] The agricultural industry and in particular the nutmeg industry suffered serious losses, but that event has begun changes in crop management and it is hoped that as new nutmeg trees gradually mature, the industry will return to its pre-Ivan position as a major supplier in the Western world.[ citation needed ]

In April 2007, Grenada jointly hosted (along with several other Caribbean nations) the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The Island's Prime Minister was the CARICOM representative on cricket and was instrumental in having the World Cup games brought to the region. After Hurricane Ivan, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) paid for the new $40 million national stadium and provided the aid of over 300 labourers to build and repair it. [23] During the opening ceremony, the anthem of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) was accidentally played instead of the PRC's anthem, leading to the firing of top officials. [24] [25]

The 2008 election was won by the National Democratic Congress under Tillman Thomas.

The 2013 election was won by the New National Party under Keith Mitchell winning all 15 seats.

The 2018 election held on March 13, 2018, was won by the New National Party under Keith Mitchell winning all 15 seats.

Geography

A map of Grenada Grenada-map.png
A map of Grenada
An aerial photo of the capital St George's Grenada2010.jpg
An aerial photo of the capital St George's

The island of Carriacou is the largest island in the Grenadines. It is located between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. Smaller islands are Petite Martinique, Ronde Island, Caille Island, Diamond Island, Large Island, Saline Island, and Frigate Island. Most of the population lives on Grenada, and major towns there include the capital, St. George's, Grenville and Gouyave. The largest settlement on the other islands is Hillsborough on Carriacou.

The islands are of volcanic origin with extremely rich soil. Grenada's interior is very mountainous with Mount St. Catherine being the highest at 840 m (2,760 ft). Several small rivers with beautiful waterfalls flow into the sea from these mountains.

Climate

The climate is tropical: hot and humid in the rainy season and cooled by the trade winds in the dry season. Grenada, being on the southern edge of the hurricane belt, has suffered only three hurricanes in fifty years.

Hurricane Janet passed over Grenada on September 23, 1955, with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), causing severe damage. The most recent storms to hit have been Hurricane Ivan on September 7, 2004, causing severe damage and thirty-nine deaths and Hurricane Emily on July 14, 2005, causing serious damage in Carriacou and in the north of Grenada which had been relatively lightly affected by Hurricane Ivan.

Politics

Grenada is a Commonwealth realm. As Queen of Grenada, Elizabeth II is head of state. The Crown is represented by a governor-general, currently Cécile La Grenade. Day-to-day executive power lies with the head of government, the prime minister. Although appointed by the governor-general, the prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Parliament.

The Parliament consists of a Senate (thirteen members) and a House of Representatives (fifteen members). The senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the representatives are elected by the population for five-year terms.

On February 19, 2013, Prime Minister Keith Claudius Mitchell, 65, led the New National Party (NNP) to victory with a clean sweep of 15 seats. Mitchell is Grenada's ninth prime minister since it attained political independence from the United Kingdom in 1974.

On March 13th, 2018, Prime Minister Keith C. Mitchell, led the New National Party (NNP) to victory again. Securing all 15 seats.

Political parties

Foreign relations

Grenada is a full and participating member of both the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).

The Commonwealth

Grenada is, along with much of the Caribbean region, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The organisation, which is primarily the old British colonies, focuses on fostering international relations between its members.

Organisation of American States (OAS)

Grenada is one of the thirty five (35) states which has ratified the OAS charter and is a member of the Organisation. [26] The Charter of the Organisation of American States was signed in Bogota in 1948 and was amended by several protocols which were agreed to in different countries. The naming convention which is used with respect to the naming of the protocols is name of the city and the year in which the Protocol was signed, being included in the Protocol, such as Cartagena de Indias in 1985, Managua 1993, according to the website of the OAS. [27]

Grenada entered into the Inter-American system in 1975 according to the OAS's website. [28]

Summits of the Americas

The last Summit of the Americas, the seventh, was held in Panama City, Panama in 2015 with the eight summit being held in Lima, Peru in 2018 according to the website of the Summits of Americas. [29] Since Grenada is a member of the OAS, in light of changes in the global economy, discoveries in the Oil and Gas sector in Guyana, possible exploration for Oil and Gas which is in the discussion stage in Grenada, representations on behalf of Grenada are likely to be made at that Summit.

Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty

On July 6, 1994 at Sherbourne Conference Centre, St. Michael, Barbados, George Brizan signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty on behalf of the Government of Grenada. [30]

Seven other countries signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty on that day. These countries were: Antigua & Barbuda, Belize, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, with another country Guyana signing the agreement on August 18, 1994. This treaty covered concepts such as taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas.[ citation needed ]

FATCA

On June 30, 2014, Grenada signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA). [31]

Military

Grenada's military has two branches:

Administrative divisions

Grenada is divided into six parishes:

Saint AndrewSaint DavidSaint GeorgeSaint JohnSaint MarkSaint PatrickSaint AndrewGrenada
Grenada

Carriacou and Petite Martinique, two of the Grenadines, have the status of dependency.

Economy

Grenada's economic picture is soured by a heavy external debt problem. With government debt service payments running at about 25% of total revenues in 2017, Grenada was listed 9th worst in a study of 126 developing countries. [32] Tourist facilities are being expanded; tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner. Major short-term concerns are the rising fiscal deficit and the deterioration in the external account balance. Grenada shares a common central bank and a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar) with seven other members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). [33]

Agriculture and exports

Opened nutmeg fruit, showing the seed and the aril used for mace Myris fragr Fr 080112-3294 ltn.jpg
Opened nutmeg fruit, showing the seed and the aril used for mace

Grenada is a globally important producer of several different spices. Most notably nutmeg and mace, of which Grenada is the world's second largest producer (after Indonesia), providing 20% of the world supply. Nutmeg is depicted on the Grenadian flag.

Further important exports include cinnamon, cloves, ginger, allspice and orange/citrus peels.

Coffee is also present on Grenada, but generally as wild plants and used locally.

The Grenada Chocolate Company has pioneered the cultivation of organic cocoa, which is also processed into finished chocolate bars.

In 2014, an annual Pure Chocolate Festival was created. [34] [35] Some of the activities which have taken place according to the website "Grenada Chocolate Festival" are visits to the cocoa farms which have been in existence since around 1920 and which are located in rainforests which are ecologically sensitive; "dance the cocoa" which is a traditional way to separate the skins from the seed of the cocoa; and sampling of cocoa infused cuisine which may have developed as part of the country's culture.

Tourism

Grenada banner.jpg
Skyline of St. George's

Tourism is Grenada's main economic force. Conventional beach and water-sports tourism is largely focused in the southwest region around St George, the airport and the coastal strip. Ecotourism is growing in significance. Most small ecofriendly guesthouses are located in the Saint David and Saint John parishes. The tourism industry is increasing dramatically with the construction of a large cruise ship pier and esplanade. Up to four cruise ships per day were visiting St. Georges in 2007–2008 during the cruise ship season.

Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the island, around St. George, Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines, and Point Salines. Grenada has many idyllic beaches around its coastline including the 3 km (1.9 mi) long Grand Anse Beach in St George which is considered to be one of the finest beaches in the world and often appears in countdowns of the world's top ten beaches. [36] Besides these excellent beaches, tourists' favourite points of interest yet in Grenada are the waterfalls. The nearest to St. George's is the Annandale Waterfalls, but other notable ones like Mt. Carmel, Concord, Seven Sisters and Tufton Hall are also within easy reach. [37]

Natural and historical places

Grand Anse Beach, St. George Grand Anse Beach Grenada.jpg
Grand Anse Beach, St. George

In 2017 the Carriacou Maroon & String Band Music Festival enters its seventh year. [38] In 2017, occurring in April, the event lasts for three days, occurs in three venues, however it is classified as one festival according to the pure Grenada website. [39] The concept of String Bands is historical in nature.

