Greta Garbo

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Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo - 1935.jpg
Garbo in Anna Karenina (1935)
Greta Lovisa Gustafsson

(1905-09-18)18 September 1905
Stockholm, Sweden
Died15 April 1990(1990-04-15) (aged 84)
Resting place Skogskyrkogården Cemetery,
Years active1920–1941
Garbo signature.jpg

Greta Garbo [lower-alpha 1] (born Greta Lovisa Gustafsson; [lower-alpha 2] 18 September 1905 – 15 April 1990) was a Swedish-American film actress during the 1920s and 1930s. Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress and received an Academy Honorary Award in 1954 for her "luminous and unforgettable screen performances." In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Garbo fifth on their list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema.

Academy Award for Best Actress award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actor winner.

The Academy Honorary Award – instituted in 1950 for the 23rd Academy Awards – is given annually by the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards, although prior winners of competitive Academy Awards are not excluded from receiving the Honorary Award.

American Film Institute nonprofit educational arts organization devoted to film

The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership fees.


Garbo launched her career with a secondary role in the 1924 Swedish film The Saga of Gösta Berling . Her performance caught the attention of Louis B. Mayer, chief executive of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), who brought her to Hollywood in 1925. She immediately stirred interest with her first silent film, Torrent , released in 1926; a year later, her performance in Flesh and the Devil , her third movie, made her an international star. [1]

Louis B. Mayer American-Canadian film producer

Louis Burt Mayer was an American film producer and co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios (MGM) in 1924. Under Mayer's management, MGM became the film industry's most prestigious movie studio, accumulating the largest concentration of leading writers, directors and stars in Hollywood.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer American media company

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California.

<i>Torrent</i> (1926 film) 1926 film by Monta Bell

Torrent (1926) is an American silent romantic drama film directed by an uncredited Monta Bell, based on a novel by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, and released on February 21, 1926.

Garbo's first talking film was Anna Christie (1930). MGM marketers enticed the public with the tagline "Garbo talks!" That same year she starred in Romance . For her performances in these films she received the first of three Academy Award nominations for Best Actress. (Academy rules at the time allowed for a performer to receive a single nomination for their work in more than one film). [2] In 1932, her popularity allowed her to dictate the terms of her contract and she became increasingly selective about her roles. Her success continued in films such as Mata Hari (1931) and Grand Hotel (1932). Many critics and film historians consider her performance as the doomed courtesan Marguerite Gautier in Camille (1936) to be her finest. The role gained her a second Academy Award nomination. Garbo's career soon declined, however, and she was one of the many stars labeled "box office poison" in 1938. Her career revived upon her turn to comedy in Ninotchka (1939), which earned her a third Academy Award nomination, but after the failure of Two-Faced Woman (1941), she retired from the screen, at the age of 35, after acting in twenty-eight films.

<i>Anna Christie</i> (1930 English-language film) 1930 film by Clarence Brown in English

Anna Christie is a 1930 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer pre-Code drama film adaptation of the 1922 play of the same name by Eugene O'Neill. It was adapted by Frances Marion, produced and directed by Clarence Brown with Paul Bern and Irving Thalberg as co-producers. The cinematography was by William H. Daniels, the art direction by Cedric Gibbons and the costume design by Adrian.

<i>Romance</i> (1930 film) 1930 film by Clarence Brown

Romance is a 1930 American Pre-Code Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film directed by Clarence Brown, starring Greta Garbo, Lewis Stone, and Gavin Gordon.

<i>Mata Hari</i> (1931 film) 1931 film by George Fitzmaurice

Mata Hari is a 1931 American pre-Code drama film directed by George Fitzmaurice loosely based on the life of Mata Hari, an exotic dancer and courtesan executed for espionage during World War I. The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film stars Greta Garbo in the title role. It was Garbo's most commercially successful vehicle. Only a censored version of the film is currently available.

From then on, Garbo declined all opportunities to return to the screen. Shunning publicity, she led a private life. Garbo also became an art collector in her later life; her collection, including works from painters such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pierre Bonnard, and Kees van Dongen, [3] was worth millions of dollars when she died.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir French painter and sculptor

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir, was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau." He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir (1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–1969). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre.

Pierre Bonnard French painter and printmaker

Pierre Bonnard was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker, known especially for the stylized decorative qualities of his paintings and his bold use of color. He was a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis, and his early work was strongly influenced by the work of Paul Gauguin, and the prints of Hokusai and other Japanese artists. He was a leading figure in the transition from impressionism to modernism. He painted landscapes, urban scenes, portraits and intimate domestic scenes, where the backgrounds, colors and painting style usually took precedence over the subject.

Kees van Dongen Dutch painter

Cornelis Theodorus Maria 'Kees' van Dongen was a Dutch-French painter who was one of the leading Fauves. Van Dongen's early work was influenced by the Hague School and symbolism and it evolved gradually into a rough pointillist style. From 1905 onwards - when he took part at the controversial 1905 Salon d'Automne exhibition - his style became more and more radical in its use of form and colour. The paintings he made in the period of 1905-1910 are considered by some to be his most important works. The themes of his work from that period are predominantly centered around the nightlife; he paints dancers, singers, masquerades and theatre. Van Dongen gained a reputation for his sensuous - at times garish - portraits of especially women.

Childhood and youth

Monument on the building which now stands where Greta Garbo was born on Sodermalm. Greta Garbo, Sodermalm.JPG
Monument on the building which now stands where Greta Garbo was born on Södermalm.

Greta Lovisa Gustafsson was born in Södermalm, Stockholm, Sweden. She was the third and youngest child of Anna Lovisa (née Johansson, 1872–1944), a housewife who later worked at a jam factory, and Karl Alfred Gustafsson (1871–1920), a laborer. [4] [5] Garbo had an older brother, Sven Alfred (1898–1967), and an older sister, Alva Maria (1903–1926). [6]

Södermalm island and urban district in Stockholm, Sweden

Södermalm, often shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 962,154 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

Her parents met in Stockholm, where her father had been visiting from Frinnaryd. He moved to Stockholm to become independent and worked in various odd jobs—street cleaner, grocer, factory worker and butcher's assistant. [7] He married Anna, who had recently moved from Högsby. [8] [9] The Gustafssons were impoverished and lived in a three-bedroom cold-water flat at Blekingegatan No. 32. They brought up their three children in a working class district regarded as the city's slum. [10] Garbo would later recall:

Frinnaryd Place in Småland, Sweden

Frinnaryd is a locality situated in Aneby Municipality, Jönköping County, Sweden with 204 inhabitants in 2010.

