Grover Cleveland

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I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution, and I do not believe that the power and duty of the general government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadfastly resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the government, the government should not support the people. The friendliness and charity of our countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve their fellow-citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated. Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood. [118]


One of the most volatile issues of the 1880s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver, or by gold alone. [119] The issue cut across party lines, with western Republicans and southern Democrats joining in the call for the free coinage of silver, and both parties' representatives in the northeast holding firm for the gold standard. [120] Because silver was worth less than its legal equivalent in gold, taxpayers paid their government bills in silver, while international creditors demanded payment in gold, resulting in a depletion of the nation's gold supply. [120]

Cleveland and Treasury Secretary Daniel Manning stood firmly on the side of the gold standard, and tried to reduce the amount of silver that the government was required to coin under the Bland–Allison Act of 1878. [121] Cleveland unsuccessfully appealed to Congress to repeal this law before he was inaugurated. [122] Angered Westerners and Southerners advocated for cheap money to help their poorer constituents. [123] In reply, one of the foremost silverites, Richard P. Bland, introduced a bill in 1886 that would require the government to coin unlimited amounts of silver, inflating the then-deflating currency. [124] While Bland's bill was defeated, so was a bill the administration favored that would repeal any silver coinage requirement. [124] The result was a retention of the status quo, and a postponement of the resolution of the free-silver issue. [125]


Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg
Cleveland in 1892
22nd & 24th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897
"When we consider that the theory of our institutions guarantees to every citizen the full enjoyment of all the fruits of his industry and enterprise, with only such deduction as may be his share toward the careful and economical maintenance of the Government which protects him, it is plain that the exaction of more than this is indefensible extortion and a culpable betrayal of American fairness and justice ... The public Treasury, which should only exist as a conduit conveying the people's tribute to its legitimate objects of expenditure, becomes a hoarding place for money needlessly withdrawn from trade and the people's use, thus crippling our national energies, suspending our country's development, preventing investment in productive enterprise, threatening financial disturbance, and inviting schemes of public plunder."
Cleveland's third annual message to Congress,
December 6, 1887.

Another contentious financial issue at the time was the protective tariff. These tariffs had been implemented as a temporary measure during the civil war to protect American industrial interests but remained in place after the war. [127] While it had not been a central point in his campaign, Cleveland's opinion on the tariff was that of most Democrats: that the tariff ought to be reduced. [128] Republicans generally favored a high tariff to protect American industries. [128] American tariffs had been high since the Civil War, and by the 1880s the tariff brought in so much revenue that the government was running a surplus. [129]

In 1886, a bill to reduce the tariff was narrowly defeated in the House. [130] The tariff issue was emphasized in the Congressional elections that year, and the forces of protectionism increased their numbers in the Congress, but Cleveland continued to advocate tariff reform. [131] As the surplus grew, Cleveland and the reformers called for a tariff for revenue only. [132] His message to Congress in 1887 (quoted at right) highlighted the injustice of taking more money from the people than the government needed to pay its operating expenses. [133] Republicans, as well as protectionist northern Democrats like Samuel J. Randall, believed that American industries would fail without high tariffs, and they continued to fight reform efforts. [134] Roger Q. Mills, chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, proposed a bill to reduce the tariff from about 47% to about 40%. [135] After significant exertions by Cleveland and his allies, the bill passed the House. [135] The Republican Senate failed to come to an agreement with the Democratic House, and the bill died in the conference committee. Dispute over the tariff persisted into the 1888 presidential election.

Foreign policy, 1885–1889

Cleveland was a committed non-interventionist who had campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism. He refused to promote the previous administration's Nicaragua canal treaty, and generally was less of an expansionist in foreign relations. [136] Cleveland's Secretary of State, Thomas F. Bayard, negotiated with Joseph Chamberlain of the United Kingdom over fishing rights in the waters off Canada, and struck a conciliatory note, despite the opposition of New England's Republican Senators. [137] Cleveland also withdrew from Senate consideration the Berlin Conference treaty which guaranteed an open door for U.S. interests in the Congo. [138]

Military policy, 1885–1889

Cleveland's military policy emphasized self-defense and modernization. In 1885 Cleveland appointed the Board of Fortifications under Secretary of War William C. Endicott to recommend a new coastal fortification system for the United States. [139] [140] No improvements to US coastal defenses had been made since the late 1870s. [141] [142] The Board's 1886 report recommended a massive $127 million construction program (equivalent to $3.8 billion in 2021) at 29 harbors and river estuaries, to include new breech-loading rifled guns, mortars, and naval minefields. The Board and the program are usually called the Endicott Board and the Endicott Program. Most of the Board's recommendations were implemented, and by 1910, 27 locations were defended by over 70 forts. [143] [144] Many of the weapons remained in place until scrapped in World War II as they were replaced with new defenses. Endicott also proposed to Congress a system of examinations for Army officer promotions. [145] For the Navy, the Cleveland administration spearheaded by Secretary of the Navy William Collins Whitney moved towards modernization, although no ships were constructed that could match the best European warships. Although completion of the four steel-hulled warships begun under the previous administration was delayed due to a corruption investigation and subsequent bankruptcy of their building yard, these ships were completed in a timely manner in naval shipyards once the investigation was over. [146] Sixteen additional steel-hulled warships were ordered by the end of 1888; these ships later proved vital in the Spanish–American War of 1898, and many served in World War I. These ships included the "second-class battleships" Maine and Texas, designed to match modern armored ships recently acquired by South American countries from Europe, such as the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo. [147] Eleven protected cruisers (including the famous Olympia), one armored cruiser, and one monitor were also ordered, along with the experimental cruiser Vesuvius. [148]

Civil rights and immigration

Cleveland, like a growing number of Northerners and nearly all white Southerners, saw Reconstruction as a failed experiment, and was reluctant to use federal power to enforce the 15th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guaranteed voting rights to African Americans. [149] Though Cleveland appointed no black Americans to patronage jobs, he allowed Frederick Douglass to continue in his post as recorder of deeds in Washington, D.C., and appointed another black man (James Campbell Matthews, a former New York judge) to replace Douglass upon his resignation. [149] His decision to replace Douglass with a black man was met with outrage, but Cleveland claimed to have known Matthews personally. [150]

Although Cleveland had condemned the "outrages" against Chinese immigrants, he believed that Chinese immigrants were unwilling to assimilate into white society. [151] Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard negotiated an extension to the Chinese Exclusion Act, and Cleveland lobbied the Congress to pass the Scott Act, written by Congressman William Lawrence Scott, which prevented the return of Chinese immigrants who left the United States. [152] The Scott Act easily passed both houses of Congress, and Cleveland signed it into law on October 1, 1888. [152]

Native American policy

Henry L. Dawes wrote the Dawes Act, which Cleveland signed into law. HenryLDawes.jpg
Henry L. Dawes wrote the Dawes Act, which Cleveland signed into law.

