Groningen (province)

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Groningen
Flag of Groningen.svg
Flag
Groningen provincie wapen.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Grönnens Laid"
"Song of Groningen"
Groningen in the Netherlands.svg
Location of Groningen in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 53°15′N6°44′E / 53.250°N 6.733°E / 53.250; 6.733 Coordinates: 53°15′N6°44′E / 53.250°N 6.733°E / 53.250; 6.733
Country Netherlands
Capital Groningen
Government
   King's Commissioner René Paas (CDA)
Area
 (2010) [1]
  Total2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi)
  Land2,325 km2 (898 sq mi)
  Water635 km2 (245 sq mi)
Area rank 7th nationally
Population
(1 January 2014) [2]
  Total582,640
  Rank 9th nationally
  Density200/km2 (510/sq mi)
  Density rank 8th nationally
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code NL-GR
HDI (2017)0.932 [3]
very high · 3rd
Website www.provinciegroningen.nl

Groningen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣroːnɪŋə(n)] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Gronings: Grunn; West Frisian : Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. It borders on Friesland to the west, Drenthe to the south, the German state of Lower Saxony (districts of Leer and Emsland) to the east, and the Wadden Sea to the north. In 2014, it had a population of 582,640 and a total area of 2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi).

Gronings dialect language

Gronings, in the dialect itself called Grunnegs or Grönnegs, is a collective name for some Friso-Saxon dialects spoken in the province of Groningen and around the Groningen border in Drenthe and Friesland. Gronings and the strongly related varieties in East Frisia have a strong East Frisian influence and take a remarkable position within West Low German. The dialect is characterized by a typical accent and vocabulary, which differ strongly from the other Low Saxon dialects.

West Frisian language Germanic language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry. It is the most widely spoken of the three Frisian languages.

Provinces of the Netherlands first-level administrative division in the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

Contents

The area was subsequently part of Frisia, the Frankish Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Dutch Republic, which is the precursor state of the Netherlands. In the 14th century, the city of Groningen became a member of the Hanseatic League.

Frisia coastal region on the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany formerly a historic region with its own language

Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland and smaller parts of northern Germany. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people that speaks Frisian languages, which together with English and Scots form the Anglo-Frisian language group.

Francia territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks, or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. It is the predecessor of the modern states of France and Germany. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Francia was among the last surviving Germanic kingdoms from the Migration Period era before its partition in 843.

Holy Roman Empire varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

The capital of the province and the seat of the provincial government is the city of Groningen. Since 2016, René Paas has been the King's Commissioner in the province. A coalition of the Labour Party, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Democrats 66, and ChristianUnion forms the executive branch. The province is divided into 23 municipalities.

Capital city primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Frederik Johannes "René" Paas is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal. He was chairman of the Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond from 2005 to 2009. He has been the King's Commissioner in the province of Groningen since 18 April 2016.

Kings Commissioner head of a province in the Netherlands

The King’s Commissioner is the head of a province in the Netherlands. The officeholder chairs of both the States-Provincial and the Provincial-Executive, but has a right to vote only in the latter. When the reigning monarch is a female, the office is Queen's Commissioner. As there are twelve provinces in the Netherlands, there are twelve King's Commissioners.

The land is mainly used for agriculture. There are sea ports in Delfzijl and Eemshaven. The Groningen gas field was discovered in 1959. The province is home to the University of Groningen and Hanze University of Applied Sciences.

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Delfzijl City and municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Delfzijl is a city and municipality with a population of 25,651 in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands. Delfzijl was a sluice between the Delf and the Ems, which became fortified settlement in the 16th century. The fortifications were removed in the late 19th century. Delfzijl is the fifth largest seaport in the Netherlands, and the largest port in the North East of the country.

Eemshaven Place in Groningen, Netherlands

Eemshaven is a seaport in the province of Groningen in the north of the Netherlands. Population of the area was 5 in January 2017.