Högsby Place in Småland, Sweden

Högsby is a locality and the seat of Högsby Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 1,881 inhabitants in 2010. Other towns in the Högsby Municipality are Långemåla, Fågelfors, Berga and Fagerhult. None of these have more than 500 inhabitants. Långemåla is probably the smallest of the mentioned.

It was eternally grey—those long winter's nights. My father would be sitting in a corner, scribbling figures on a newspaper. On the other side of the room my mother is repairing ragged old clothes, sighing. We children would be talking in very low voices, or just sitting silently. We were filled with anxiety, as if there were danger in the air. Such evenings are unforgettable for a sensitive girl. Where we lived, all the houses and apartments looked alike, their ugliness matched by everything surrounding us. [11]

Garbo was a shy daydreamer as a child. [12] She hated school [13] [14] and preferred to play alone. [15] Yet she was an imaginative child and a natural leader [16] who became interested in theatre at an early age. [17] She directed her friends in make-believe games and performances [18] and dreamed of becoming an actress. [17] [19] Later, she would participate in amateur theatre with her friends and frequent the Mosebacke Theatre. [20] At the age of 13, Garbo graduated from school, [21] and, typical of a Swedish working class girl at that time, she did not attend high school. She later acknowledged a resulting inferiority complex. [22]

In the winter of 1919, the Spanish flu spread throughout Stockholm, and Garbo's father, to whom she was very close, became ill. He began missing work and eventually lost his job. [23] Garbo stayed at home looking after him and taking him to the hospital for weekly treatments. He died in 1920 when she was 14 years old. [9] [24]


Beginnings (1920–1924)

Garbo first worked as a soap-lather girl in a barber's shop but eventually, on the advice of her friends, applied for, and accepted, a position in the PUB department store, running errands and working in the millinery department. Before long, she began modeling hats for the store's catalogues, which led to a more lucrative job as a fashion model. [25] In late 1920, a director of film commercials for the store began casting Garbo in roles advertising women's clothing. Her first commercial premiered on 12 December 1920 and was followed by others the following year. [26] Thus began Garbo's cinematic career. In 1922, Garbo caught the attention of director Erik Arthur Petschler who gave her a part in his short comedy, Peter the Tramp. [27]

Garbo in her first leading role in the Swedish film The Saga of Gosta Berling (1924) with Lars Hanson Greta Garbo in Gosta Berlings Saga 1924 cropped.jpg
Garbo in her first leading role in the Swedish film The Saga of Gösta Berling (1924) with Lars Hanson

From 1922 to 1924, she studied at the Royal Dramatic Theatre's Acting School in Stockholm. She was recruited in 1924 by the prominent Finnish director Mauritz Stiller to play a principal part in his classic film The Saga of Gösta Berling, a dramatization of the famous novel by Nobel Prize winner Selma Lagerlöf. She played opposite Lars Hanson, a well-known Swedish actor. Stiller became her mentor, training her as a film actress and managing all aspects of her nascent career. [28] She followed her role in Gösta Berling with a starring role in the 1925 German film Die freudlose Gasse (Joyless Street or The Street of Sorrow), directed by G. W. Pabst and co-starring Asta Nielsen. [29]

Accounts differ on the circumstances of her first contract with Louis B. Mayer, at that time vice president and general manager of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Victor Seastrom, a respected Swedish director at MGM, was a good friend of Stiller and encouraged Mayer to meet him on a trip to Berlin. There are two recent versions of what happened next. In one, [30] Mayer, always looking for new talent, had done his research and was interested in Stiller. He made an offer but Stiller demanded that Garbo be part of any contract, convinced that she would be an asset to his career. Mayer balked, but eventually agreed to a private viewing of Gösta Berling. He was immediately struck by Garbo's magnetism and became more interested in her than in Stiller. "It was her eyes," his daughter recalled him saying, "I can make a star out of her." In the second version, [31] Mayer had already seen Gösta Berling before his Berlin trip, and Garbo, not Stiller, was his primary interest. On the way to the screening, Mayer said to his daughter "This director is wonderful, but what we really ought to look at is the girl… The girl, look at the girl!" After the screening, his daughter reported, he was unwavering: "I'll take her without him. I'll take her with him. Number one is the girl." [32]

Silent film stardom (1925–1929)

Portrait photograph of Greta Garbo, 1925 Portrait photograph of Greta Garbo, 1925.jpg
Portrait photograph of Greta Garbo, 1925

In 1925, Garbo, who was unable to speak English, was brought over from Sweden at the request of Mayer. Both Garbo and Stiller arrived in New York in July 1925 after a 10-day trip on the SS Drottningholm. [33] But they remained in New York for more than six months without any word from MGM. They decided to travel to Los Angeles on their own, but another five weeks passed with no contact from the studio. [34] [35] On the verge of returning to Sweden, she wrote to her boyfriend back home: "You're quite right when you think I don't feel at home here… Oh you lovely little Sweden, I promise that when I return to you my sad face will smile as never before." [36]

A Swedish friend in Los Angeles helped out by contacting MGM producer Irving Thalberg, who agreed to give Garbo a screen test. According to author Frederick Sands, "the result of the test was electrifying. Thalberg was impressed and began grooming the young actress the following day, arranging to fix her teeth, making sure she lost weight, and giving her English lessons." [36]

During her rise to stardom, film historian Mark Vieira notes, "Thalberg decreed that henceforth Garbo would play a young but worldly wise woman… " [37] However, according to Thalberg's actress wife, Norma Shearer, Garbo did not necessarily agree with his ideas:

Miss Garbo at first didn't like playing the exotic, the sophisticated, the woman of the world. She used to complain, "Mr. Thalberg, I am just a young gur-rl!" Irving tossed it off with a laugh. With those elegant pictures he was creating the Garbo image. [37]