In 2017 the Annual Budget Marine Spice Island BillFish Tournament (48) will be entering its 48th year of existence. The Tournament lasts for four days and in 2017 it starts on Jan 21. [40]

Island Water World Sailing Week, as its name suggests, [41] is an event which lasts for a week and in 2017 will be held towards the end of January into February. This event is similar to the America Cup which is hosted upon agreement or calling out.

Many of these events stimulate the economy as they attract boats and persons who may need repairs to their boats or who may need to learn new routes to shelter their boats during hurricanes or Inter Tropical Convergence Zones (ITCZs) which are weather systems which affect this part of the world for almost half of the year every year.[ citation needed ]

The Grenada Sailing Festival Work Boat Regatta starts in January and lasts for a few days. From the photos on the website Grenada Sailing Festival, it appears that the style of the race is similar is similar to that event in which CARICOM national, Andrew Lewis raced at the 2016 Summer Olympics.[ citation needed ]

Education

St. George's University has rapidly expanded in recent years, and has a major economic impact, particularly in southern portions of the island. While some of its approximately 5,000 students are from Grenada, including many undergraduates, and many medical students serve rotations off of the island, the majority of students are from other countries and bring substantial revenue to the island while studying there. St. George's University is among the island's largest employers, and students patronise many off-campus landlords and other businesses.[ citation needed ]

St. George's University is one of the Organisation of American States (OAS) Consortium of Universities according to the OAS webpage. [42]

Transport

Flights at the Maurice Bishop International Airport connect with other Caribbean islands, the United States, Canada, and Europe. There is a daily fast ferry service between St. George and Hillsborough.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

A view of Carriacou, with other Grenadine islands visible in the distance Carriacou Scene.jpg
A view of Carriacou, with other Grenadine islands visible in the distance

A majority of Grenadine citizens (82% [2] ) are descendants of the African slaves who were captured and forced against their will to the island by the English and French; few of the indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs. A small percentage of descendants of indentured workers from India were brought to Grenada mainly from the North Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh between May 1, 1857 – January 10, 1885. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent comprise the second largest ethnic group. There is also a small community of French and English descendants. The rest of the population is of mixed descent (13% [2] ).

Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands is subject to a large amount of migration, with a large number of young people wanting to leave the island to seek life elsewhere. With estimated 107,317 people living in Grenada, estimates and census data suggest that there are at least that number of Grenadian-born people in other parts of the Caribbean (such as Barbados and Trinidad) and at least that number again in First World countries. Popular migration points for Grenadians further north include New York City, Toronto, the United Kingdom (in particular, London and Yorkshire; see Grenadians in the UK) and sometimes Montreal, or as far south as Australia. This means that probably around a third of those born in Grenada still live there. With a possibility of 220,000 Grenadians or Half Grenadians live outside the country which brings the Grenadian population to 327,000 people.

Religion

Religion in Grenada (2015) [43]

   Roman Catholic (44.6%)
  Protestant (43.5%)
  other (6.2%)
  no religion (atheism, agnosticism, etc) (3.6%)
   Jehovah's Witness (1.1%)
   Rastafarian (1.1%)

The following statistics are from The World Factbook [43]

Language

English is the country's official language, but the main spoken language is either of two creole languages (Grenadian Creole English and Grenadian Creole French) which reflect the African, European, and native Indian heritage of the nation. The creoles contain elements from a variety of African languages; Grenadian Creole, however, is also influenced by French.

Grenadian Creole French is mainly spoken in smaller rural areas, but today it can only be heard in a few small pockets of the society. Grenadian Creole French is mainly known as Patois or Creole.

Some Hindi/Bhojpuri terms are still spoken amongst the Indian descendants, mostly those pertaining to the kitchen; such as aloo, geera, karela, seim, chownkay, and baylay. The term bhai, which means "brother" in Urdu and Hindi, is a common form of greeting amongst Indo-Grenadians males of equal status.

The indigenous languages were Iñeri and Karina (Carib).