History

1652 map of the city of Groningen and the surrounding fortifications Groningen (afbeeldinge der stadt Groningen met omliggende fortressen) - Haubois, 1652.jpg
1652 map of the city of Groningen and the surrounding fortifications
Canadian soldiers during the Battle of Groningen in April 1945 Canadian soldiers during the Battle of Groningen.jpg
Canadian soldiers during the Battle of Groningen in April 1945

Groningen was originally a part of Frisia. It became a part of the Frankish Empire around 785. Charlemagne assigned the Christianization of this new possession to Ludger.

Charlemagne King of the Franks, King of Italy, and Holy Roman Emperor

Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire. He was later canonized by Antipope Paschal III.

Ludger Bishop of Munster

Saint Ludger was a missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, founder of Werden Abbey and first Bishop of Münster in Westphalia.

In the 11th century, the city of Groningen was a village in Drenthe that belonged to the Bishopric of Utrecht, while most of the province was in the Prince-Bishopric of Münster.

Drenthe Province of the Netherlands

Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands located in the northeastern part of the country. It is bordered by Overijssel to the south, Friesland to the west, Groningen to the north, and Germany to the east. In January 2017, it had a population of 491,867 and a total area of 2,683 km2 (1,036 sq mi).

Bishopric of Utrecht Former principality in Holland

The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was a civil principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in present Netherlands, which was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht as princes of the Holy Roman Empire.

Prince-Bishopric of Münster

The Bishopric of Münster or Prince-Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, it was often held in personal union with one or more of the nearby ecclesiastical principalities of Cologne, Paderborn, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, and Liège.

During the Middle Ages, central control was remote, and the city of Groningen acted as a city-state, exerting a dominating influence on the surrounding Ommelanden. In the 14th century, Groningen became one of the towns within the Hanseatic League. [4] In the years after, Groningen expanded its influence. At its peak almost all of the current province Friesland was under the influence and control of Groningen.

Shortly before 1498, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Groningen and Friesland to Albert III, Duke of Saxony, who could however not establish permanent control. In 1514/15 Groningen came to the Duchy of Guelders, and in 1536 as the Lordship of Groningen to the Habsburg Netherlands.

In 1594, Groningen was conquered from the Spanish by the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, precursor state of the Netherlands, to which it belonged henceforth.

During World War II, the Netherlands were occupied by Nazi Germany. In April 1945, the 2nd Canadian Division fought in the Battle of Groningen, which resulted in the liberation of the city and in the death of 130, the capture of 5,212, and the fleeing of 2,000 German soldiers. In May 1945, another 3,000 German soldiers were captured in the Battle of Delfzijl by the 5th Canadian Division, after which all of the northern provinces were liberated. [5]

East Groningen was the scene of a particularly fierce class struggle in the 19th and 20th centuries. Perhaps not coincidentally, Groningen boasts the only municipality (Beerta) where the Communist Party of the Netherlands has ever had a mayor (Hanneke Jagersma). [6]

Geography

Satellite image of Groningen Groningen 6.70672E 53.23944N.jpg
Satellite image of Groningen
Map of Groningen (2018) 2018-P01-Groningen.jpg
Map of Groningen (2018)
The land is flat and 80% of it is used for agriculture Overzicht van de molen, gezien vanaf het weiland - Fransum - 20420708 - RCE.jpg
The land is flat and 80% of it is used for agriculture
Wheat field near Nieuw-Beerta in the Oldambt Grainrepublic.jpg
Wheat field near Nieuw-Beerta in the Oldambt
Mudflat hikers during low tide on the Wadden Sea near Pieterburen Wadlopen bij Pieterburen 02a.jpg
Mudflat hikers during low tide on the Wadden Sea near Pieterburen

Groningen is situated at 53°15′N6°44′E / 53.250°N 6.733°E / 53.250; 6.733 in the northeast of the Netherlands. To the west is the province Friesland, to the south is the province Drenthe, to the east the German districts are Leer and Emsland in the state Lower Saxony, and to the north the North Sea, Ems, and Dollart. The northernmost point of the Netherlands is on Rottumerplaat [7] at 53°33′18″N6°28′41″E / 53.55500°N 6.47806°E / 53.55500; 6.47806 ; the easternmost point of the Netherlands is in Bad Nieuweschans [7] at 53°10′49″N7°13′40″E / 53.18028°N 7.22778°E / 53.18028; 7.22778 .

