Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (The Hague)

Last updated
Great or St. James' Church
2010-05-22-den-haag-by-RalfR-29.jpg
Great or St. James' Church
Coordinates: 52°04′38″N4°18′26″E / 52.07722°N 4.30722°E / 52.07722; 4.30722
Location The Hague
Country Netherlands
Denomination No longer in use for religious activities, except for royal baptisms and weddings
Previous denomination Dutch Reformed Church, since 1574 (the Reformation), before that Catholic Church
Website www.grotekerkdenhaag.nl
History
Status Church
Founded13th century
Dedication James, son of Zebedee (until the Reformation in 1574)
Architecture
Heritage designation Rijksmonument
Designated1967
Architectural type Church
Style Gothic
Years built14th — 16th century
Specifications
Spire height93 m (305 ft 1 in)
Materials Brick

Great or St. James' Church (in Dutch, de Grote Kerk or de Sint-Jacobskerk, Dutch pronunciation: [ˌɣroːtə ʔɔf sɪnˈcaːkɔpskɛr(ə)k] ) is a landmark Protestant church in The Hague, Netherlands. The building is located on the Torenstraat, named for its high tower. Together with the Binnenhof, it is one of the oldest buildings in The Hague. Members of the House of Orange-Nassau have been baptised and married there. The latest are Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and his daughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange.

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed (Calvinist) and Lutheran.

The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Contents

History

Stained glass window to commemorate the martyr Jan de Bakker, designed by Max Nauta [nl
], executed by glaziers 'Schrier en De Ru' in Haarlem, 1930 WLM - roel1943 - Grote kerk.jpg
Stained glass window to commemorate the martyr Jan de Bakker, designed by Max Nauta  [ nl ], executed by glaziers 'Schrier en De Ru' in Haarlem, 1930

The Great, or St. James' Church, was founded in the late 13th century, probably as a wooden church. The present church was built in stages, between the 14th and 16th century. First in the year 1337 sources speak of the “great church” (Dutch: grote kercke), which is a typical historical indication of a brick structure. [1] It has a fine vaulted interior, and contains some old stained glass, a carved wooden pulpit (1550), a large organ and interesting sepulchral monuments, and 34 escutcheons of the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, placed here after the chapter of 1456. [2] During excavations in 2009 archeologists determined that some basement walls were built with bricks which they could date between the year 1320 and 1350. [3] Documents from the year 1399, referring to maintenance work on the church, show that by then the church was a brick construction. [1]

Order of the Golden Fleece order of chivalry

The Distinguished Order of the Golden Fleece is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Princess Isabella of Portugal. Today, two branches of the Order exist, namely the Spanish and the Austrian Fleece; the current grand masters are Felipe VI, King of Spain, and Karl von Habsburg, grandson of Emperor Charles I of Austria, respectively. The chaplain of the Austrian branch is Cardinal Graf von Schönborn, Archbishop of Vienna.

Excavation (archaeology) Exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or "dig" is a site being studied. Such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific archaeological site or a connected series of sites, and may be conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of years.

The stone church was originally built as a cruciform church. In the facade adjacent to the tower, there are still traces of the roof line of 1424. They show a nave with two lower aisles. Between 1434 and 1455, both lower aisles were broadened and raised to the roof level of the nave, consequently losing the cross shape. This expansion made the St. James Church of The Hague the first example in the Low Countries of the so-called “Hague Hall church”, a type of hall church. From that time onwards, this type of church would be applied on a larger scale, especially in the County of Holland.

Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross.

Nave main body of a church

The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for the choir and clergy.

Aisle architectural element

An aisle is, in general (common), a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in airplanes, certain types of buildings, such as churches, cathedrals, synagogues, meeting halls, parliaments and legislatures, courtrooms, theatres, and in certain types of passenger vehicles. Their floors may be flat or, as in theatres, stepped upwards from a stage.