Although she expected to work with Stiller on her first film, [38] she was cast in Torrent (1926), an adaptation of a novel by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, with director Monta Bell. She replaced Aileen Pringle, 10 years her senior, and played a peasant girl turned singer opposite Ricardo Cortez. [39] [40] Torrent was a hit and despite its cool reception by the trade press, [41] Garbo's performance was critically acclaimed. [42] [43]

Garbo in Flesh and the Devil (1926) with John Gilbert Flesh and the Devil with John Gilbert.jpg
Garbo in Flesh and the Devil (1926) with John Gilbert

The success led Irving Thalberg, head of production at MGM, [44] to cast her in a similar role in The Temptress (1926), based on another Ibáñez novel. After only one film, she was given top billing, playing opposite Antonio Moreno. [45] Her mentor Stiller, who had persuaded her to take the part, was assigned to direct. [46] For both Garbo (who did not want to play another vamp and did not like the script any more than she did the first one) [47] and Stiller, The Temptress was a harrowing experience. Stiller, who spoke little English, had difficulty adapting to the studio system [48] and did not get on with Moreno, [49] was fired by Thalberg and replaced by Fred Niblo. Reshooting The Temptress was expensive and even though it became one of the top-grossing films of the 1926–27 season, [50] it was the only Garbo film of the period to lose money. [51] However, Garbo received rave reviews [52] [53] [54] [55] and MGM had a new star. [50] [56]

Garbo with John Gilbert in A Woman of Affairs (1928). Garbo - Gilbert - publicity.jpg
Garbo with John Gilbert in A Woman of Affairs (1928).

After her lightning ascent, Garbo went on to make eight more silent films and all were hits. [57] She starred in three of them with popular leading man John Gilbert. [58] About their first movie, Flesh and the Devil (1926), silent film expert Kevin Brownlow states that "she gave a more erotic performance than Hollywood had ever seen." [59] Their on-screen chemistry soon translated into an off-camera romance and by the end of the production, they began living together. [60] The film also marked a turning point in Garbo's career. Vieira wrote: "Audiences were mesmerized by her beauty and titillated by her love scenes with Gilbert. She was a sensation." [61] Profits from her third movie with Gilbert, A Woman of Affairs (1928), catapulted her to top Metro star of the 1928–29 box office season, usurping the long-reigned silent queen Lillian Gish. [62] In 1929, reviewer Pierre de Rohan wrote in the New York Telegraph: "She has a glamour and fascination for both sexes which have never been equaled on the screen." [63]

The impact of Garbo's acting and screen presence quickly established her reputation as one of Hollywood's greatest actresses. Film historian and critic David Denby argues that Garbo introduced a subtlety of expression to the art of silent acting and that its effect on audiences cannot be exaggerated. She "lowers her head to look calculating or flutters her lips," he says. "Her face darkens with a slight tightening around the eyes and mouth; she registers a passing idea with a contraction of her brows or a drooping of her lids. Worlds turned on her movements." [64]

During this period, Garbo began to require unusual conditions during the shooting of her scenes. She prohibited visitors—including the studio brass—from her sets and demanded that black flats or screens surround her to prevent extras and technicians from watching her. When asked about these eccentric requirements, she said "If I am by myself, my face will do things I cannot do with it otherwise." [65]

Despite her popularity as a silent star, [66] the studio feared that her Swedish accent might impair her work in sound and delayed the shift for as long as possible. [67] [68] MGM itself was the last Hollywood studio to convert to sound [69] and her last silent film, The Kiss (1929), was also the studio's. [70] Garbo would go on to become one of the biggest box office draws of the next decade.

Transition to sound and continued success (1930–1939)

"Garbo talks!" in Anna Christie (1930). Greta Garbo in a publicity image for "Anna Christie".jpg
"Garbo talks!" in Anna Christie (1930).

In late 1929, MGM cast Garbo in Anna Christie (1930), a film adaptation of the 1922 play by Eugene O'Neill, her first speaking role. The screenplay was adapted by Frances Marion and the film was produced by Irving Thalberg and Paul Bern. Sixteen minutes into the film, she famously utters her first line, "Gimme a whiskey, ginger ale on the side, and don't be stingy, baby." The film premiered in New York City on 21 February 1930 publicized with the catchphrase "Garbo talks!", and was the highest-grossing film of the year. [71] Garbo received her first Academy Award for Best Actress nomination for her performance, although she lost to MGM colleague Norma Shearer. Her nomination that year included her performance in Romance (1930). After filming ended, Garbo—along with a different director and cast—filmed a German-language version of Anna Christie that was released in December 1930. [72] The film's success certified Garbo's successful transition to talkies. In her follow-up film, Romance (1930), she portrayed an Italian opera star opposite Lewis Stone. She was paired opposite Robert Montgomery in Inspiration (1931), and her popularity was used to boost the career of the relatively unknown Clark Gable in Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) (1931). Although the films did not match Garbo's success with her sound debut, she was ranked as the most popular female star in the United States in 1930 and 1931.

Garbo followed with two of her most famous roles. In 1931, she played the World War I German spy in the lavish production of Mata Hari , opposite Ramón Novarro. When the film was released, it "caused panic with police reserves required to keep the waiting mob in order." [73] The following year, she played a Russian ballerina in Grand Hotel (1932), opposite an ensemble cast, including John Barrymore, Joan Crawford, and Wallace Beery among others. The film won that year's Academy Award for Best Picture. Both films had been MGM's highest-earning films of 1931 and 1932, respectively, and Garbo was dubbed "the greatest money-making machine ever put on screen." [24] [74] [75] [76] Garbo's close friend Mercedes de Acosta then penned a screenplay for her to portray Joan of Arc [77] but producers rebuffed the idea and the film was shelved. After appearing in As You Desire Me (1932), the first of three Garbo films which co-starred Melvyn Douglas, Garbo's MGM contract expired and she returned to Sweden.

Greta Garbo - Karenina.jpg
Garbo and Fredric March in Anna Karenina (1935).
Garbo & Taylor - Camille 1936.jpg
Garbo and Robert Taylor in Camille (1936).