Groningen is the 7th largest province of the Netherlands. It has a total area of 2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi), with 2,325 km2 (898 sq mi) of land and 635 km2 (245 sq mi) of water. About 80% of the land or 1,876 km2 (724 sq mi) is used for agriculture. The rest of the land is: 9% or 158 km2 (61 sq mi) of built-up or semi built-up area, 6% or 144 km2 (56 sq mi) of nature, 3% or 66 km2 (25 sq mi) of infrastructure, and 2% or 43 km2 (17 sq mi) of recreational area. [1]

The land in Groningen is flat. A large area of the province is below sea level. [8] The Hasseberg near Sellingen of 14.6 m (48 ft) above sea level is the highest point. [9]

The Groningen gas field near Slochteren is the 8th largest [10] natural gas field in the world. Since 1986, the exploitation of this gas field has caused earthquakes in the region with magnitudes up to 3.6. [11]

In the Wadden Sea of Groningen, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2009, [12] are the sandbank Simonszand and the natural reserve Rottum consisting of the three uninhabited islands Rottumeroog, Rottumerplaat, and Zuiderduintjes. The national park Lauwersmeer (IUCN category II) is located on the border between Groningen and Friesland.

Subdivisions

The province of Groningen is also called Stad en Ommelanden , which means the city of Groningen and its surrounding lands, which are the historical regions of Fivelingo, Hunsingo, Oldambt, Westerkwartier, and Westerwolde. [13]

The province (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics or NUTS level 2) is divided into three COROP regions (NUTS level 3): East Groningen, Delfzijl and surroundings, and the rest of Groningen. The COROP regions are used for statistical purposes. [14]

The province is also divided into 20 municipalities with each their own local government. Currently, Groningen is the most populated and most densely populated municipality, [15] [16] containing the largest city, and Eemsmond is the largest municipality, containing a large part of the Wadden Sea in the province. [16] Ten Boer is the least populated, De Marne is the least densely populated, and Appingedam is the smallest municipality. [15] [16]

The nine municipalities, Bedum, Groningen, Haren, Hoogezand-Sappemeer, Leek, Slochteren, Ten Boer, Winsum, and Zuidhorn, are part of the interprovincial Groningen-Assen Region [17] [ needs update ] and the seventeen municipalities, Appingedam, Bellingwedde, Delfzijl, Eemsmond, Groningen, Grootegast, Haren, Hoogezand-Sappemeer, Leek, Menterwolde, Oldambt, Pekela, Slochteren, Stadskanaal, Veendam, Vlagtwedde, and Zuidhorn, are part of the international Ems Dollart Region (EDR). [18] [ needs update ]

