Group of 77

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Group of 77
Group of 77 Logo.svg
AbbreviationG77
Named afterNumber of founding Member States
Formation15 June 1969;52 years ago (1969-06-15)
Founded at Geneva, Switzerland
Type Intergovernmental voting bloc
PurposeTo provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests
Headquarters United Nations Headquarters
Methods Collective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies
Fields International politics
Membership (2019)
134 Member States
Chair of the Group of 77
The Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Affiliations United Nations
Website G77.org

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. [1] There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries according to the organization. [2] China does not consider itself to be a member, nor did it when it was generally regarded as a developing country. However, the country supports and financially contributes to G77, and official statements are made with China. Guinea holds the chairmanship as of 2021.

Contents

The group was founded on 15 June 1969 , by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). [3] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA. [4] There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).

Policies

The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament. [5] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order. [5] [6] It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives. [5] [7] [8]

Members

Group of 77 countries as of 2013 G 77.svg
Group of 77 countries as of 2013

As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:

  1. Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan.
  2. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Costa Rica, Chile and Colombia.
  3. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.

Current founding members [9]

Other current members

Former members

  1. Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2. Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3. Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg  South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4. Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003.[ citation needed ] It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in the G77.
  5. Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the European Union in 2004.
  6. Flag of Malta.svg  Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the European Union in 2004.
  7. Flag of Palau.svg  Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8. Flag of Romania.svg  Romania was classed as a Latin American country for the purposes of the G77, having joined in 1976. [10] [11] The G77 was divided into geographical regions, and because there was technically no European area, Romania was placed under the umbrella of Latin America. [12] Romania left the G77 following its accession to the European Union. [13]

China

The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. [2] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. [14] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China. [15]

Presiding countries

The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77: [16]

Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = three times G77presidingcountries.png
Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = three times
Presiding countryYear
Flag of India.svg  India 1970–1971
Flag of Peru (state).svg  Peru 1971–1972
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1972–1973
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg  Iran 1973–1974
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1974–1975
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 1975–1976
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1976–1977
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1977–1978
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia 1978–1979
Flag of India.svg  India 1979–1980
Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela 1980–1981
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 1981–1982
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1982–1983
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1983–1984
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1984–1985
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 1985–1986
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 1987
Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia 1988
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1989
Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia 1990
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 1991
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1992
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1993
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 1994
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 1995
Flag of Costa Rica (state).svg  Costa Rica 1996
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania 1997
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1998
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 1999
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 2000
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 2001
Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela 2002
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 2003
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2004
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 2005
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2006
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 2007
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda 2008
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 2009
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 2010
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 2011
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 2012
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 2013
Flag of Bolivia (state).svg  Bolivia 2014
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2015
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 2016
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 2017
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 2018
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine 2019
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana 2020
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea 2021

Group of 24

G-24 countries.
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Member nations
Observer nations G24 nations.svg
G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.

See also

Notes

  1. Joined as Dahomey.
  2. Joined as Upper Volta.
  3. Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  4. Joined as Burma.
  5. Joined as Ceylon.
  6. Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
  7. Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
  8. Joined as Swaziland.

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References

  1. About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. 1 2 "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
  3. About the Group of 77:Establishment
  4. Prebisch, Raúl; Prebisch, Raul (October 1986). "El desarrollo económico de la América Latina y algunos de sus principales problemas". Desarrollo Económico. 26 (103): 479. doi:10.2307/3466824. hdl:11362/10183. ISSN   0046-001X. JSTOR   3466824.
  5. 1 2 3 Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN   978-81-7446-458-3.
  6. Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN   978-1-84980-726-5.
  7. Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN   978-1-317-96895-5.
  8. Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN   978-1-4522-6626-8.
  9. Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
  10. James Mark, Bogdan C. Iacob, Tobias Rupprecht, Ljubica Spaskovska, Cambridge University Press, 29 aug. 2019, 1989 A Global History of Eastern Europe, p. 125
  11. James Mark, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Steffi Marung, Indiana University Press, 11 feb. 2020, Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World, p. 43
  12. United Nations University Press, 1995, State, Society and the UN System: Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism, p. 152
  13. Bertrand Badie, Springer, Aug 21, 2012, Diplomacy of Connivance
  14. "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以“77国集团加中国”的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
  15. "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org. Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
  16. "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.