After nearly a year of negotiations, Garbo agreed to renew her contract with MGM on the condition she would star in Queen Christina and her salary would be increased to $300,000 per film. The film's screenplay had been written by Viertel, and although MGM had been reluctant to make the movie, they relented at Garbo's insistence. For her leading man, MGM suggested Charles Boyer or Laurence Olivier, but Garbo rejected both, preferring her former co-star and lover, John Gilbert. The studio balked at the idea of casting Gilbert, fearing his declining popularity would hurt the film's profits, but Garbo prevailed. [78] [79] Queen Christina was a lavish production, becoming one of the studio's biggest productions at the time. Publicized as "Garbo returns", the film premiered in December 1933 to critical acclaim and box office triumph and became the highest-grossing film of the year. The movie, however, met with controversy upon its release; censors objected to the scenes in which Garbo disguised herself as a man and kissed a female co-star. [80] [81]

Although her domestic popularity was undiminished in the early 1930s, high profits for Garbo's films after Queen Christina in 1933 depended on the foreign market for their success. [80] [81] The type of historical and melodramatic films she began to make on the advice of Viertel were highly successful abroad but considerably less so in the United States. In the midst of the Great Depression, American screen audiences seemed to favor "home-grown" screen couples, such as Clark Gable and Jean Harlow.

In 1935, David O. Selznick wanted to cast her as the dying heiress in Dark Victory , but Garbo chose Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (1935) in which she played another of her renowned roles. [82] Her critically acclaimed performance won her the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. The film was internationally successful and did better than MGM expected domestically. [83] Still, its profit was significantly diminished because of her exorbitant salary. [84] Garbo selected George Cukor's romantic drama Camille (1936) as her next project. Thalberg cast her opposite talents Robert Taylor and former co-star, Lionel Barrymore. Cukor carefully crafted Garbo's portrayal of Marguerite Gautier, a lower-class woman, who becomes the world-renowned mistress Camille. Production was marred, however, by the sudden death of Thalberg, then only thirty-seven, which plunged the Hollywood studios into a "state of profound shock," writes David Bret. [85] :272 Garbo had grown close to Thalberg and his wife, Norma Shearer, and had often dropped by their house unannounced. Her grief for Thalberg, some believe, was more profound than for John Gilbert, who died earlier that same year. [85] :272 His death also added to the sombre mood required for the closing scenes of Camille. When the film premiered in New York on 12 December 1936, it became an international success, Garbo's first major success in three years. She won a New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress award for her performance, and she was again nominated for an Academy Award.

Garbo and Charles Boyer in Conquest (1937) Modern Screen 1937 Conquest.jpg
Garbo and Charles Boyer in Conquest (1937)

Garbo's follow-up project was Clarence Brown's lavish production of Conquest (1937) opposite Charles Boyer. The plot was the dramatized romance between Napoleon and Marie Walewska. It was MGM's biggest and most-publicized movie of 1937, but upon its release, it lost more than $1 million at the box office, becoming one of the studio's biggest failures of the decade. [81] Garbo's popularity had considerably dropped, and when her contract expired soon thereafter, she returned briefly to Sweden. On 3 May 1938, Garbo was among the many stars—including Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Luise Rainer, Katharine Hepburn, Mae West, Marlene Dietrich, Fred Astaire, Dolores del Río and others—dubbed to be "Box Office Poison" in an article published by Harry Brandt on behalf of the Independent Theatre Owners of America.

Garbo and Melvyn Douglas in a scene from Ninotchka (1939). Douglas-Ninotchka.jpg
Garbo and Melvyn Douglas in a scene from Ninotchka (1939).

After the box office failure of Conquest, MGM decided a change of pace was needed to resurrect her declining popularity. For her next movie, the studio teamed her with producer-director Ernst Lubitsch to film Ninotchka , her first comedy. The film was one of the first Hollywood movies which, under the cover of a satirical, light romance, depicted the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin as being rigid and gray when compared to its prewar years. Ninotchka premiered in October 1939, publicized with the catchphrase "Garbo laughs!", commenting on the departure of Garbo's serious and melancholy image as she transferred to comedy. Despite the film's critical favoritism and box office success in the United States and abroad, it was banned in the Soviet Union and its satellites.

Last work and early retirement (1941–1948)

Garbo and Melvyn Douglas in "Two-Faced Woman" (1941) Twofaced woman.jpg
Garbo and Melvyn Douglas in "Two-Faced Woman" (1941)

With George Cukor's Two-Faced Woman (1941), MGM attempted to capitalize on Garbo's success in Ninotchka by casting her in a romantic comedy which sought to portray her as a chic, modern woman. She played a "double" role that featured her dancing the rhumba, swimming, and skiing. The film was a critical failure, but, contrary to popular belief, it performed reasonably well at the box office. [86] Garbo referred to the film as "my grave." [87] Two-Faced Woman was her last film; she was thirty-six and had made twenty-eight feature films in 16 years.

Although Garbo was humiliated by the negative reviews of Two-Faced Woman, she did not intend to retire at first. [88] [89] But her films depended on the European market and when it fell through because of the war, finding a vehicle was problematic for MGM. [90] [91] She signed a one-picture deal in 1942 to make The Girl from Leningrad but the project quickly dissolved. [90] She still thought she would continue when the war was over [90] [92] though she was ambivalent and indecisive about returning to the screen. Salka Viertel, Garbo's close friend and collaborator, said in 1945 "Greta is impatient to work. But on the other side, she's afraid of it." [93] Garbo also worried about her age. "Time leaves traces on our small faces and bodies. It's not the same anymore, being able to pull it off." [93] George Cukor, director of Two-Faced Woman, and often blamed for its failure, said "People often glibly say that the failure of Two-Faced Woman finished Garbo's career. That's a grotesque oversimplification. It certainly threw her, but I think that what really happened was that she just gave up. She didn’t want to go on." [92]

Still, Garbo signed a contract in 1948 with producer Walter Wanger, who had produced Queen Christina, to shoot a picture based on Balzac's La Duchesse de Langeais. Max Ophüls was slated to adapt and direct. [94] [95] [96] She made several screen tests, learned the script, and arrived in Rome in the summer of 1949 to shoot the picture. However, the financing failed to materialize and the project was abandoned. [97] The screen tests—the last time Garbo stepped in front of a movie camera—were thought to have been lost for 41 years until they were rediscovered in 1990 by film historians Leonard Maltin and Jeanine Basinger. [98] Parts of the footage were included in the 2005 TCM documentary Garbo. [99]