Cleveland viewed Native Americans as wards of the state, saying in his first inaugural address that "[t]his guardianship involves, on our part, efforts for the improvement of their condition and enforcement of their rights." [153] He encouraged the idea of cultural assimilation, pushing for the passage of the Dawes Act, which provided for the distribution of Indian lands to individual members of tribes, rather than having them continued to be held in trust for the tribes by the federal government. [153] While a conference of Native leaders endorsed the act, in practice the majority of Native Americans disapproved of it. [154] Cleveland believed the Dawes Act would lift Native Americans out of poverty and encourage their assimilation into white society. It ultimately weakened the tribal governments and allowed individual Indians to sell land and keep the money. [153]

In the month before Cleveland's 1885 inauguration, President Arthur opened four million acres of Winnebago and Crow Creek Indian lands in the Dakota Territory to white settlement by executive order. [155] Tens of thousands of settlers gathered at the border of these lands and prepared to take possession of them. [155] Cleveland believed Arthur's order to be in violation of treaties with the tribes, and rescinded it on April 17 of that year, ordering the settlers out of the territory. [155] Cleveland sent in eighteen companies of Army troops to enforce the treaties and ordered General Philip Sheridan, at the time Commanding General of the U. S. Army, to investigate the matter. [155]

Marriage and children

Frances Folsom Cleveland circa 1886 Frances Folsom Cleveland.jpg
Frances Folsom Cleveland circa 1886

Cleveland was 47 years old when he entered the White House as a bachelor. His sister Rose Cleveland joined him, acting as hostess for the first two years of his administration. [156] Unlike the previous bachelor president James Buchanan, Cleveland did not remain a bachelor for long. In 1885 the daughter of Cleveland's friend Oscar Folsom visited him in Washington. [157] Frances Folsom was a student at Wells College. When she returned to school, President Cleveland received her mother's permission to correspond with her, and they were soon engaged to be married. [157] The wedding occurred on June 2, 1886, in the Blue Room at the White House. Cleveland was 49 years old at the time; Frances was 21. [158] She remains the youngest wife of a sitting president. He was the second president to wed while in office, [lower-alpha 3] and remains the only president to marry in the White House. This marriage was unusual because Cleveland was the executor of Oscar Folsom's estate and had supervised Frances's upbringing after her father's death; nevertheless, the public took no exception to the match. [159] At 21 years, Frances Folsom Cleveland was the youngest First Lady in history, and soon became popular for her warm personality. [160]

The Clevelands had five children: Ruth (1891–1904), Esther (1893–1980), Marion (1895–1977), Richard (1897–1974), and Francis (1903–1995). British philosopher Philippa Foot (1920–2010) was their granddaughter. [161] Esther was born in the White House on September 9, 1893. She is the only child of a President to have been born there.

Cleveland also claimed paternity of an additional child named Oscar Folsom Cleveland with Maria Crofts Halpin. [162]

Administration and Cabinet

Cleveland's first Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland Cleveland First Cabinet (edited).png
Cleveland's first Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland
The First Cleveland cabinet
President Grover Cleveland18851889
Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks 1885
Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard 18851889
Secretary of the Treasury Daniel Manning 18851887
Charles S. Fairchild 18871889
Secretary of War William Crowninshield Endicott 18851889
Attorney General Augustus Hill Garland 18851889
Postmaster General William Freeman Vilas 18851888
Donald M. Dickinson 18881889
Secretary of the Navy William Collins Whitney 18851889
Secretary of the Interior Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar 18851888
William Freeman Vilas 18881889
Secretary of Agriculture Norman Jay Coleman 1889

Judicial appointments

Chief Justice Melville Fuller Melville Weston Fuller Chief Justice 1908.jpg
Chief Justice Melville Fuller

During his first term, Cleveland successfully nominated two justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. The first, Lucius Q. C. Lamar, was a former Mississippi senator who served in Cleveland's Cabinet as Interior Secretary. When William Burnham Woods died, Cleveland nominated Lamar to his seat in late 1887. While Lamar had been well-liked as a senator, his service under the Confederacy two decades earlier caused many Republicans to vote against him. Lamar's nomination was confirmed by the narrow margin of 32 to 28. [163]

Chief Justice Morrison Waite died a few months later, and Cleveland nominated Melville Fuller to fill his seat on April 30, 1888. Fuller accepted. He had previously declined Cleveland's nomination to the Civil Service Commission, preferring his Chicago law practice. The Senate Judiciary Committee spent several months examining the little-known nominee, before the Senate confirmed the nomination 41 to 20. [164] [165]

Cleveland nominated 41 lower federal court judges in addition to his four Supreme Court justices. These included two judges to the United States circuit courts, nine judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 30 judges to the United States district courts. Because Cleveland served terms both before and after Congress eliminated the circuit courts in favor of the Courts of Appeals, he is one of only two presidents to have appointed judges to both bodies. The other, Benjamin Harrison, was in office at the time that the change was made. Thus, all of Cleveland's appointments to the circuit courts were made in his first term, and all of his appointments to the Courts of Appeals were made in his second.

Election of 1888 and return to private life (1889–1893)

Defeated by Harrison

Poster President Cleveland and Vice-President of the United States, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio (1888). 1888DemocraticPoster 2.png
Poster President Cleveland and Vice-President of the United States, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio (1888).
Results of the 1888 Election ElectoralCollege1888.svg
Results of the 1888 Election

The Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison, the former U.S. Senator from Indiana for president and Levi P. Morton of New York for vice president. Cleveland was renominated at the Democratic convention in St. Louis. [166] Following Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks' death in 1885, the Democrats chose Allen G. Thurman of Ohio to be Cleveland's new running mate. [166]

The Republicans gained the upper hand in the campaign, as Cleveland's campaign was poorly managed by Calvin S. Brice and William H. Barnum, whereas Harrison had engaged more aggressive fundraisers and tacticians in Matt Quay and John Wanamaker. [167]

The Republicans campaigned heavily on the tariff issue, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North. [168] Further, the Democrats in New York were divided over the gubernatorial candidacy of David B. Hill, weakening Cleveland's support in that swing state. [169] A letter from the British ambassador supporting Cleveland caused a scandal that cost Cleveland votes in New York.