The church is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the cenotaph monument of Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam, designed by Cornelis Moninckx and sculpted by Bartholomeus Eggers in 1667, and the renaissance tomb of Gerrit van Assendelft (1487 - 1558). Also notable is the late Baroque tomb of Philip, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal and his wive Catherine of Solms-Laubach, designed by Daniel Marot in 1721. The church's six-sided tower was finished between 1420 and 1424. The tower, 93 m (305 ft 1 in) tall, is one of the tallest in the Netherlands. There are 34 panels with shields and names of knights of the golden fleece. [4] The richly carved wooden pulpit was made in 1550. [4] The mechanical clock has 15 bells by M. de Haze in 1686, one by Jasper and Jan Moer from 1541, one from H. Van Trier from 1570, one by Coenraat Wegewaert from 1647, and one from C. Fremy from 1692 and 31 modern bells. [4] In the church tower there is an automatic carillon by Libertus van den Burgh, from 1689. [4] In the tower the mechanical clock was installed in 1927. [4] The clock with drum by Heynrick Vabrie that was used from 1541 to 1689 is kept in the museum 'Speelklok' in Utrecht.

Cenotaph "empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam Dutch admiral

Jacob, Banner Lord of Wassenaer, Lord Obdam, Hensbroek, Spanbroek, Opmeer, Zuidwijk and Kernhem was a Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral, and supreme commander of the confederate Dutch navy. The name Obdam was then also spelled as Opdam. British contemporaneous sources typically refer to him as Admiral Opdam or Lord Obdam because it was not until 1657 that he bought the Wassenaar Estate from relatives and thus acquired its title. Modern Dutch sources sometimes less correctly insert a second "van" between "Wassenaer" and "Obdam" or use the modern spelling "Wassenaar".

Baroque cultural movement, starting around 1600

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, dance painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep colour, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century.

The church endured a fire in 1539, and the stained glass windows were repaired by leading glass artists, including the brothers Dirk and Wouter Crabeth of Gouda. [5] Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who visited the church after the fire, sponsored two windows by the Crabeth's that due to their royal origin are the only two windows that have survived up to the present day. [5] Under one of these windows lies a commemorative stone from 1857 for Constantijn and Christiaan Huygens, who were buried in unmarked graves in the choir of the church. [5] Some notable people buried in the church are Count John Albert I of Solms-Braunfels, a cousin of William the Silent, who died in exile (buried in 1623), Rombout Hogerbeets, Dutch statesman (1625), Anthonie Duyck (in 1629), Grand Pensionary of Holland, Louis of Nassau, Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd, an illegitimate son of Maurice, Prince of Orange (in 1665), Gaspar Fagel (1668), Grand Pensionary of Holland, Lieuwe van Aitzema, a famous spy for England during the First and Second Anglo-Dutch War (buried in 1669), field marshal René de Cordeux, Marquess of Langey, a grandson of Louise de Coligny (1712), Daniel Marot, architect (1752), Countess Anna Isabella of Nassau-LaLecq (1765), Count Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer, diplomat and composer (1766), and Hieronymus van Alphen, poet (1803).

Wouter Crabeth I painter

Wouter Pietersz Crabeth (1510–1590) was a Dutch Renaissance glass painter. He was employed by the Sint Janskerk (Gouda) during the Protestant Reformation, where he created six of the stained glass windows during the years 1555 to 1571. His windows, that he created in close collaboration with his brother Dirk Crabeth, are one of the reasons that the church was placed on the UNESCO list of monuments.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor (1519–1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506–1555). The Spanish conquest of Peru and Mexico and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-kingdoms project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, and Trastámara of Spain. As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe and was also elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor. As a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara, he inherited the Crown of Castile, which was developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, and the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to central Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, and as a result he is sometimes referred to as the first king of Spain. The personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century.

Constantijn Huygens Dutch poet and composer

Sir Constantijn Huygens, Lord of Zuilichem, was a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer. He was secretary to two Princes of Orange: Frederick Henry and William II, and the father of the scientist Christiaan Huygens.

Metzler Orgelbau

Metzler Orgelbau is a firm of organ builders based in Dietikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. It is one of the most important makers of the European classical organ revival and has built many important and respected instruments throughout Europe. Among its instruments are:

Church function

The church is formally owned by the City of The Hague and is managed by the "Stichting Grote Kerk Den Haag", which conducts restoration activities and rents it for concerts, but also facilitates various cultural initiatives of the city. [5]

Related Research Articles

Oirschot Municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

Oirschot is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It is situated 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city of Eindhoven and 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the city of Tilburg in the province Noord-Brabant. The municipality had a population of 18,599 in 2017.