Culture

1965 carnival GrenadaCarnival1965FeatheredHeaddresses.jpg
1965 carnival

Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than on some other Caribbean islands, surnames and place names in French remain, and the everyday language is laced with French words and the local dialect, or Patois. Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned spicy food and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans, and some French architecture has survived from the 1700s. Island culture is heavily influenced by the African roots of most of the Grenadians, but Indian and Carib Amerindian influence is also seen with dhal puri, rotis, Indian sweets, cassava and curries in the cuisine.

The "oildown" is considered to be the national dish. The name refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pig's feet (trotters), salt beef and chicken, dumplings made from flour, and provision like breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo leaves are sometimes used to retain the steam and add extra flavour. [44]

Soca, calypso, and reggae set the mood for Grenada's annual Carnival activities. Over the years rap music became famous among Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the island's underground rap scene. Zouk is also being slowly introduced onto the island. The islanders' African and Carib Amerindian heritage plays an influential role in many aspects of Grenada's culture.

An important aspect of the Grenadian culture is the tradition of story telling, with folk tales bearing both African and French influences. The character, Anancy , a spider who is a trickster, originated in West Africa and is prevalent on other islands as well. French influence can be seen in La Diablesse , a well-dressed she-devil, and Ligaroo (from "loup-garou"), a werewolf.

Sports

Olympics

Grenada has competed in every Summer Olympics since the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.[ citation needed ] Kirani James won the first Olympic gold medal for Grenada in the men's 400 meters in 2012 in london and silver in 2016.[ citation needed ]

Cricket

As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of Grenadian culture. The Grenada national cricket team forms a part of the Windward Islands cricket team in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches, [45] as well as having previously played Twenty20 cricket in the Stanford 20/20. [46]

Grenada National Cricket Stadium of St. George's hosts domestic and international cricket matches. Devon Smith, West Indies record holder to win the List-A West Indian domestic competition for the second time, was born in the small town of Hermitage.

See also

Notes

  1. "Government of Grenada Website" . Retrieved 2007-11-01.
  2. 1 2 3 "Grenada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  3. "About Grenada, Carriacou & Petite Martinique | GOV.gd". www.gov.gd. Retrieved 2017-07-31.
  4. 1 2 "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Grenada". International Monetary Fund. 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  6. "2017 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  7. 1 2 Crask, Paul (2009-01-01). Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 5. ISBN   9781841622743.
  8. Viechweg, Raymond D. (2017-04-05). Grenada Uncovered: An Uncommon View of the Island's Geocultural Beauty. Trafford Publishing. p. 11. ISBN   9781426926051.
  9. Crask, Paul (2009-01-01). Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 6. ISBN   9781841622743.
  10. Crask, Paul (2009-01-01). Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 7. ISBN   9781841622743.
  11. Grenada. A History of its People. Steele, Beverley A. 2003. Macmillan Publishers Limited. ISBN   0-333-93053-3, pp. 35–44.
  12. "Grenada Nutmeg – GCNA – Organic Nutmeg Producers, Nutmeg Oil – Nutmeg trees – Nutmeg farming in Grenada". Travelgrenada.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  13. "From Old Representative System to Crown Colony". Bigdrumnation.org. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  14. 1 2 "1951 and Coming of General Elections". BigDrumNation. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  15. Anthony Payne, Paul Sutton and Tony Thorndike (1984). "Grenada: Revolution and Invasion". Croom Helm . Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  16. 1 2 Gailey, Phil; Warren Weaver Jr. (March 26, 1983). "Grenada". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
  17. Julie Wolf (1999–2000). "The Invasion of Grenada". PBS: The American Experience (Reagan). Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  18. Autobiography: Sir Paul Scoon 'Survival for Service' (Macmillan Caribbean, 2003)(pp. 135–136).
  19. "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7". United Nations. November 2, 1983. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008.
  20. "Assembly calls for cessation of "armed intervention" in Grenada". UN Chronicle. 1984. Archived from the original on 2007-06-27.
  21. Richard Bernstein (October 29, 1983). "U.S. VETOES U.N. RESOLUTION 'DEPLORING' GRENADA INVASION". The New York Times . Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  22. See Maurice Paterson's book, published before this event, called Big Sky Little Bullet
  23. "Grenada: Bandleader Loses Job in Chinese Anthem Gaffe". New York Times . Associated Press. February 8, 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
  24. "BBCCaribbean.com | Grenada goofs: anthem mix up". BBC. 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  25. Scott Conroy (2007-02-03). "Taiwan Anthem Played For China Officials". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  26. "Member States". OAS. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  27. "SLA :: Department of International Law (DIL) :: Inter-American Treaties". OAS. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  28. "Member State :: Grenada". OAS. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. http://www.ird.gov.tt/Media/Default/IRDTreaties/DTT-Caricom--1994.pdf
  31. "Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)". Treasury.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  32. Elliott, Larry (18 March 2018). "Developing countries at risk from US rate rise, debt charity warns" . Retrieved 19 March 2018. Jubilee Debt Campaign study
  33. "Welcome to the OECS". Oecs.org. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  34. Grenada Chocolate http://www.grenadachocolatefest.com/
  35. Chocolate Festival. http://www.grenadagrenadines.com/plan/events/grenada-chocolate-festival/
  36. "The 10 Best Beaches in the World". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  37. Cruisemanic. "Top 10 Things to Do in Grenada". Cruise Panorama.
  38. Maroon String Band Music Festival http://www.grenadagrenadines.com/plan/events/carriacou-maroon-string-band-music-festival/
  39. Carriacou Maroon String Band Music Festival http://www.grenadagrenadines.com/plan/events/carriacou-maroon-string-band-music-festival/
  40. Spice Island Billfish Tournament http://www.grenadagrenadines.com/plan/events/spice-island-billfish-tournament/
  41. Grenada Sailing Week http://grenadasailingweek.com/event-schedule/
  42. "Scholarships". OAS. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  43. 1 2 "Central America and Caribbean :: GRENADA". CIA The World Factbook.
  44. "Oil down – National Dish of Grenada". Gov.gd. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  45. "Other Matches played by Grenada". CricketArchive. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  46. "Twenty20 Matches played by Grenada". CricketArchive. Retrieved 9 August 2014.