As in 1884, the election focused on the swing states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Indiana. But unlike that year, when Cleveland had triumphed in all four, in 1888 he won only two, losing his home state of New York by 14,373 votes. Cleveland won a plurality of the popular vote – 48.6 percent vs. 47.8 percent for Harrison – but Harrison won the Electoral College vote easily, 233–168. [170] The Republicans won Indiana, largely as the result of a fraudulent voting practice known as Blocks of Five. [171] Cleveland continued his duties diligently until the end of the term and began to look forward to returning to private life. [172]

Private citizen for four years

As Frances Cleveland left the White House, she told a staff member, "Now, Jerry, I want you to take good care of all the furniture and ornaments in the house, for I want to find everything just as it is now, when we come back again." When asked when she would return, she responded, "We are coming back four years from today." [173] In the meantime, the Clevelands moved to New York City, where Cleveland took a position with the law firm of Bangs, Stetson, Tracy, and MacVeigh. This affiliation was more of an office-sharing arrangement, though quite compatible. Cleveland's law practice brought only a moderate income, perhaps because Cleveland spent considerable time at the couple's vacation home Gray Gables at Buzzard Bay, where fishing became his obsession. [174] While they lived in New York, the Clevelands' first child, Ruth, was born in 1891. [175]

The Harrison administration worked with Congress to pass the McKinley Tariff, an aggressively protectionist measure, and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which increased money backed by silver; [176] these were among policies Cleveland deplored as dangerous to the nation's financial health. [177] At first he refrained from criticizing his successor, but by 1891 Cleveland felt compelled to speak out, addressing his concerns in an open letter to a meeting of reformers in New York. [178] The "silver letter" thrust Cleveland's name back into the spotlight just as the 1892 election was approaching. [179]

Election of 1892

Nomination for president

Cleveland's enduring reputation as chief executive and his recent pronouncements on the monetary issues made him a leading contender for the Democratic nomination. [180] His leading opponent was David B. Hill, a Senator for New York. [181] Hill united the anti-Cleveland elements of the Democratic party—silverites, protectionists, and Tammany Hall—but was unable to create a coalition large enough to deny Cleveland the nomination. [181] Despite some desperate maneuvering by Hill, Cleveland was nominated on the first ballot at the party convention in Chicago. [182] For vice president, the Democrats chose to balance the ticket with Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois, a silverite. [183] Although the Cleveland forces preferred Isaac P. Gray of Indiana for vice president, they accepted the convention favorite. [184] As a supporter of greenbacks and free silver to inflate the currency and alleviate economic distress in the rural districts, Stevenson balanced the otherwise hard-money, gold-standard ticket headed by Cleveland. [185]

Campaign against Harrison

Results of the 1892 election ElectoralCollege1892.svg
Results of the 1892 election

The Republicans re-nominated President Harrison, making the 1892 election a rematch of the one four years earlier. Unlike the turbulent and controversial elections of 1876, 1884, and 1888, the 1892 election was, according to Cleveland biographer Allan Nevins, "the cleanest, quietest, and most creditable in the memory of the post-war generation", [186] in part because Harrison's wife, Caroline, was dying of tuberculosis. [187] Harrison did not personally campaign at all. Following Caroline Harrison's death on October 25, two weeks before the national election, Cleveland and all of the other candidates stopped campaigning, thus making Election Day a somber and quiet event for the whole country as well as the candidates.

The issue of the tariff had worked to the Republicans' advantage in 1888. Now, however, the legislative revisions of the past four years had made imported goods so expensive that by 1892 many voters favored tariff reform and were skeptical of big business. [188] Many Westerners (traditionally Republican voters), defected to James B. Weaver, the candidate of the new Populist Party. Weaver promised free silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour day. [189] The Tammany Hall Democrats adhered to the national ticket, allowing a united Democratic party to carry New York. [190] At the campaign's end, many Populists and labor supporters endorsed Cleveland after an attempt by the Carnegie Corporation to break the union during the Homestead strike in Pittsburgh and after a similar conflict between big business and labor at the Tennessee Coal and Iron Co. [191] The final result was a victory for Cleveland by wide margins in both the popular and electoral votes, and it was Cleveland's third consecutive popular vote plurality. [192]

Second presidency (1893–1897)

Economic panic and the silver issue

Caricature of Cleveland as anti-silver. It can not pass while he is there - Dalrymple. LCCN2012648637.jpg
Caricature of Cleveland as anti-silver.

Shortly after Cleveland's second term began, the Panic of 1893 struck the stock market, and he soon faced an acute economic depression. [193] The panic was worsened by the acute shortage of gold that resulted from the increased coinage of silver, and Cleveland called Congress into special session to deal with the problem. [194] The debate over the coinage was as heated as ever, and the effects of the panic had driven more moderates to support repealing the coinage provisions of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. [194] Even so, the silverites rallied their following at a convention in Chicago, and the House of Representatives debated for fifteen weeks before passing the repeal by a considerable margin. [195] In the Senate, the repeal of silver coinage was equally contentious. Cleveland, forced against his better judgment to lobby the Congress for repeal, convinced enough Democrats—and along with eastern Republicans, they formed a 48–37 majority for repeal. [196] Depletion of the Treasury's gold reserves continued, at a lesser rate, and subsequent bond issues replenished supplies of gold. [197] At the time the repeal seemed a minor setback to silverites, but it marked the beginning of the end of silver as a basis for American currency. [198]

Tariff reform

Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust Grover Cleveland and Wilson-Gorman Tariff Cartoon.jpg
Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust

Having succeeded in reversing the Harrison administration's silver policy, Cleveland sought next to reverse the effects of the McKinley Tariff. The Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act was introduced by West Virginian Representative William L. Wilson in December 1893. [199] After lengthy debate, the bill passed the House by a considerable margin. [200] The bill proposed moderate downward revisions in the tariff, especially on raw materials. [201] The shortfall in revenue was to be made up by an income tax of two percent on income above $4,000 (equivalent to $120,637in 2021). [201]

The bill was next considered in the Senate, where it faced stronger opposition from key Democrats led by Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland, who insisted on more protection for their states' industries than the Wilson bill allowed. [202] The bill passed the Senate with more than 600 amendments attached that nullified most of the reforms. [203] The Sugar Trust in particular lobbied for changes that favored it at the expense of the consumer. [204] Cleveland was outraged with the final bill, and denounced it as a disgraceful product of the control of the Senate by trusts and business interests. [205] Even so, he believed it was an improvement over the McKinley tariff and allowed it to become law without his signature. [206]

Voting rights

In 1892, Cleveland had campaigned against the Lodge Bill, [207] which would have strengthened voting rights protections through the appointing of federal supervisors of congressional elections upon a petition from the citizens of any district. The Enforcement Act of 1871 had provided for a detailed federal overseeing of the electoral process, from registration to the certification of returns. Cleveland succeeded in ushering in the 1894 repeal of this law (ch. 25, 28 Stat. 36). [208] The pendulum thus swung from stronger attempts to protect voting rights to the repealing of voting rights protections; this in turn led to unsuccessful attempts to have the federal courts protect voting rights in Giles v. Harris , 189 U.S. 475 (1903), and Giles v. Teasley, 193 U.S. 146 (1904).

Labor unrest

John Tyler Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on free silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on." John t morgan.jpg
John Tyler Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on free silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."