In 1949, she was offered the role of fictional silent-film star Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard . However, after a meeting with film producer Charles Brackett, she insisted that she had no interest in the part whatsoever. [100]

She was offered many roles both in the 1940s and throughout her retirement years but rejected all but a few of them. In the few instances when she did accept them, the slightest problem led her to drop out. [101] Although she refused to talk to friends about her reasons for retiring throughout her life, four years before her death she told Swedish biographer Sven Broman "I was tired of Hollywood. I did not like my work. There were many days when I had to force myself to go to the studio… I really wanted to live another life." [102]

Public persona

From the early days of her career, Garbo avoided industry social functions, preferring to spend her time alone or with friends. She never signed autographs or answered fan mail, and rarely gave interviews. [103] [104] Nor did she ever appear at Oscar ceremonies, even when she was nominated. [105] Her aversion to publicity and the press was undeniably genuine, [106] [107] and exasperating to the studio at first. In an interview in 1928, she explained that her desire for privacy began when she was a child, stating "as early as I can remember, I have wanted to be alone. I detest crowds, don't like many people." [108]

Because Garbo was suspicious and mistrustful of the media, and often at odds with MGM executives, she spurned Hollywood's publicity rules. She was routinely referred to by the press as the "Swedish Sphinx." Her reticence and fear of strangers perpetuated the mystery and mystique that she projected both on screen and in real life. MGM eventually capitalized on it, for it bolstered the image of the silent and reclusive woman of mystery. [109] [105] [110] In spite of her strenuous efforts to avoid publicity, Garbo paradoxically became one of the twentieth century's most publicized women in the world. [24] [111] She is closely associated with a line from Grand Hotel, one which the American Film Institute in 2005 voted the 30th-most memorable movie quote of all time, [112] "I want to be alone; I just want to be alone." The theme was a running gag that began during the period of her silent movies. [113] [lower-alpha 3]

Personal life


In retirement, Garbo generally led a private life of simplicity and leisure. She made no public appearances and assiduously avoided the publicity which she loathed. [115] As she had been during her Hollywood years, Garbo, with her innate need for solitude, was often reclusive. Contrary to myth, from the beginning she had many friends and acquaintances with whom she socialized and later traveled. [116] [117] Occasionally, she jet-setted with well-known and wealthy personalities, striving to guard her privacy as she had during her career.

Garbo signing her US citizenship papers in 1950 Greta Garbo in 1950.jpg
Garbo signing her US citizenship papers in 1950

Still, she often floundered about what to do and how to spend her time ("drifting" was the word she frequently used), [118] always struggling with her many eccentricities, [117] [119] and her lifelong melancholy and moodiness. [120] [121] As she approached her sixtieth birthday, she told a frequent walking companion "In a few days, it will be the anniversary of the sorrow that never leaves me, that will never leave me for the rest of my life." [122] To another friend, she said, in 1971, "I suppose I suffer from very deep depression." [123] One biographer claims that she arguably could have been bipolar. "I am very happy one moment, the next there is nothing left for me," she said in 1933. [123]

Beginning in the 1940s, she became something of an art collector. Many of the paintings which she purchased were of negligible value, but she did buy paintings by Renoir, Rouault, Kandinsky, Bonnard, [124] and Jawlensky. [125] Her art collection was worth millions when she died in 1990. [126]

On 9 February 1951, she became a naturalized citizen of the United States [127] and, in 1953, she bought a seven-room apartment at 450 East 52nd Street in Manhattan, New York City, [128] where she lived for the rest of her life. [127]

On 13 November 1963, just nine days before the assassination of President Kennedy, Garbo was a dinner guest at the White House. [129] She spent the night at the Washington, D.C. home of philanthropist Florence Mahoney. [130] [131] Garbo's niece Gray Reisfield told museum specialist James Wagner at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, quoted in a 2000 press release: "[Garbo] always spoke of it as a magical evening." [132]

Italian motion picture director Luchino Visconti allegedly attempted to bring Garbo back to the screen in 1969 with a small part, Maria Sophia, Queen of Naples, in his adaptation of Proust's Remembrance of Things Past . He exclaimed: "I am very pleased at the idea that this woman, with her severe and authoritarian presence, should figure in the decadent and rarefied climate of the world described by Proust." [133] Claims that Garbo was interested in the part cannot be substantiated. [134] [133]

In 1971, Garbo vacationed with her close friend Baroness Cécile de Rothschild at her summer home in Southern France. [135] De Rothschild introduced her to Samuel Adams Green, a well-known art collector and curator in New York, and the two formed an immediate bond. [136] Green, who became an important friend and walking companion, was in the habit of tape-recording all of his telephone calls and, with Garbo's permission, recorded many of his conversations with her. In 1985, Garbo ended the friendship when she was falsely informed that Green had played the tapes to friends. [137] In his last will and testament, Green bequeathed all of the tapes in 2011 to the film archives at Wesleyan University. [138] . The tapes reveal Garbo's personality in later life, her sense of humor, and various eccentricities.

Although she became increasingly withdrawn in her final years, [139] over time she became close to her cook and housekeeper, Claire Koger, who worked for her for 31 years. "We were very close—like sisters," the reticent Koger said. [140]

Throughout her life, Garbo was known for taking long, daily walks with companions or taking them by herself. In retirement, she walked the streets of New York City dressed casually and wearing large sunglasses. "Garbo-watching" became a sport for photographers, the media, admirers, and curious New Yorkers, [141] but she maintained her elusive mystique to the end.