MunicipalityPopulation [15] Total Area [16] Population density [15] [16] COROP Region
Appingedam 11,84124.58 km2 (9.49 sq mi)498/km2 (1,290/sq mi)Delfzijl and surroundings
Bedum 10,47744.96 km2 (17.36 sq mi)235/km2 (610/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Ten Boer 7,29445.73 km2 (17.66 sq mi)161/km2 (420/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Delfzijl 24,934227.50 km2 (87.84 sq mi)187/km2 (480/sq mi)Delfzijl and surroundings
Eemsmond 15,602543.35 km2 (209.79 sq mi)82/km2 (210/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Groningen 200,73383.75 km2 (32.34 sq mi)2,572/km2 (6,660/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Grootegast 12,18387.74 km2 (33.88 sq mi)140/km2 (360/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Haren 19,75550.73 km2 (19.59 sq mi)433/km2 (1,120/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Leek 19,67264.28 km2 (24.82 sq mi)311/km2 (810/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Loppersum 9,800111.99 km2 (43.24 sq mi)88/km2 (230/sq mi)Delfzijl and surroundings
De Marne 10,059240.33 km2 (92.79 sq mi)60/km2 (160/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Marum 10,43764.89 km2 (25.05 sq mi)162/km2 (420/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Midden-Groningen
Oldambt 38,057295.96 km2 (114.27 sq mi)167/km2 (430/sq mi)East Groningen
Pekela 12,38050.20 km2 (19.38 sq mi)252/km2 (650/sq mi)East Groningen
Stadskanaal 32,232119.94 km2 (46.31 sq mi)274/km2 (710/sq mi)East Groningen
Veendam 27,49778.68 km2 (30.38 sq mi)361/km2 (930/sq mi)East Groningen
Westerwolde East Groningen
Winsum 13,594102.53 km2 (39.59 sq mi)134/km2 (350/sq mi)Rest of Groningen
Zuidhorn 18,893128.37 km2 (49.56 sq mi)150/km2 (390/sq mi)Rest of Groningen

Climate

The province of Groningen has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb).

Climate data for Nieuw-Beerta (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4.7
(40.5)
5.6
(42.1)
9.2
(48.6)
13.9
(57.0)
17.3
(63.1)
20.0
(68.0)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
18.8
(65.8)
13.6
(56.5)
8.5
(47.3)
4.7
(40.5)
13.5
(56.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.3
(36.1)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
8.7
(47.7)
12.2
(54.0)
14.9
(58.8)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
14.2
(57.6)
9.8
(49.6)
6.0
(42.8)
2.4
(36.3)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F)−0.2
(31.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.4
(34.5)
3.5
(38.3)
6.9
(44.4)
9.4
(48.9)
12.1
(53.8)
12.1
(53.8)
9.9
(49.8)
6.3
(43.3)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.4
(41.7)
Average relative humidity (%)90898580808282818588929286
Mean monthly sunshine hours 134.3187.2222.4208.4215.8189.9149.3120.160.359.6
Percent possible sunshine 36454541424239372325
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute [19]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1899 299,602    
1930 392,436+0.87%
1960 474,657+0.64%
1965 497,472+0.94%
1970 517,305+0.78%
1975 536,106+0.72%
1980 553,709+0.65%
1985 561,119+0.27%
1990 553,862−0.26%
1995 557,995+0.15%
2000 562,646+0.17%
2005 575,072+0.44%
2010 576,668+0.06%
2015 582,649+0.21%
Source: CBS [20] [21] [22]

On 1 January 2014, the province of Groningen had a population of 582,640 and a population density of 196.8/km2 (510/sq mi), which make it the 9th most populous province and 8th most densely populated province of the Netherlands. [1] [2] The city of Groningen is the most populous city in the province and the 7th most populous city in the Netherlands.

On 1 January 2013, 92.2% of the total provincial population was born in the Netherlands; and of the 7.8% that was born abroad, the ten most common foreign countries of origin are the neighbour Germany (1.09%), the former colonies and dependencies Indonesia (0.60%), Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (0.55%), Suriname (0.54%), and other countries Turkey (0.41%), Soviet Union (0.36%), China (0.32%), Poland (0,26%), Yugoslavia (0.26%), and United Kingdom (0.18%). [23]

In 1999, a 59% majority of the population of Groningen was not affiliated with any religion; 29% was Protestant (15% Reformed and 14% Dutch Reformed; since 2004 united in Protestant Church in the Netherlands), 7% was Roman Catholic (Diocese of Groningen-Leeuwarden), and 6% had another religion. [24]

Economy

The University Medical Center is a major employer in Groningen Building University Medical Centre Groningen UMCG.png
The University Medical Center is a major employer in Groningen
Sea port of Delfzijl in 2012 120815 Haven Delfzijl Gn NL.jpg
Sea port of Delfzijl in 2012