Willebrord Snellius Dutch astronomer and mathematician

Oubichapter Snellius was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell. In the west, especially the English speaking countries, his name is attached to the law of refraction of light.

St. Rumbolds Cathedral cathedral in Mechelen, Belgium

St. Rumbold's Cathedral is the Belgian metropolitan archiepiscopal cathedral in Mechelen, dedicated to Saint Rumbold, Christian missionary and martyr who had founded an abbey nearby. His remains are rumoured to be buried inside the cathedral. State-of-the-art examination of the relics honoured as Saint Rumbold's and kept in a shrine in the retro-choir, showed a life span of about 40 years and a death date between 580 and 655, while tradition had claimed 775 AD.

Grote Kerk, Haarlem Church in Haarlem, Netherlands

The Grote Kerk or St.-Bavokerk is a Reformed Protestant church and former Catholic cathedral located on the central market square in the Dutch city of Haarlem. Another Haarlem church called the Cathedral of Saint Bavo now serves as the main cathedral for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Haarlem-Amsterdam.

Breda City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant. The name derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa.

Pieter and François Hemony sibling duo

François Hemony and his brother Pieter, Pierre, or Peter Hemony (1619-1680) were the greatest carillon bell founders in the history of the Low Countries. They developed the carillon, in collaboration with Jacob van Eyck, into a full-fledged musical instrument by casting the first tuned carillon in 1644.

Ben van Oosten is an organist, professor and author.

Pieter Post painter and architect from the Northern Netherlands

Pieter Jansz Post was a Dutch Golden Age architect, painter and printmaker.

Hummelo Place in Gelderland, Netherlands

Hummelo is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Bronckhorst, about 6 km northwest of Doetinchem.

Rombout Verhulst Dutch sculptor

Rombout Verhulst was a Flemish sculptor and draughtsman who spent most of his career in the Dutch Republic. There he helped introduce the Baroque style in sculpture while becoming the leading sculptor of marble monuments, including funerary monuments, garden figures and portraits.

Grote may refer to:

De Grote Molen, Broeksterwâld

De Grote Molen is a smock mill in Broeksterwâld, Friesland, Netherlands which has been restored to working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument, number 11679.

Sint Janskerk church in Gouda

The Sint Janskerk in Gouda, the Netherlands, is a large Gothic church, known especially for its stained glass windows, for which it has been placed on the UNESCO list of Dutch monuments.

Grote or Sint-Laurenskerk (Alkmaar) church in Alkmaar

Grote or Sint-Laurenskerk is a landmark formerly Protestant church in Alkmaar, Netherlands, now in secular use. The building is located on the Koorstraat. It is mostly closed in the winter and open for tourists in the summer months or by appointment.

Jacobus Deketh captain of the Frisian Admiralty

Jacobus Deketh was a captain in the Frisian Admiralty, one of the five admiralties of the Dutch Republic. In 1744 at the age of 18, Deketh joined the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He became a lieutenant and later extraordinary captain and sailed to the Dutch East Indies. In 1758, Deketh continued his career in the Frisian Admiralty. He became captain of a ship, Edam. He was appointed full captain of the Frisian Admiralty in 1760.

Grote Kerk may refer to:

Berend Strik Dutch painter

Berend Strik is a Dutch visual artist working and living in Amsterdam.

Koninklijke Schouwburg building in The Hague

The Koninklijke Schouwburg is a theater in the city center of The Hague. The theater was built in 1766 and has been in use as theater since 1804. From 2017 it is one of the theaters in use by the national theater company Het Nationale Theater, but also other companies perform in the Schouwburg.

References

  1. 1 2 Veen, M.M.A. van; Roest, H.H.C. (2009), Graven in de Grote- of Sint Jacobskerk, Department of Archeology of the City of The Hague, p. 12, doi:10.17026/dans-2xc-wxv5, ISBN   978-94-6067-007-7
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hague, The"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 818.
  3. Veen, M.M.A. van; Roest, H.H.C. (2009), Graven in de Grote- of Sint Jacobskerk, Department of Archeology of the City of The Hague, pp. 77–78, doi:10.17026/dans-2xc-wxv5, ISBN   978-94-6067-007-7
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Rijksmonument report
  5. 1 2 3 4 website "Stichting Grote Kerk Den Haag" - Bezienswaardigheden

Organ Information