Garbo was a Lutheran. [142]


Garbo never married, had no children, and lived alone as an adult. Her most famous romance was with her frequent co-star John Gilbert, with whom she lived intermittently in 1926 and 1927. [143] Soon after their romance began, Gilbert began helping her acting on the set, teaching her how to behave like a star, how to socialize at parties, and how to deal with studio bosses. [144] They costarred again in three more hits: Love (1927), A Woman of Affairs (1928), and Queen Christina (1933). Gilbert allegedly proposed to her numerous times, with Garbo agreeing but backing out at the last minute. [144] [1] [145] "I was in love with him," she said. "But I froze. I was afraid he would tell me what to do and boss me. I always wanted to be the boss." [144]

In 1937, she met conductor Leopold Stokowski, with whom she had a highly publicized friendship or romance while traveling throughout Europe the following year. [146] [147] In his diary, Erich Maria Remarque discusses a liaison with Garbo in 1941, [148] and in his memoir, Cecil Beaton described an affair with her in 1947 and 1948. [149] [150] In 1941 she met the Russian-born millionaire, George Schlee, who was introduced to her by his wife, fashion designer Valentina. Nicholas Turner, Garbo's close friend for 33 years, said that, after she bought an apartment in the same building, "Garbo moved in and took Schlee from Valentina right away." [144] Schlee would split his time between the two, becoming Garbo's close companion and advisor until his death in 1964. [151] [152]

Recent biographers and others believe that Garbo was bisexual or lesbian, that she had intimate relationships with women as well as men. [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] In 1927, Garbo was introduced to stage and screen actress Lilyan Tashman and they may have had an affair, according to some writers. [158] [159] Silent film star Louise Brooks stated that she and Garbo had a brief liaison the following year. [160]

In 1931, Garbo befriended the writer and acknowledged lesbian Mercedes de Acosta, [161] introduced to her by her close friend, Salka Viertel, and, according to Garbo's and de Acosta's biographers, began a sporadic and volatile romance. The two remained friends—with ups and downs—for almost 30 years, during which time Garbo wrote de Acosta 181 letters, cards, and telegrams, now at the Rosenbach Museum & Library in Philadelphia. [162] [163] Garbo's family, which controls her estate, [164] has made only 87 of these items publicly available. [165]

In 2005, Mimi Pollak's estate released 60 letters Garbo had written to her in their long correspondence. Several letters suggest she may have had romantic feelings for Pollak for many years. After learning of Pollak's pregnancy in 1930, for example, Garbo wrote "We cannot help our nature, as God has created it. But I have always thought you and I belonged together". [166] In 1975, she wrote a poem about not being able to touch the hand of her friend with whom she might have been walking through life. [167]

Gravestone of Greta Garbo Greta Garbo gravestone.jpg
Gravestone of Greta Garbo


Garbo was successfully treated for breast cancer in 1984. [168] [169] Towards the end of her life, only Garbo's closest friends knew she was receiving dialysis treatments for six hours three times a week at The Rogosin Institute in New York Hospital. A photograph appeared in the media in early 1990, showing Koger assisting Garbo, who was walking with a cane, into the hospital.

Greta Garbo died on 15 April 1990, aged 84, in the hospital, as a result of pneumonia and renal failure. [170] Daum later claimed that towards the end, she also suffered from gastrointestinal and periodontal ailments.

Garbo was cremated in Manhattan, and her ashes were interred in 1999 at Skogskyrkogården Cemetery just south of her native Stockholm. [171]

Garbo had invested wisely, primarily in stocks and bonds, and left her entire estate, $32,042,429 ($61,887,978 by 2018 rates) to her niece, Gray Reisfield. [172]


Garbo in Inspiration (1931) publicity still Garbo in Inspiration.jpg
Garbo in Inspiration (1931) publicity still

Garbo was an international superstar during the late silent era and the "Golden Age" of Hollywood and is widely regarded as a cinematic legend. [173] Almost immediately, with the sudden popularity of her first pictures, she became a screen icon. [174] For most of her career, she was the highest-paid actor or actress at MGM, making her for many years its "premier prestige star". [175] [176] The April 1990 Washington Post obituary said that "at the peak of her popularity she was a virtual cult figure". [111]

Garbo possessed a subtlety and naturalism in her acting that set her apart from other actors and actresses of the period. [177] About her work in silents, film critic Ty Burr said "This was a new kind of actor—not the stage actor who had to play to the far seats but someone who could just look and with her eyes literally go from rage to sorrow in just a close-up." [178]

Film historian Jeffrey Vance said that Garbo communicated her characters' innermost feelings through her movement, gestures, and most importantly, her eyes. With the slightest movement of them, he argues, she subtly conveyed complex attitudes and feelings toward other characters and the truth of the situation. "She doesn't act," said Camille co-star Rex O'Malley; "she lives her roles." [179] Director Clarence Brown, who made seven of Garbo's pictures, told an interviewer "Garbo has something behind the eyes that you couldn't see until you photographed it in close-up. You could see thought. If she had to look at one person with jealousy, and another with love, she didn't have to change her expression. You could see it in her eyes as she looked from one to the other. And nobody else has been able to do that on screen." [180] Director George Sidney adds "You could call it underplaying but in underplaying she overplayed everyone else." [181]

Many critics have said that few of Garbo's 24 Hollywood films are artistically exceptional and that many are simply bad. [182] It has been said, however, that her commanding and magnetic performances usually overcome the weaknesses of plot and dialogue. [182] [111] As one biographer put it, "All moviegoers demanded of a Garbo production was Greta Garbo." [183]

In Camille (1936) Greta Garbo - 1936.jpg
In Camille (1936)

She was portrayed by Betty Comden in the 1984 film Garbo Talks . The film concerns a dying Garbo fan (Anne Bancroft) whose last wish is to meet her idol. Her son (played by Ron Silver) sets about trying to get Garbo to visit his mother at the hospital.

Garbo is the subject of several documentaries, including four made in the United States between 1990 and 2005:

Garbo’s contemporaries comment on the actress:

Writer, journalist and film historian Ephraim Katz: "Of all the stars who have ever fired the imaginations of audiences, none has quite projected a magnetism and a mystique equal to Garbo's. 'The Divine,' the 'dream princess of eternity,' the 'Sarah Bernhardt of films,' are only a few of the superlatives writers used in describing her over the years… She played heroines that were at once sensual and pure, superficial and profound, suffering and hopeful, world-weary and life-inspiring'". [188]

American film actress Bette Davis: "Her instinct, her mastery over the machine, was pure witchcraft. I cannot analyze this woman's acting. I only know that no one else so effectively worked in front of a camera." [189]

American and Mexican film actress Dolores del Río: "The most extraordinary woman (in art) that I have encountered in my life. It was as if she had diamonds in her bones and in her interior light struggled to come out through the pores of her skin." [190]