The Panic of 1893 had damaged labor conditions across the United States, and the victory of anti-silver legislation worsened the mood of western laborers. [210] A group of workingmen led by Jacob S. Coxey began to march east toward Washington, D.C., to protest Cleveland's policies. [210] This group, known as Coxey's Army, agitated in favor of a national roads program to give jobs to workingmen, and a weakened currency to help farmers pay their debts. [210] By the time they reached Washington, only a few hundred remained, and when they were arrested the next day for walking on the lawn of the United States Capitol, the group scattered. [210] Even though Coxey's Army may not have been a threat to the government, it signaled a growing dissatisfaction in the West with Eastern monetary policies. [211]

Pullman Strike

The Pullman Strike had a significantly greater impact than Coxey's Army. A strike began against the Pullman Company over low wages and twelve-hour workdays, and sympathy strikes, led by American Railway Union leader Eugene V. Debs, soon followed. [212] By June 1894, 125,000 railroad workers were on strike, paralyzing the nation's commerce. [213] Because the railroads carried the mail, and because several of the affected lines were in federal receivership, Cleveland believed a federal solution was appropriate. [214] Cleveland obtained an injunction in federal court, and when the strikers refused to obey it, he sent federal troops into Chicago and 20 other rail centers. [215] "If it takes the entire army and navy of the United States to deliver a postcard in Chicago", he proclaimed, "that card will be delivered." [216] Most governors supported Cleveland except Democrat John P. Altgeld of Illinois, who became his bitter foe in 1896. Leading newspapers of both parties applauded Cleveland's actions, but the use of troops hardened the attitude of organized labor toward his administration. [217]

Just before the 1894 election, Cleveland was warned by Francis Lynde Stetson, an advisor: "We are on the eve of [a] very dark night, unless a return of commercial prosperity relieves popular discontent with what they believe [is] Democratic incompetence to make laws, and consequently [discontent] with Democratic Administrations anywhere and everywhere." [218] The warning was appropriate, for in the Congressional elections, Republicans won their biggest landslide in decades, taking full control of the House, while the Populists lost most of their support. Cleveland's factional enemies gained control of the Democratic Party in state after state, including full control in Illinois and Michigan, and made major gains in Ohio, Indiana, Iowa and other states. Wisconsin and Massachusetts were two of the few states that remained under the control of Cleveland's allies. The Democratic opposition were close to controlling two-thirds of the vote at the 1896 national convention, which they needed to nominate their own candidate. They failed for lack of unity and a national leader, as Illinois governor John Peter Altgeld had been born in Germany and was ineligible to be nominated for president. [219]

Foreign policy, 1893–1897

"I suppose that right and justice should determine the path to be followed in treating this subject. If national honesty is to be disregarded and a desire for territorial expansion or dissatisfaction with a form of government not our own ought to regulate our conduct, I have entirely misapprehended the mission and character of our government and the behavior which the conscience of the people demands of their public servants."
Cleveland's message to Congress on the Hawaiian question, December 18, 1893. [220]
His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated, 1894 His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated political cartoon 1894 (retouched).jpg
His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated, 1894

When Cleveland took office he faced the question of Hawaiian annexation. In his first term, he had supported free trade with Hawai'i and accepted an amendment that gave the United States a coaling and naval station in Pearl Harbor. [138] In the intervening four years, Honolulu businessmen of European and American ancestry had denounced Queen Liliuokalani as a tyrant who rejected constitutional government. In early 1893 they overthrew her, set up a republican government under Sanford B. Dole, and sought to join the United States. [221] The Harrison administration had quickly agreed with representatives of the new government on a treaty of annexation and submitted it to the Senate for approval. [221] Five days after taking office on March 9, 1893, Cleveland withdrew the treaty from the Senate and sent former Congressman James Henderson Blount to Hawai'i to investigate the conditions there. [222]

Cleveland agreed with Blount's report, which found the populace to be opposed to annexation. [222] Liliuokalani initially refused to grant amnesty as a condition of her reinstatement, saying that she would either execute or banish the current government in Honolulu, but Dole's government refused to yield their position. [223] By December 1893, the matter was still unresolved, and Cleveland referred the issue to Congress. [223] In his message to Congress, Cleveland rejected the idea of annexation and encouraged the Congress to continue the American tradition of non-intervention (see excerpt at right). [220] The Senate, under Democratic control but opposed to Cleveland, commissioned and produced the Morgan Report, which contradicted Blount's findings and found the overthrow was a completely internal affair. [224] Cleveland dropped all talk of reinstating the Queen, and went on to recognize and maintain diplomatic relations with the new Republic of Hawaii. [225]

Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that not only prohibited new European colonies, but also declared an American national interest in any matter of substance within the hemisphere. [226] When Britain and Venezuela disagreed over the boundary between Venezuela and the colony of British Guiana, Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney protested. [227] British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury and the British ambassador to Washington, Julian Pauncefote, misjudged how important successful resolution of the dispute was to the American government, having prolonged the crisis before ultimately accepting the American demand for arbitration. [228] [229] A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana. [230] But by standing with a Latin American nation against the encroachment of a colonial power, Cleveland improved relations with the United States' southern neighbors, and at the same time, the cordial manner in which the negotiations were conducted also made for good relations with Britain. [231]

Military policy, 1893–1897

The second Cleveland administration was as committed to military modernization as the first, and ordered the first ships of a navy capable of offensive action. Construction continued on the Endicott program of coastal fortifications begun under Cleveland's first administration. [139] [140] The adoption of the Krag–Jørgensen rifle, the US Army's first bolt-action repeating rifle, was finalized. [232] [233] In 1895–96 Secretary of the Navy Hilary A. Herbert, having recently adopted the aggressive naval strategy advocated by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, successfully proposed ordering five battleships (the Kearsarge and Illinoisclasses) and sixteen torpedo boats. [234] [235] Completion of these ships nearly doubled the Navy's battleships and created a new torpedo boat force, which previously had only two boats. The battleships and seven of the torpedo boats were not completed until 1899–1901, after the Spanish–American War. [236]


Official portrait of President Cleveland by Eastman Johnson, c. 1891 Eastman Johnson - Grover Cleveland - Google Art Project.jpg
Official portrait of President Cleveland by Eastman Johnson, c.1891

In the midst of the fight for repeal of free-silver coinage in 1893, Cleveland sought the advice of the White House doctor, Dr. O'Reilly, about soreness on the roof of his mouth and a crater-like edge ulcer with a granulated surface on the left side of Cleveland's hard palate. Clinical samples were sent anonymously to the Army Medical Museum; the diagnosis was an epithelioma , rather than a malignant cancer. [237]

Cleveland decided to have surgery secretly, to avoid further panic that might worsen the financial depression. [238] The surgery occurred on July 1, to give Cleveland time to make a full recovery in time for the upcoming Congressional session. [239] Under the guise of a vacation cruise, Cleveland and his surgeon, Dr. Joseph Bryant, left for New York. The surgeons operated aboard the Oneida , a yacht owned by Cleveland's friend E. C. Benedict, as it sailed off Long Island. [240] The surgery was conducted through the President's mouth, to avoid any scars or other signs of surgery. [241] The team, sedating Cleveland with nitrous oxide and ether, successfully removed parts of his upper left jaw and hard palate. [241] The size of the tumor and the extent of the operation left Cleveland's mouth disfigured. [242] During another surgery, Cleveland was fitted with a hard rubber dental prosthesis that corrected his speech and restored his appearance. [242] A cover story about the removal of two bad teeth kept the suspicious press placated. [243] Even when a newspaper story appeared giving details of the actual operation, the participating surgeons discounted the severity of what transpired during Cleveland's vacation. [242] In 1917, one of the surgeons present on the Oneida, Dr. William W. Keen, wrote an article detailing the operation. [244]