The city of Groningen is the economic center of the province. [25] In the 14th century, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League. [4] Currently some of the city's major employers [25] are University Medical Center Groningen with 12,141 employees, [26] University of Groningen with 5,591 employees, [27] Municipality of Groningen with 3,063 employees, [28] Education Implementation Service (DUO) with 2,000 employees, [29] and Gasunie with 1,748 employees. [30]

The other economically important area is the Ems delta with the sea ports of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. [25] [31] In 2015, a total of 11,589 cargo vessels arrived at the two Groningen Seaports combined, 7,111 sea vessels and 4,478 inland vessels. The ports had a cargo throughput of 11,309,000 tonnes. [32] The chemical industry near Delfzijl is located at the Chemie Park in Farmsum, with factories of AkzoNobel, Lubrizol, and Teijin Aramid. [33] Both GDF Suez [34] and Nuon Energy [35] have a natural gas-fired power plant in Eemshaven, and Essent [36] is building a coal-fired power plant there.

In 1959, the Groningen gas field near Slochteren was discovered, [37] and the NAM started to exploit the field in 1963. [11] This caused Dutch disease and induced earthquakes.

In 2013, Groningen had a labor force of 268 thousand people and unemployment rate of 9.6%, which is the second highest unemployment for a province in the Netherlands. [38]

Culture

Language

Groningen is home to the Low Saxon dialect called Gronings (Grönnegs / Grunnegs in Gronings regional language), In the eastern part of Friesland variations of the Groninger 'language' is spoken. Gronings has local nuances, for example, the people in the eastern part speak Gronings with more German influence.[ citation needed ] Nowadays, many inhabitants of the province don't speak the dialect, especially in the city of Groningen where many outsiders have moved.

Cuisine

Traditional droge worst (dried sausage) from Groningen Groninger metworst.JPG
Traditional droge worst (dried sausage) from Groningen

Traditional dishes and delicacies from Groningen are boerenkoolstamppot, droge worst, krentjebrij, oudewijvenkoek, poffert, and spekdik. Traditional alcoholic drinks are boerenjongens, boerenmeisjes, fladderak, and heet bier.

Museums

Groninger Museum in Groningen in 2006 Groninger Museum 2.jpg
Groninger Museum in Groningen in 2006

Museumhuis Groningen is an umbrella organization for museums and other heritage organizations in the province of Groningen and has 58 members. [39] [40] The Groninger Museum is the most visited museum in the province with 209,195 visitors in 2015. The other museums and heritage organizations with more than 25 thousand visitors in 2015 are Fort Bourtange in Bourtange, Noordelijk Scheepvaartmuseum in Groningen, Ter Apel Monastery in Ter Apel, Fraeylemaborg in Slochteren, Nationaal Bus Museum in Hoogezand, and Museumspoorlijn STAR in Stadskanaal. [41]

Heritage sites

Sports

Euroborg is the home stadium of FC Groningen Euroborg121210.png
Euroborg is the home stadium of FC Groningen

FC Groningen from the city of Groningen is the only football club from the province in the Eredivisie. [42] Their home stadium Euroborg has a capacity of 22,550 seats. [43] In the 2012–2013 competition, FC Groningen became 7th of the 18 teams. [44] SC Veendam played in the Eerste Divisie, but filed for bankruptcy in 2013. [45]

The city of Groningen is also the base of basketball club GasTerra Flames, volleyball club Lycurgus, and korfball club Nic.. [46]

The ice rink at the multi-sport center Kardinge in the city of Groningen is used for national speed skating championships, most recently the 2013 KNSB Dutch Sprint Championships. [47]

Politics

Seat of the provincial government in the city of Groningen Groningen Provinciehuis 1266.jpg
Seat of the provincial government in the city of Groningen

A provincial government in the Netherlands consists of a Provincial Council, the directly elected legislative branch, and a Provincial Executive, the executive branch. The King's Commissioner, who is appointed by the national government, is chairman of both branches. [48] The Provincial Council of Groningen consists of 43 members and the Provincial Executive consists of the King's Commissioner and six deputies. [49] The government has its seat in the city of Groningen, which is the provincial capital.