American film director George Cukor: "She had a talent that few actresses or actors possess. In close-ups she gave the impression, the illusion of great movement. She would move her head just a little bit and the whole screen would come alive, like a strong breeze that made itself felt". [191]

Awards and honors

Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 1930, a performer could receive a single nomination for their work in more than one film. Garbo received her nomination for her work in both Anna Christie and for Romance. [192] [193] She lost out to Irving Thalberg's wife, Norma Shearer, who won for The Divorcee . In 1937, Garbo was nominated for Camille, but Luise Rainer won for The Good Earth . Finally, in 1939, Garbo was nominated for Ninotchka, but again came away empty-handed. Gone With the Wind swept the major awards, including Best Actress, which went to Vivien Leigh. [194] [195] In 1954, however, she was awarded an Academy Honorary Award "for her luminous and unforgettable screen performances". [196] She did not show up at the ceremony, and the statuette was mailed to her home address. [194]

She twice received the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress, for Anna Karenina in 1935, and for Camille in 1936. She won the National Board of Review Best Acting Award for Camille in 1936; for Ninotchka in 1939; and for Two-Faced Woman in 1941. The Swedish royal medal Litteris et Artibus, which is awarded to people who have made important contributions to culture (especially music, dramatic art or literature) was presented to Garbo in January 1937. [197] In a 1950 Daily Variety opinion poll, Garbo was voted Best Actress of the Half Century, [198] In 1957, she was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. [199]

In November 1983, she was made a Commander of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star by order of King Carl XVI Gustaf, the King of Sweden. [200] For her contributions to cinema, in 1960, she was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6901 Hollywood Boulevard.

She was once designated the most beautiful woman who ever lived by the Guinness Book of World Records . [201] [202] [203] Garbo appears on a number of postage stamps, and in September 2005, the United States Postal Service and Swedish Posten jointly issued two commemorative stamps bearing her image. [204] [205] [206] On 6 April 2011, Sveriges Riksbank announced that Garbo's portrait was to be featured on the 100-krona banknote, beginning in 2014–2015. [207]

Garbo in Literature

Author Ernest Hemingway provided an imaginary portrayal of Garbo in his 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls :

Maybe it is like the dreams you have when someone you have seen in the cinema comes to your bed at night and is so kind and lovely....He could remember Garbo still... Maybe it was like those dreams the night before the attack on Pozoblanco and [Garbo] was wearing a soft silky wool sweater when he put his arms around her and when she leaned forward and her hair swept forward and over his face and she said why had he never told her that he loved her when she had loved him all this time? ...and it was as true as though it had happened... [208]


Silent films
1920Mr. and Mrs. Stockholm Go ShoppingElder sister Swedish : Herrskapet Stockholm ute på inköp;
An advertisement. Garbo's segment [209] is often known as How Not to Dress. The commercial premiered 12 December 1920. [26] [210]
1921The Gay Cavalier [211] Garbo played an extra. Swedish : En lyckoriddare;
Uncredited. The film is lost.
1921Our Daily BreadCompanion Swedish : Konsum Stockholm Promo; [210] An advertisement
1922Peter the TrampGreta Swedish : Luffar-Petter; [210] A two-reel comedy; Garbo's first part in a commercial film
1924 The Saga of Gosta Berling Elizabeth Dohna Mauritz Stiller Lars Hanson Swedish : Gösta Berling's Saga; Garbo's first leading part in a feature-length film, directed by her mentor, the celebrated Mauritz Stiller.
1925 The Joyless Street Greta Rumfort G. W. Pabst Asta Nielsen German : Die freudlose Gasse; Garbo plays the principal role in this German film made by renowned director G.W. Pabst
1926 Torrent Leonora Moreno
aka La Brunna
Monta Bell Ricardo Cortez First American movie. All of Garbo's subsequent movies were made in Hollywood and produced by MGM.
1926 The Temptress Elena Fred Niblo Antonio Moreno Stiller was originally assigned to direct; his directing methods and personality led to conflicts with MGM producer Irving Thalberg who fired him.
1926 Flesh and the Devil Felicitas Clarence Brown John Gilbert First of seven Garbo movies directed by Clarence Brown and first of four with co-star John Gilbert
1927 Love Anna Karenina Edmund Goulding John Gilbert Adapted from the novel Anna Karenina by Tolstoy
1928 The Divine Woman Marianne Victor Seastrom Lars Hanson The film is lost; only a 9-minute reel exists.
1928 The Mysterious Lady Tania Fedorova Fred Niblo Conrad Nagel
1928 A Woman of Affairs Diana Merrick Furness Clarence Brown John Gilbert The first of seven Garbo films with actor Lewis Stone who, with the exception of Wild Orchids, played secondary roles.
1929 Wild Orchids Lillie Sterling Sidney Franklin Nils Asther
1929 A Man's Man Herself James Cruze William Haines Garbo and John Gilbert make cameo appearances; this film is lost.
1929 The Single Standard Arden Stuart Hewlett John S. Robertson Nils Asther ,
John Mack Brown
1929 The Kiss Irene Guarry Jacques Feyder Conrad Nagel Garbo's, and MGM's, last silent picture
Sound films
1930 Anna Christie Anna Christie Clarence Brown Charles Bickford ,
Marie Dressler
Garbo's first talkie and first Academy Award nomination for Best Actress
1930 Romance Madame Rita Cavallini Clarence Brown Gavin Gordon Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actress
1930 Anna Christie Anna Christie Jacques Feyder Hans Junkermann ,
Salka Viertel
MGM's German version of Anna Christie was also released in 1930; Salka Viertel, Garbo's close friend, later co-wrote several of her screenplays.
1931 Inspiration Yvonne Valbret Clarence Brown Robert Montgomery
1931 Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) Susan Lenox Robert Z. Leonard Clark Gable
1931 Mata Hari Mata Hari George Fitzmaurice Ramon Novarro After the multi-star Grand Hotel, Garbo's highest-grossing film
1932 Grand Hotel Grusinskaya Edmund Goulding John Barrymore ,
Lionel Barrymore ,
Joan Crawford ,
Wallace Beery
Academy Award for Best Picture
1932 As You Desire Me Zara aka Marie George Fitzmaurice Melvyn Douglas ,
Erich von Stroheim
First of three movies with Douglas
1933 Queen Christina Queen Christina Rouben Mamoulian John Gilbert
1934 The Painted Veil Katrin Koerber Fane Richard Boleslavski George Brent
1935 Anna Karenina Anna Karenina Clarence Brown Fredric March New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
1936 Camille Marguerite Gautier George Cukor Robert Taylor New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
National Board of Review Best Acting Award
Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actress
1937 Conquest Countess Marie Walewska Clarence Brown Charles Boyer Because the final cost for this extravagant production vastly exceeded its budget, coupled with its poor box office receipts, the film lost $1,397,000.
1939 Ninotchka Nina Ivanovna "Ninotchka" Yakushova Ernst Lubitsch Melvyn Douglas National Board of Review Best Acting Award
Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
1941 Two-Faced Woman Karin Borg Blake George Cukor Melvyn Douglas National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Best Acting Award

Public collections

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Informational notes

  1. Swedish pronunciation:  [²ɡreːta ˈɡarːbʊ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )
  2. pronounced  [²ɡreːta lʊ²viːsa ²ɡɵsːtafˌsɔn]
  3. For example, in Love (1927) a title card reads "I like to be alone"; in The Single Standard (1929) her character says "I am walking alone because I want to be alone"; in the same film, she sails to the South Seas with her lover on a boat called the All Alone; in Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) (1931) she says to a suitor "This time I rise ... and fall ... alone"; in Inspiration (1931) she tells a fickle lover "I just want to be alone for a little while"; in Mata Hari (1931) she says to her new amour "I never look ahead. By next spring I shall probably be ... quite alone." By the early 1930s, the motif had become indelibly linked to Garbo's public and private personae. [113] [114] It is lampooned in Ninotchka (1939) when emissaries from Russia ask her "Do you want to be alone, comrade?" "No," she says bluntly. But about her private life, she later remarked "I never said, 'I want to be alone'; I only said, 'I want to be let alone.' There is a world of difference." [113] [114]


  1. 1 2 Vieira 2005, p. 38.
  2. "Session Timeout – Academy Awards® Database – AMPAS". Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
  3. Reif, Rita (19 July 1990). "Garbo's Collection and a van Gogh Are to Be Sold". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  4. Ware, Susan; Braukman, Stacy Lorraine (2004). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary: Completing the Twentieth Century. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN   978-0-674-01488-6 . Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  5. Sjölander, Ture (1971). Garbo. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 12–13. ISBN   978-0-06-013926-1 . Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  6. Furhammar, Leif; Svenska filminstitutet (1991). Filmen i Sverige: en historia i tio kapitel (in Swedish). Höganäs: Wiken. p. 129. ISBN   978-91-7119-517-3 . Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  7. Souhami 1994, p. 64.
  8. "Karl Alfred Gustafsson" Archived 20 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  9. 1 2 Bainbridge 1955b, p. 76.
  10. D'Amico, Silvio (1962). Enciclopedia dello spettacolo (in Italian). Rome: Casa editrice Le Maschere. p. 901. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  11. "Greta Garbo". Lektyr (in Swedish). 9 (3). 17 January 1931.
  12. Liberty. Liberty Library Corporation. 1974. pp. 27–31 & 54–57. Retrieved 4 August 2010.[ dead link ]
  13. Biery 1928a. I hated school. I hated the bonds they put on me. There were so many things outside. I liked history best but I was afraid of the map—geography you call it. But I had to go to go to school like other children. The public school, just as you have in this country.
  14. "After Twelve Years Greta Garbo Wants to Go Home to Sweden". Life . 8 November 1937. p. 81. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  15. Biery 1928a. I didn't play much. Except skating and skiing and throwing snowballs. I did most of my playing by thinking. I played a little with my brother and sister, pretending we were in shows. Like other children. But usually I did my own pretending. I was up and down. Very happy one moment, the next moment – there was nothing left for me.
  16. Swenson 1997, p. 25.
  17. 1 2 Biery 1928a. Then I found a theater. I must have been six or seven. Two theaters, really. One was a cabaret; one a regular theater, – across from one another. And there was a back porch to both of them. A long plank on which the actors and actresses walked to get in the back door. I used to go there at seven o'clock in the evening, when they would be coming in, and wait until eight-thirty. Watch them come in; listen to them getting ready. The big back door was always open even in the coldest weather. Listen to their voices doing their parts in the productions. Smell the grease paint! There is no smell in the world like the smell of the backyard of a theater. No smell that will mean as much to me—ever. Night after night, I sat there dreaming. Dreaming when I would be inside—getting ready.
  18. Swenson 1997, p. 26.
  19. Biery 1928a. When I wasn't thinking, wasn't wondering what it was all about, this living; I was dreaming. Dreaming how I could become a player.
  20. Jean Lacouture (1999). Greta Garbo: La Dame aux Caméras (in French). Paris: Liana Levi. p. 22. ISBN   978-2-86746-214-6 . Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  21. Robert Payne (November 1976). The Great Garbo. London: W. H. Allen. p. 22. ISBN   978-0-491-01538-7 . Retrieved 4 August 2010. In June 1919 she left school, and never returned.
  22. Swenson 1997, p. 32.
  23. Parish, James Robert (4 August 2007). The Hollywood Book of Extravagance: The Totally Infamous, Mostly Disastrous, and Always Compelling Excesses of America's Film and TV Idols. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. p. 76. ISBN   978-0-470-05205-1 . Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  24. 1 2 3 NYTimes 1990.
  25. Swensen 1997, p. 36.
  26. 1 2 "Herrskapet Stockholm ute på inköp (1920)" The Swedish Film Database, Swedish Film Institute. Retrieved 3 April 2012. (in Swedish)
  27. Paris 1994, p. 34.
  28. Paris 1994, pp. 54–61.
  29. Paris 1994, pp. 67–69.
  30. Swenson 1997, pp. 72–74.
  31. Paris 1994, pp. 80–83.
  32. Vieira 2005, p. 9.
  33. Reisfeld, Scott (September 2007). "Greta Garbo's War on Hollywood" (PDF). Scanorama. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  34. Paris 1994, p. 84.
  35. Swenson 1997, p. 85.
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Bibliography and further reading