Cleveland enjoyed many years of life after the tumor was removed, and there was some debate as to whether it was actually malignant. Several doctors, including Dr. Keen, stated after Cleveland's death that the tumor was a carcinoma. [244] Other suggestions included ameloblastoma [245] or a benign salivary mixed tumor (also known as a pleomorphic adenoma). [246] In the 1980s, analysis of the specimen finally confirmed the tumor to be verrucous carcinoma, [247] a low-grade epithelial cancer with a low potential for metastasis. [237]

Administration and cabinet

Cleveland's last Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William Lyne Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton Cleveland Second Cabinet.png
Cleveland's last Cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William Lyne Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton
The Second Cleveland cabinet
President Grover Cleveland18931897
Vice President Adlai E. Stevenson I 18931897
Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham 18931895
Richard Olney 18951897
Secretary of the Treasury John G. Carlisle 18931897
Secretary of War Daniel S. Lamont 18931897
Attorney General Richard Olney 18931895
Judson Harmon 18951897
Postmaster General Wilson S. Bissell 18931895
William Lyne Wilson 18951897
Secretary of the Navy Hilary A. Herbert 18931897
Secretary of the Interior M. Hoke Smith 18931896
David R. Francis 18961897
Secretary of Agriculture Julius Sterling Morton 18931897

Judicial appointments

Cleveland's trouble with the Senate hindered the success of his nominations to the Supreme Court in his second term. In 1893, after the death of Samuel Blatchford, Cleveland nominated William B. Hornblower to the Court. [248] Hornblower, the head of a New York City law firm, was thought to be a qualified appointee, but his campaign against a New York machine politician had made Senator David B. Hill his enemy. [248] Further, Cleveland had not consulted the Senators before naming his appointee, leaving many who were already opposed to Cleveland on other grounds even more aggrieved. [248] The Senate rejected Hornblower's nomination on January 15, 1894, by a vote of 30 to 24. [248]

Cleveland continued to defy the Senate by next appointing Wheeler Hazard Peckham another New York attorney who had opposed Hill's machine in that state. [249] Hill used all of his influence to block Peckham's confirmation, and on February 16, 1894, the Senate rejected the nomination by a vote of 32 to 41. [249] Reformers urged Cleveland to continue the fight against Hill and to nominate Frederic R. Coudert, but Cleveland acquiesced in an inoffensive choice, that of Senator Edward Douglass White of Louisiana, whose nomination was accepted unanimously. [249] Later, in 1895, another vacancy on the Court led Cleveland to consider Hornblower again, but he declined to be nominated. [250] Instead, Cleveland nominated Rufus Wheeler Peckham, the brother of Wheeler Hazard Peckham, and the Senate confirmed the second Peckham easily. [250]

States admitted to the Union

No new states were admitted to the Union during Cleveland's first term. On February 22, 1889, 10 days before leaving office, the 50th Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1889, authorizing North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington to form state governments and to gain admission to the Union. All four officially became states in November 1889, during the first year of the Benjamin Harrison administration. [251] [252] During his second term, the 53rd United States Congress passed an Enabling Act that permitted Utah to apply for statehood. Cleveland signed it on July 16, 1894. [253] [254] Utah joined the Union as the 45th state on January 4, 1896.

1896 election and retirement (1897–1908)

Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst President Grover Cleveland Restored.jpg
Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst

Cleveland's agrarian and silverite enemies gained control of the Democratic Party in 1896, repudiated his administration and the gold standard, and nominated William Jennings Bryan on a free-silver platform. [255] [256] Cleveland silently supported the Gold Democrats' third-party ticket that promised to defend the gold standard, limit government, and oppose high tariffs, but he declined their nomination for a third term. [257] The party won only 100,000 votes in the general election, and William McKinley, the Republican nominee, triumphed easily over Bryan. [258] Agrarians nominated Bryan again in 1900. In 1904, the conservatives, with Cleveland's support, regained control of the Democratic Party and nominated Alton B. Parker. [259]

Outgoing President Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller. McKinley sworn in.jpeg
Outgoing President Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller.

After leaving the White House on March 4, 1897, Cleveland lived in retirement at his estate, Westland Mansion, in Princeton, New Jersey. [260] For a time, he was a trustee of Princeton University, and was one of the majority of trustees who preferred the dean Andrew Fleming West's plans for the Graduate School and undergraduate living over those of Woodrow Wilson, then president of the university. [261] Cleveland consulted occasionally with President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) but was financially unable to accept the chairmanship of the commission handling the Coal Strike of 1902. [262] Cleveland still made his views known in political matters. In a 1905 article in The Ladies Home Journal, Cleveland weighed in on the women's suffrage movement, writing that "sensible and responsible women do not want to vote. The relative positions to be assumed by men and women in the working out of our civilization were assigned long ago by a higher intelligence." [263]

The last known photograph of Cleveland (1907) Grover Cleveland's latest portrait.jpg
The last known photograph of Cleveland (1907)

In 1906, a group of New Jersey Democrats promoted Cleveland as a possible candidate for the United States Senate. The incumbent, John F. Dryden, was not seeking re-election, and some Democrats felt that the former president could attract the votes of some disaffected Republican legislators who might be drawn to Cleveland's statesmanship and conservatism. [264]


Cleveland's health had been declining for several years, and in the autumn of 1907 he fell seriously ill. [265] In 1908, he suffered a heart attack and died on June 24 at age 71 in his Princeton residence. [265] [266] His last words were, "I have tried so hard to do right." [267] He is buried in the Princeton Cemetery of the Nassau Presbyterian Church. [268]

Honors and memorials

In his first term in office, Cleveland sought a summer house to escape the heat and smells of Washington, D.C., near enough the capital. He secretly bought a farmhouse, Oak View (or Oak Hill), in a rural upland part of the District of Columbia, in 1886, and remodeled it into a Queen Anne style summer estate. He sold Oak View upon losing his bid for re-election in 1888. Not long thereafter, suburban residential development reached the area, which came to be known as Oak View, and then Cleveland Heights, and eventually Cleveland Park. [269] The Clevelands are depicted in local murals. [270]

Grover Cleveland Hall at Buffalo State College in Buffalo, New York is named after Cleveland. Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services. Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffalo Normal School. [271] Grover Cleveland Middle School in his birthplace, Caldwell, New Jersey, was named for him, as is Grover Cleveland High School in Buffalo, New York, and the town of Cleveland, Mississippi. Mount Cleveland, a volcano in Alaska, is also named after him. [272] In 1895 he became the first U.S. president who was filmed. [273]

The first U.S. postage stamp to honor Cleveland appeared in 1923. This twelve-cent issue accompanied a thirteen-cent stamp in the same definitive series that depicted his old rival, Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland's only two subsequent stamp appearances have been in issues devoted to the full roster of U.S. Presidents, released, respectively, in 1938 and 1986.