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The recorded history of the Caribbean island of Grenada begins in the early 17th century. First settled by indigenous peoples, by the time of European contact it was inhabited by the Caribs. French colonists drove most of the Caribs off the island and established plantations on the island, eventually importing African slaves to work on the sugar plantations.

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Maurice Rupert Bishop was a Grenadian revolutionary and the leader of New Jewel Movement – popular efforts in the areas of socio-economic development, education, and Black liberation – that came to power during the 13 March 1979 revolution that removed Eric Gairy from office. Bishop headed the People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada from 1979 to 1983, when he was dismissed from his post and shot during the coup by Bernard Coard, a staunch militaristic element in the government, leading to upheaval.

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Index of Grenada-related articles Wikimedia list article

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the nation of Grenada.

History of Carriacou

Carriacou is the largest island of the Grenadines, an archipelago in the Windward Islands chain in the Caribbean Sea.

Afro-Grenadians are Grenadian people of largely African descent. This term is not generally recognised by Grenadians or indeed Caribbeans. They usually refer to themselves simply as Black or possibly Black Caribbean. The term was first coined by a Black American history professor, John Henrik Clarke (1915–1998), in his piece entitled A Note on Racism in History. The term may also refer to a Grenadian of African ancestry. Social interpretations of race are mutable rather than deterministic and neither physical appearance nor ancestry are used straightforwardly to determine whether a person is considered a Black Grenadian. According to the 2012 Census, 82% of Grenada's population is Black, 13% is mixed European and black (Mulatto) and 2% is of Indian origin.

The Mongoose Gang was a private army or militia which operated from 1970 to 1979 under the control of Sir Eric Gairy, the Premier and later Prime Minister of Grenada, and head of the Grenada United Labour Party.

Sir John Augustus Fitzroy Watts KCMG CBE was a Grenadian dentist, politician and co-founder of the Grenada National Party.

References