René Paas, member of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), has been the King's Commissioner since 18 April 2016. [50] He succeeded Max van den Berg who was the King's Commissioner in Groningen from 2007 to 2016. [48]

In the provincial elections of 2011, the Labour Party became the largest party with nearly 25% of the votes and 12 seats in the Provincial Council. The next three largest parties are the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Socialist Party (SP) with 6 seats each, and the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) with 5 seats. [51] In 2011, two months after the elections, the member of the Party for the North (PvhN) continued as an independent under the name Free Mandate. [52] [53] The next provincial elections are planned for 18 March 2015. [54]

Following the 2011 elections, the Provincial Executive was formed by a coalition of the Labour Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Democrats 66 (D66), and GreenLeft (GL). [55] In 2013, GreenLeft left the coalition and was replaced by the ChristianUnion (CU). [56] The Labour Party has three deputies, the other coalition parties have one deputy each. [57]

2015 provincial election [58]

e    d  
PartyVotes%Seats
Socialist Party 39,09316.198
Labour Party 29,71112.306
Christian Democratic Appeal 27,16011.255
Democrats 66 23,4229.704
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 22,0899.154
Christian Union 21,1248.754
Party for Freedom 19,3408.013
Groninger Belang 15,8696.573
GroenLinks 15,7016.503
Party for the Animals 9,0783.762
Party for the North 5,1732.141
Other parties13,7195.680
Total241,47910043

Transportation

Roads

The N7 expressway near the city of Groningen A7-groningen-tijnje-004.jpg
The N7 expressway near the city of Groningen

In the province of Groningen, there are three national roads (Dutch : rijkswegen), which are maintained by Rijkswaterstaat. [59] [60] The motorway A7 (E22) connects the city of Groningen with the provinces of Friesland and North Holland in the west and with Winschoten and Germany in the east. The motorway is interrupted for the ring road of the city of Groningen, where it is the expressway N7. [61] The motorway A28 (E232) starts at the city of Groningen and runs south connecting it with the provinces of Drenthe, Overijssel, Gelderland, and Utrecht. [62] The expressway N33 runs south from Eemshaven, via Appingedam and Veendam, to Drenthe. [63] Other roads are overseen by the province (N roads), municipalities, or water boards. [59]

Public transport

Groningen railway station in 2008 20080430 Hoofdstation Groningen NL.jpg
Groningen railway station in 2008
Railways in the northern provinces of the Netherlands in 2006 (without the Stadskanaal-Zuidbroek railway, which partially reopened in 2011) Noordelijke nevenlijnen.png
Railways in the northern provinces of the Netherlands in 2006 (without the Stadskanaal–Zuidbroek railway, which partially reopened in 2011)

Public transport falls under the rules for government procurement in the European Union. Tenders for regional bus and railway services are selected by the province of Groningen. Qbuzz is contracted for bus services in the period 2009–2015 and Arriva for railway services in the period 2005–2020. [64] Nederlandse Spoorwegen operates the railway services from Groningen railway station southward to Drenthe and beyond.

The railway network in the Netherlands is maintained by ProRail. [65] There are six railways located partially or entirely in the province of Groningen. The railway station Groningen connects several of these railways. [66]

TrajectoryRailway stations in Groningen [66]
Groningen–Delfzijl GroningenGroningen NoordSauwerdBedumStedumLoppersumAppingedamDelfzijl WestDelfzijl
Harlingen–Nieuweschans FrieslandGrijpskerkZuidhornGroningenGroningen EuropaparkKropswoldeMartenshoekHoogezand-SappemeerSappemeer OostZuidbroekScheemdaWinschotenBad Nieuweschans
Ihrhove–Nieuweschans GermanyBad Nieuweschans
Meppel–Groningen DrentheHarenGroningen EuropaparkGroningen
Sauwerd–Roodeschool SauwerdWinsumBafloWarffumUsquertUithuizenUithuizermeedenRoodeschool
Stadskanaal–Zuidbroek VeendamZuidbroek

Airports

Groningen Airport Eelde is located in Eelde in the province of Drenthe Groningen Airport Eelde overview.jpg
Groningen Airport Eelde is located in Eelde in the province of Drenthe

The international airport that serves Groningen is Groningen Airport Eelde, which is located in Eelde in the province of Drenthe. The airport is co-owned by the provinces of Groningen and Drenthe and the municipalities of Groningen, Assen, and Tynaarlo. [67] Its summer destinations are Antalya, Faro, Girona, Gran Canaria, Heraklion, Kos, Palma de Mallorca, and Tenerife. Its winter destinations are Innsbruck and Salzburg. [68] Starting on 5 June 2014, there will also be flights to London. [69] For other international destinations, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the nearest airport. The general aviation airports in the province are Oostwold Airport in Oostwold [70] and Stadskanaal Airfield in Stadskanaal. [71]

Science and education

Main building of the University of Groningen in the city of Groningen 090529 Academiegebouw Groningen NL.jpg
Main building of the University of Groningen in the city of Groningen

The University of Groningen in the city of Groningen was founded in 1614 [72] and is the only research university (universiteit) in the province. On 1 September 2013, it had 29,407 students and 5,238 full-time equivalent of staff members. [73] The university has ten faculties: Arts, Behavioural and Social Sciences, Economics and Business, Law, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Medical Sciences, Philosophy, Spatial Sciences, Theology and Religious Studies, and University College Groningen. [74]

The Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the NHL University of Applied Sciences, and the Stenden University of Applied Sciences in the city of Groningen are the province's publicly funded universities of applied sciences ( hogescholen ).

Media

The Dagblad van het Noorden is a regional daily newspaper based in the city of Groningen and is owned by NDC Mediagroep. It was founded in 2002 by merging the Nieuwsblad van het Noorden , the Groninger Dagblad , and the Drentse Courant . [75] In 2015, the newspaper had a circulation of 96,515. [76]

RTV Noord is a regional public broadcaster of radio and television based in the city of Groningen, with Radio Noord and TV Noord. [77] Their radio station has 121,000 daily listeners and a market share of 28% (2012) and their TV station has 171,000 daily viewers and a market share of 26.7% (2012). [78] [79]

Notable residents

People from the province of Groningen:

Politics
Arts
Science
Sports
Other

See also

Related Research Articles

Bellingwedde Municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Bellingwedde was a municipality with a population of 8,892 in the province Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands. Bellingwedde was established in 1968, when the municipalities of Bellingwolde and Wedde had merged. It contained the villages Bellingwolde, Blijham, Oudeschans, Veelerveen, Vriescheloo, and Wedde. After almost 50 year, Bellingwedde was disestablished in 2018, when the municipalities of Bellingwedde and Vlagtwedde had merged into Westerwolde.

Loppersum, Netherlands Village and Municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Loppersum is a village and municipality with a population of 10,174 in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands.

Menterwolde Former municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Menterwolde is a former municipality with a population of 12,080 in the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. On January 1, 2018, Menterwolde merged with Hoogezand-Sappemeer and Slochteren, forming the municipality Midden-Groningen.

Slochteren Village and former municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Slochteren is a village and former municipality with a population of 15,546 in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands. On January 1, 2018, Slochteren merged with Hoogezand-Sappemeer and Menterwolde, forming the municipality Midden-Groningen.

Vlagtwedde Village in Groningen, Netherlands

Vlagtwedde is a village in the very southeast of Groningen province in the northeastern Netherlands. It lies on the Dutch border with the German state of Lower Saxony to the east.

Tynaarlo Municipality in Drenthe, Netherlands

Tynaarlo is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. Though located in the province of Drenthe, many of its communities serve as suburbs of the neighbouring city of Groningen, capital of the province of the same name.

Groningen Airport Eelde airport

Groningen Airport Eelde is a minor international airport near Eelde in the province of Drenthe in the northeastern Netherlands. It is 4.8 nautical miles south of the city of Groningen. In 2015, the airport handled 220,710 passengers. The airport is also the home base of the KLM Flight Academy, Noord Nederlandse Aero Club (NNAC) and General Enterprises.

Zuidbroek, Groningen Village in Groningen, Netherlands

Zuidbroek is a village in the Dutch province of Groningen. It is located in the municipality of Menterwolde, about 6 km north of Veendam.

The Party for the North is a regional political party in the Netherlands founded in 2003 representing the interests of the provinces of Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe. The PvhN seeks a separate Parliament for these 3 northern provinces, and for 25% of the country's profits from natural gas to go directly to them.

Oldambt (municipality) Municipality in Groningen, Netherlands

Oldambt is a municipality with a population of 38,057 in the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. It was established in 2010 by merging the municipalities of Reiderland, Scheemda, and Winschoten. It contains the city of Winschoten and the villages Bad Nieuweschans, Beerta, Blauwestad, Drieborg, Finsterwolde, Heiligerlee, Midwolda, Nieuw-Beerta, Nieuwolda, Nieuw-Scheemda, Oostwold, Scheemda, 't Waar, and Westerlee. The mayor was Pieter Smit of D66.

Zuidbroek railway station railway station in the Dutch village of Zuidbroek

Zuidbroek is an unstaffed railway station in Zuidbroek in the Netherlands. It is located on the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway between Sappemeer Oost and Scheemda, and at the northern end of the Stadskanaal–Zuidbroek railway after Veendam in the province of Groningen.

Winschoten railway station railway station in the Dutch village of Winschoten

Winschoten is an unstaffed railway station in Winschoten in the Netherlands. It is located on the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway between Scheemda and Bad Nieuweschans in the province of Groningen.

<i>Dagblad van het Noorden</i> Dutch newspaper

The Dagblad van het Noorden, abbreviated as DvhN, is a Dutch regional daily newspaper that is published and circulated in the provinces of Groningen and Drenthe in the northeastern Netherlands. The newspaper is owned by NDC Mediagroep. Erik Wijnholds has been editor-in-chief since 2017. It had a circulation of 96,515 copies in 2015.

Martin Zijlstra Dutch and politician

Marten "Martin" Zijlstra was a Dutch politician. He started his political career as member of the States of Groningen, serving between 1974 and 1978. Starting in 1977 he served as Mayor of Termunten for thirteen years. He was a member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands between 1989 and 2002 for the Labour Party and focused on interior affairs and defence policy. After his time as Representative he served two stints as acting mayor in Oldambt and Schiermonnikoog.

Noord-Nederlands Trein & Tram Museum Railway museum in Zuidbroek, Netherlands

Noord-Nederlands Trein & Tram Museum is a railway museum in Zuidbroek in the Netherlands. It is situated in the 19th-century building of the Zuidbroek railway station.

The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Groningen, Netherlands.

Westerwolde is a municipality in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands.

Bonno Spieker Dutch politician

Bonno Spieker was a Dutch politician. He served in the House of Representatives for the Labour Party from 8 June 1977 to 10 June 1981 and again from 15 September 1981 until 17 May 1994. He was considered a member of the left wing of the party and a spokesperson for the Northern provinces.

NDC Mediagroep is a Dutch publisher of newspapers, magazines, and websites focused on the three northern provinces of the Netherlands: Drenthe, Friesland and Groningen. It is owned by foundation Fryslan Boppe Oranjewoud in Oranjewoud (83%) and the foundation Je Maintiendrai in Sint Annaparochie (17%). Headquarters are in Leeuwarden, other offices in Groningen and Meppel. In addition to three main provinces, NDC publishes and distributes also in the Kop van Overijssel, Noordoostpolder, and northern Flevoland.

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