Cleveland's portrait was on the U.S. $1000 bill of series 1928 and series 1934. He also appeared on the first few issues of the $20 Federal Reserve Notes from 1914. Since he was both the 22nd and 24th president, he was featured on two separate dollar coins released in 2012 as part of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005.

In 2013, Cleveland was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.

See also

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Informational notes

  1. Vice President Hendricks died in office. As this was prior to the adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, a vacancy in the office of vice president was not filled until the next ensuing election and inauguration.
  2. He is therefore the only person to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.
  3. John Tyler, who married his second wife Julia Gardiner in 1844, was the first.


  1. Blum, 527
  2. Jeffers, 8–12; Nevins, 4–5; Beito and Beito
  3. McFarland, 11–56
  4. Gould, passim
  5. 1 2 Tugwell, 220–249
  6. Nevins, 4
  7. President-Making in the Gilded Age: The Nominating Conventions of 1876–1900 by Stan M. Haynes page 2
  8. Nevins, 8–10
  9. Graff, 3–4; Nevins, 8–10
  10. Graff, 3–4
  11. Nevins, 6
  12. Nevins, 9
  13. Graff, 7
  14. Nevins, 10; Graff, 3
  15. Nevins, 11; Graff, 8–9
  16. Nevins, 11
  17. Jeffers, 17
  18. Nevins, 17–19
  19. Tugwell, 14
  20. 1 2 Nevins, 21
  21. Nevins, 18–19; Jeffers, 19
  22. Nevins, 23–27
  23. Nevins, 27–33
  24. Nevins, 31–36
  25. Graff, 11
  26. 1 2 3 Graff, 14
  27. Graff, 14–15
  28. Graff, 15; Nevins, 46
  29. Graff, 14; Nevins, 51–52
  30. 1 2 Nevins, 52–53
  31. Nevins, 54
  32. Nevins, 54–55
  33. Nevins, 55–56
  34. Nevins, 56
  35. Tugwell, 26
  36. Nevins, 44–45
  37. Tugwell, 32
  38. 1 2 Nevins, 58
  39. Jeffers, 33
  40. Nelson, Julie (2003). American Presidents Year by Year. Routledge. p. 334. ISBN   978-0-7656-8046-4.
  41. Tugwell, 36
  42. 1 2 3 Jeffers, 34; Nevins, 61–62
  43. "The Execution of John Gaffney". The Buffalonian. Archived from the original on October 6, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  44. Jeffers, 36; Nevins, 64
  45. Nevins, 66–71
  46. Nevins, 78
  47. "Sexual misconduct allegations against presidents have a long history; George H.W. Bush is latest". Newsweek. October 25, 2017.
  48. "Grover Cleveland, a Rapist President". August 26, 2015.
  49. 1 2 3 4 Huck, C., 2017. The Halpin Affair: How Cleveland went from Scandal to Success. Wittenberg History Journal, vol. 46, p. 5, 8.
  50. Lachman, Charles (May 23, 2011). "Grover Cleveland's Sex Scandal: The Most Despicable in American Political History". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  51. 1 2 Hamilton, Neil A. (2005). Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Infobase Publishing. p. 183. ISBN   978-1-4381-0816-2.
  52. 1 2 3 Henry F. Graff (2002). Grover Cleveland: The American Presidents Series: The 22nd and 24th President, 1885–1889 and 1893–1897. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 60–63. ISBN   978-0-8050-6923-5.
  53. Nevins, 79; Graff, 18–19; Jeffers, 42–45; Welch, 24
  54. Nevins, 79–80; Graff, 18–19; Welch, 24
  55. 1 2 Nevins, 80–81
  56. Nevins, 83
  57. Graff, 19; Jeffers, 46–50
  58. 1 2 Nevins, 84–86
  59. Nevins, 85
  60. Nevins, 86
  61. Tugwell, 58
  62. Nevins, 94–95; Jeffers, 50–51
  63. 1 2 Nevins, 94–99; Graff, 26–27
  64. Tugwell, 68–70
  65. Graff, 26; Nevins, 101–103
  66. Nevins, 103–104
  67. Nevins, 105
  68. Graff, 28
  69. Graff, 35
  70. Graff, 35–36
  71. Nevins, 114–116
  72. 1 2 3 Nevins, 116–117
  73. 1 2 Nevins, 117–118
  74. Nevins, 125–126
  75. Tugwell, 77
  76. Tugwell, 73
  77. Nevins, 138–140
  78. 1 2 Nevins, 185–186; Jeffers, 96–97
  79. Tugwell, 88
  80. 1 2 3 Nevins, 146–147
  81. Nevins, 147
  82. Nevins, 152–153; Graff, 51–53
  83. Nevins, 153
  84. 1 2 Nevins, 154; Graff, 53–54
  85. Tugwell, 80
  86. Summers, passim; Grossman, 31
  87. Tugwell, 84
  88. 1 2 Nevins, 156–159; Graff, 55
  89. Nevins, 187–188
  90. Tugwell, 93
  91. 1 2 Nevins, 159–162; Graff, 59–60
  92. Graff, 59; Jeffers, 111; Nevins, 177, Welch, 34
  93. Jeff Jacoby, "'Grover the good'—the most honest president of them all", Boston Globe February 15, 2015, pp. 2–15
  94. Lachman, Charles (2011). "Chapter 9 – "A Terrible Tale"". A Secret Life: The Sex, Lies, and Scandals of President Grover Cleveland. Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 195–216. ISBN   978-1-61608-275-8 . Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  95. Tugwell, 90
  96. Lachman, Charles (2011). A Secret Life: The Sex, Lies, and Scandals of President Grover Cleveland. Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 285–288. ISBN   978-1-61608-275-8.
  97. Welch, 33
  98. Nevins, 170–171
  99. Nevins, 170
  100. Nevins, 181–184
  101. Tugwell, 94–95
  102. 1 2 Leip, David. "1884 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved January 27, 2008., "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved January 27, 2008.
  103. Graff, 64
  104. Nevins, 208–211
  105. Nevins, 214–217
  106. Graff, 83
  107. Tugwell, 100
  108. Nevins, 238–241; Welch, 59–60
  109. Nevins, 354–357; Graff, 85
  110. Nevins, 217–223; Graff, 77
  111. 1 2 3 Nevins, 223–228
  112. Tugwell, 130–134
  113. Graff, 85
  114. Nevins, 326–328; Graff, 83–84
  115. Nevins, 300–331; Graff, 83
  116. See List of United States presidential vetoes
  117. 1 2 Nevins, 331–332; Graff, 85
  118. "Cleveland's Veto of the Texas Seed Bill". The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co. 1892. p. 450. ISBN   978-0-217-89899-7.
  119. Jeffers, 157–158
  120. 1 2 Nevins, 201–205; Graff, 102–103
  121. Nevins, 269
  122. Tugwell, 110
  123. Nevins, 268
  124. 1 2 Nevins, 273
  125. Nevins, 277–279
  126. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co. 1892. pp.  72–73. ISBN   978-0-217-89899-7.
  127. "Grover Cleveland: Key Events" University of Virginia Miller Center. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  128. 1 2 Nevins, 280–282, Reitano, 46–62
  129. Nevins, 286–287
  130. Nevins, 287–288
  131. Nevins, 290–296; Graff, 87–88
  132. Nevins, 370–371
  133. Nevins, 379–381
  134. Nevins, 383–385
  135. 1 2 Graff, 88–89
  136. Nevins, 205, 404–405
  137. Nevins, 404–413
  138. 1 2 Zakaria, 80
  139. 1 2 Berhow, pp. 9–10
  140. 1 2 "Endicott and Taft Boards at the Coast Defense Study Group website". Archived from the original on February 4, 2016.
  141. Berhow, p. 8
  142. "Civil War and 1870s defenses at the Coast Defense Study Group website". Archived from the original on February 4, 2016.
  143. Berhow, pp. 201–226
  144. List of all US coastal forts and batteries at the Coast Defense Study Group website
  145. "William Crowninshield Endicott, from Bell, William Gardner (1992), Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, Center of Military History, US Army".
  146. Bauer and Roberts, p. 141
  147. Bauer and Roberts, p. 102
  148. Bauer and Roberts, pp. 101, 133, 141–147
  149. 1 2 Welch, 65–66
  150. Booker, Christopher Brian (2014). ""No Force bill! No Negro Domination in the South!": President Grover Cleveland and the Return to Power of the Democratic Party". African-Americans & the Presidency. Archived from the original on October 17, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  151. Welch, 72
  152. 1 2 Welch, 73
  153. 1 2 3 Welch, 70; Nevins, 358–359
  154. Graff, 206–207
  155. 1 2 3 4 Brodsky, 141–142; Nevins, 228–229
  156. Brodsky, 158; Jeffers, 149
  157. 1 2 Graff, 78
  158. Graff, 79
  159. Jeffers, 170–176; Graff, 78–81; Nevins, 302–308; Welch, 51
  160. Graff, 80–81
  161. William Grimes, "Philippa Foot, Renowned Philosopher, Dies at 90" NY Times October 9, 2010
  162. "Oscar Folsom Cleveland". September 2, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  163. Daniel J. Meador, "Lamar to the Court: Last Step to National Reunion" Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook 1986: 27–47. ISSN   0362-5249
  164. Willard L. King, Melville Weston Fuller – Chief Justice of the United States 1888–1910 (1950)
  165. Nevins, 445–450
  166. 1 2 Graff, 90–91
  167. Tugwell, 166
  168. Nevins, 418–420
  169. Nevins, 423–427
  170. Leip, David. "1888 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved February 18, 2008., "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved February 18, 2008.
  171. Nevins, 435–439; Jeffers, 220–222
  172. Nevins, 443–449
  173. Nevins, 448
  174. Tugwell, 175
  175. Nevins, 450; Graff, 99–100
  176. Tugwell, 168
  177. Graff, 102–105; Nevins, 465–467
  178. Graff, 104–105; Nevins, 467–468
  179. Nevins, 470–471
  180. Nevins, 468–469
  181. 1 2 Nevins, 470–473
  182. Tugwell, 182
  183. Graff, 105; Nevins, 492–493
  184. William DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Gramercy 1997
  185. "U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Adlai Ewing Stevenson, 23rd Vice President (1893–1897)". n.d. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
  186. Nevins, 498
  187. Calhoun, 149
  188. Nevins, 499
  189. Graff, 106–107; Nevins, 505–506
  190. Graff, 108
  191. Tugwell, 184–185
  192. Leip, David. "1892 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved February 22, 2008., "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration . Retrieved February 22, 2008.
  193. Graff, 114
  194. 1 2 Nevins, 526–528
  195. Nevins, 524–528, 537–540. The vote was 239 to 108.
  196. Tugwell, 192–195
  197. Welch, 126–127
  198. Timberlake, Richard H. (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press. p.  179. ISBN   978-0-226-80384-5.
  199. Festus P. Summers, William L. Wilson and Tariff Reform: A Biography (1974)
  200. Nevins, 567; the vote was 204 to 140
  201. 1 2 Nevins, 564–566; Jeffers, 285–287
  202. Lambert, 213–215
  203. The income tax component of the Wilson-Gorman Act was partially ruled unconstitutional in 1895. See Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.
  204. Nevins, 577–578
  205. Nevins, 585–587; Jeffers, 288–289
  206. Nevins, 564–588; Jeffers, 285–289
  207. James B. Hedges (1940), "North America", in William L. Langer, ed., An Encyclopedia of World History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Part V, Section G, Subsection 1c, p. 794.
  208. Congressional Research Service (2004), The Constitution of the United States: Analysis and Interpretation – Analysis of Cases Decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 28, 2002, Washington: Government Printing Office, "Fifteenth Amendment", "Congressional Enforcement", "Federal Remedial Legislation", p. 2058.
  209. Nevins, 568
  210. 1 2 3 4 Graff, 117–118; Nevins, 603–605
  211. Graff, 118; Jeffers, 280–281
  212. Nevins, 611–613
  213. Nevins, 614
  214. Nevins, 614–618; Graff, 118–119; Jeffers, 296–297
  215. Nevins, 619–623; Jeffers, 298–302. See also In re Debs .
  216. Nevins, 628
  217. Nevins, 624–628; Jeffers, 304–305; Graff, 120
  218. Francis Lynde Stetson to Cleveland, October 7, 1894, in Allan Nevins, ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1933) p. 369
  219. Richard J. Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–96 (1971) pp. 229–230
  220. 1 2 Nevins, 560
  221. 1 2 Nevins, 549–552; Graff 121–122
  222. 1 2 Nevins, 552–554; Graff, 122
  223. 1 2 Nevins, 558–559
  224. Welch, 174
  225. McWilliams, 25–36
  226. Zakaria, 145–146
  227. Graff, 123–125; Nevins, 633–642
  228. Paul Gibb, "Unmasterly Inactivity? Sir Julian Pauncefote, Lord Salisbury, and the Venezuela Boundary Dispute", Diplomacy & Statecraft, Mar 2005, Vol. 16 Issue 1, pp. 23–55
  229. Blake, Nelson M. (1942). "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy". The American Historical Review. 47 (2): 259–277. doi:10.2307/1841667. JSTOR   1841667.
  230. Graff, 123–125
  231. Nevins, 550, 633–648
  232. Bruce N. Canfield "The Foreign Rifle: U.S. Krag–Jørgensen" American Rifleman October 2010 pp. 86–89, 126, 129
  233. Hanevik, Karl Egil (1998). Norske Militærgeværer etter 1867
  234. Friedman, pp. 35–38
  235. Bauer and Roberts, pp. 162–165
  236. Bauer and Roberts, pp. 102–104, 162–165
  237. 1 2 A Renehan; J C Lowry (July 1995). "The oral tumours of two American presidents: what if they were alive today?". J R Soc Med. 88 (7): 377–383. PMC   1295266 . PMID   7562805.
  238. Nevins, 528–529; Graff, 115–116
  239. Nevins, 531–533
  240. Nevins, 529
  241. 1 2 Nevins, 530–531
  242. 1 2 3 Nevins, 532–533
  243. Nevins, 533; Graff, 116
  244. 1 2 Keen, William W. (1917). The Surgical Operations on President Cleveland in 1893. G. W. Jacobs & Co. The lump was preserved and is on display at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia
  245. Hardig WG. (1974). "Oral surgery and the presidents – a century of contrast". J Oral Surg. 32 (7): 490–493. PMID   4601118.
  246. Miller JM. (1961). "Stephen Grover Cleveland". Surg Gynecol Obstet. 113: 524–9. PMID   13770838.
  247. Brooks JJ; Enterline HT; Aponte GE. (1908). "The final diagnosis of President Cleveland's lesion". Trans Stud Coll Physic Philadelphia. 2 (1).
  248. 1 2 3 4 Nevins, 569–570
  249. 1 2 3 Nevins, 570–571
  250. 1 2 Nevins, 572
  251. "Today in History: November 11". Library of Congress.
  252. "Today in History: November 2". Library of Congress.
  253. Timberlake, Richard H. (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press. p.  77. ISBN   978-0-226-80384-5.
  254. Thatcher, Linda (2016). "Struggle For Statehood Chronology". State of Utah. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  255. Nevins, 684–693
  256. R. Hal Williams, Years of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s (1993)
  257. Graff, 128–129
  258. Leip, David. "1896 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  259. Nevins, 754–758
  260. Graff, 131–133; Nevins, 730–735
  261. Graff, p. 131; Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion, Princeton Univ Press, 1978, "Grover Cleveland Archived June 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine "
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  263. Ladies Home Journal 22, (October 1905), 7–8
  264. "Dryden Forces Gather to Make Their Fight". The New York Times. November 11, 1906. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
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  266. "Grover Cleveland Home: Westland, New Jersey". National Park Service . Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  267. Jeffers, 340; Graff, 135. Nevins makes no mention of these last words.
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  271. "Buffalo State College Cleveland Hall" . Retrieved November 11, 2009.
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Further reading

  • Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN   978-0-313-26202-9.
  • Bard, Mitchell. "Ideology and Depression Politics I: Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)" Presidential Studies Quarterly 1985 15(1): 77–88. ISSN   0360-4918
  • Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster,"Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900," Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555–575. online
  • Berhow, Mark A., ed. (2015). American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Third Edition. McLean, Virginia: CDSG Press. ISBN   978-0-9748167-3-9.
  • Blake, Nelson M. (1942). "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy". The American Historical Review. 47 (2): 259–277. doi:10.2307/1841667. JSTOR   1841667.
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "Ethno-cultural Realities in Presidential Patronage: Grover Cleveland's Choices" New York History 2000 81(2): 189–210. ISSN   0146-437X when a German American leader called for fewer appointments of Irish Americans, Cleveland instead appointed more Germans
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "The Emergence of Grover Cleveland: a Fresh Appraisal" New York History 1992 73(2): 132–168. ISSN   0146-437X covers Cleveland to 1884
  • Blum, John. The National Experience (1993) ISBN   978-0-15-500366-8
  • Brodsky, Alan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character, (2000). ISBN   978-0-312-26883-1
  • Calhoun, Charles William (2005). Benjamin Harrison. Macmillan. ISBN   978-0-8050-6952-5.
  • Cleaver, Nick. Grover Cleveland's New Foreign Policy: Arbitration, Neutrality, and the Dawn of American Empire (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
  • DeSantis, Vincent P. "Grover Cleveland: Another Look." Hayes Historical Journal 1980 3(1–2): 41–50. ISSN   0364-5924, argues his energy, honesty, and devotion to duty—much more than his actual accomplishments established his claim to greatness.
  • Dewey, Davis R. National Problems: 1880–1897 (1907), online edition
  • Doenecke, Justus. "Grover Cleveland and the Enforcement of the Civil Service Act" Hayes Historical Journal 1984 4(3): 44–58. ISSN   0364-5924
  • Dunlap, Annette B. Frank: The Story of Frances Folsom Cleveland, America's Youngest First Lady (2015) excerpt
  • Dupont, Brandon. "'Henceforth, I Must Have No Friends': Evaluating the Economic Policies of Grover Cleveland." Independent Review 18.4 (2014): 559–579. online
  • Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900 (1959), online edition
  • Ford, Henry Jones. The Cleveland Era: A Chronicle of the New Order in Politics (1921), short overview online
  • Gould, Lewis. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914 (2001) ISBN   978-0-582-35671-9
  • Graff, Henry F. Grover Cleveland (2002). ISBN   978-0-8050-6923-5, short biography by scholar
  • Grossman, Mark, Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed (2003) ISBN   978-1-57607-060-4.
  • Haeffele-Balch, Stefanie, and Virgil Henry Storr. "Grover Cleveland against the special interests." The Independent Review 18.4 (2014): 581–596. online
  • Hirsch, Mark D. William C. Whitney, Modern Warwick (1948), biography of key political associate
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric and Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. in Project MUSE
  • Hoffmann, Charles (1956). "The Depression of the Nineties". The Journal of Economic History. 16 (2): 137–164. doi:10.1017/S0022050700058629. JSTOR   2114113.
  • Hoffmann, Charles. Depression of the nineties; an economic history (1970)
  • Jeffers, H. Paul, An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (2000), ISBN   978-0-380-97746-8.
  • Kelley, Robert (1966). "Presbyterianism, Jacksonianism and Grover Cleveland". American Quarterly. 18 (4): 615–636. doi:10.2307/2711386. JSTOR   2711386.
  • Klinghard, Daniel P. "Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, and the emergence of the president as party leader." Presidential Studies Quarterly 35.4 (2005): 736–760.
  • Lambert, John R. Arthur Pue Gorman (1953)
  • Lynch, G. Patrick "U.S. Presidential Elections in the Nineteenth Century: Why Culture and the Economy Both Mattered." Polity 35#1 (2002) pp. 29–50. in JSTOR, focus on election of 1884
  • McElroy, Robert. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography (1923) Vol. I, Vol. II, old fashioned narrative
  • McFarland, Gerald W. