This article needs additional citations for verification . (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Nickname(s)||Grenzers / Krajišnici|
|Engagements||Ottoman–Habsburg wars and the Napoleonic Wars|
|Adam Bajalics von Bajahaza, Ignác Gyulay, Mathias Rukavina von Boynograd, Josef Philipp Vukassovich|
Grenz infantry or Grenzers (from German : Grenzer "border guard" or "frontiersman"; Croatian : graničari, krajišnici, Serbian Cyrillic : граничари, крајишници) were light infantry troops who came from the Military Frontier in the Habsburg Monarchy (later the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary). This borderland formed a buffer zone between Christian Europe and the Ottoman Empire, and the troops were originally raised to defend Austria against the Ottoman Turks. When there was no danger of war against the Ottomans, the Grenzer regiments were employed by the Habsburgs in other theatres of war, although one battalion of each regiment would always remain guarding the border.
Grenzers were the successors to the irregular troops of Pandurs, which were also raised as a militia by the Habsburgs in the 18th century to defend the border with the Ottomans and also used as skirmishers in the Seven Years' War.However, by the time of the Napoleonic Wars, troops from the Frontier were now formed into more regular line infantry regiments, but were considered by the Austrian generals as something between light and line infantry. They were given training in marksmanship, skirmishing and the basics of linear tactics. At the start of the war, the 18 Grenz infantry regiments formed about a quarter of the Habsburg army.
However, the Grenzers were first and foremost skirmishing troops and were thought not to perform as well in the role of line infantry as the regular regiments. As such, many in the Austrian military command did not hold them in much esteem. Following a mutiny in 1800, their numbers were reduced from 57,000 to only 13,000. Despite this, the Grenz infantry performed consistently well in battle, especially at Marengo and Austerlitz, earning them respect from the French. Napoleon held them in high opinion and considered them as the most warlike troops in the entire Austrian army. He had no hesitation in using the Grenz infantry after Austria's defeat in the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809. The Treaty of Schönbrunn compelled Austria to cede territory in the Military Frontier and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th and 11th Grenz Infantry Regiments went into French service. They fought for Napoleon until his defeat and abdication in 1814.
During the 19th century, the threat from the Ottoman Turks diminished and there was less need for troops to defend the Frontier. Also, with rise of South Slav nationalism and self-determination, the Austrian high command grew suspicious of the Grenz infantry and a possible uprising. With these factors, the number of Grenz infantry were steadily reduced, although they remained in service in the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian army until the First World War.[ citation needed ]
Grenzers defend state border from the Ottomans in Croatia and Slavonia and in Hungary which includes Erdelj and Transylvania. In the territory of Croatia and Slavonia mercenaries Grenzers were Vlachs, Uskoks, Martolos while in Hungary there were Rascians, Vlachs, Martolos and Hajduks. The Vlachs in Croatia and the Hajduks in Hungary had not only personal but also territorial privileges. The big difference between them was that the name Vlach covers ethnic and even religious designation (Orthodox), while the name Hajduk does not have this connotation but rather denotes a special social layer.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grenz infantry .|
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries. They have reputations ranging from bandits to freedom fighters depending on time, place, and their enemies.
The Military Frontier was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire.
Šajkaši refers to the river flotilla troops guarding the Danube and Sava, and especially, the Port of Belgrade, against the Ottoman Empire from the 16th to the 19th century. During that period, the rivers were natural borders of the Kingdom of Hungary and Habsburg Monarchy with the Ottoman Empire, part of the Military Frontier. The troops were composed of ethnic Serbs, who had special military status. Their name derives from the small wooden boat known as chaika, a type of galley.
The Croatian Military Frontier was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during Austria-Hungary.
Bjelovar is a city in central Croatia. It is the administrative centre of Bjelovar-Bilogora County. At the 2011 census, there were 40,276 inhabitants, of whom 91.25% were Croats.
Trenck's Pandurs were a light infantry unit of the Habsburg Monarchy, raised by Baron Franz von der Trenck under a charter issued by Maria Theresa of Austria in 1741. The unit was largely composed of volunteers from the Kingdom of Slavonia and Slavonian Military Frontier, and named after security guards otherwise employed to maintain public order. The Pandurs were presented to the empress in May 1741—with the unit's military band—earning them a claim of pioneering martial music in Europe. The Pandurs did not use uniforms and had an overall oriental/Ottoman appearance. The original organization of the unit was retained until 1745, when it transformed into a regiment. Trenck was relieved of command in 1746 and imprisoned in Spielberg Castle, where he died in 1749. The unit ultimately transformed into the 53rd Infantry Regiment, headquartered in Zagreb, until it was disbanded in 1919. The regiment's commemorative medals bear Trenck's image wearing Pandur attire.
The Battle of Mirăslău or Battle of Miriszló took place on September 18, 1600 near Miriszló, Transylvania, between the Wallachian troops led by Michael the Brave supported by ethnic Hungarian Szeklers and the troops of Austrian general Giorgio Basta supported by the Hungarian nobility of Transylvania.
The Slavonian Military Frontier was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. It was formed out of territories the Habsburgs conquered from the Ottoman Empire and included southern parts of Slavonia and Syrmia; today the area it covered is mostly in eastern Croatia, with its easternmost parts in northern Serbia.
The Battle of Zenta or Battle of Senta, fought on 11 September 1697 just south of Zenta, on the east side of the Tisa river, was a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history. In a surprise attack, Habsburg Imperial forces routed the Ottoman army which was crossing the river. At the cost of a few hundred losses, the Habsburg forces inflicted thousands of casualties on the Ottomans, dispersed the remainder and captured the Ottoman treasure. As an immediate consequence, the Ottoman Empire lost control over Banat, while in the long run, the Habsburg victory at Zenta was the last decisive step that forced the Ottoman Empire into the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), ending the Ottoman control of large parts of Central Europe.
The Battle of Saint Gotthard was fought on August 1, 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664), between the Imperial Army led by Generalleutnant Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, together with the Army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall Prince Leopold of Baden and Reichsgeneralfeldmarschalleutnant Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and the army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Paşa.
The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe it is sometimes called the Fifteen Years War, reckoning from the 1591–92 Turkish campaign that captured Bihać.
The Battle of Focșani was a battle in the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) fought on 1 August 1789 between the Ottoman Empire and the alliance of the Russian Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy near Focșani, Moldavia. The Russians were led by Alexander Suvorov, the Austrians by Prince Josias of Coburg, and the Ottomans by Osman Pasha.
The Kingdom of Croatia was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868, as well as a part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years. Its capital was Zagreb.
The Austro-Polish War or Polish-Austrian War was a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809. In this war, Polish forces of the Napoleon-allied Duchy of Warsaw and assisted by forces of the Kingdom of Saxony, fought against the Austrian Empire. By May, the Russian Empire joined against Austria. Polish troops withstood the Austrian attack on Warsaw defeating them at Raszyn, then abandoned Warsaw in order to reconquer parts of pre-partition Poland including Kraków and Lwów, forcing the Austrians to abandon Warsaw in futile pursuit.
Adam Bajalics von Bajaháza, also Adam Bajalić von Bajaházy or Adam Bayalitsch, entered Austrian military service and fought against Prussia, Ottoman Turkey, and France. During the 1796–1797 Italian campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte, he commanded a brigade or a division in several actions.
Baron Josef Philipp Vukassovich was a Croatian soldier who joined the army of Habsburg Monarchy and fought against both Ottoman Empire and the First French Republic. During the French Revolutionary Wars, he commanded a brigade in the 1796–1797 Italian campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte. He led a division during the Napoleonic Wars and received a fatal wound in action.
The Dalmatian Campaign saw several battles fought between 30 April and 21 May 1809 by Auguste Marmont's First French Empire soldiers and Andreas von Stoichevich's Austrian Empire troops. The Austrians drove the French from their positions on the Zrmanja River at the end of April. But in mid-May, the French counterattack forced back the Austrians. The defenders offered stout resistance, but ultimately Marmont broke out of Dalmatia and joined Emperor Napoleon's army near Vienna with over 10,000 men. The campaign was fought during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Dalmatia is part of the modern-day nation of Croatia.
Statuta Valachorum was a decree issued by Emperor Ferdinand II of the Habsburg Monarchy on 5 October 1630 that defined the rights of "Vlachs" in the Military Frontier, in a way that it placed them under direct rule by Vienna, removing the jurisdiction of the Croatian parliament. This was one of three major laws enacted in the early 17th century on the taxation and tenancy rights of the Vlachs, together with the earlier 1608 decree by Emperor Rudolf II and a 1627 decree by Ferdinand. Statuta Valachorum covered Orthodox Vlachs, but still their regulations were refer to all Grenzers regardless of their religious affiliation.
The Pandurs were any of several light infantry military units beginning with Trenck's Pandurs, used by the Habsburg Monarchy from 1741, fighting in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Silesian Wars. Others to follow included Vladimirescu's Pandurs, a militia established by Tudor Vladimirescu in the Wallachian uprising of 1821, Pandurs of the Croatian Military Frontier, a frontier guard infantry unit deployed in the late 18th century, Pandurs of the Kingdom of Dalmatia, a frontier guard infantry unit deployed in the 19th century.
The Varaždin Generalate, also known as the Windische Grenze in German, was a Habsburg Monarchy Military Frontier province centred in Warasdin (Varaždin), Kingdom of Croatia within Habsburg Monarchy, that existed between 1531 and the 18th century.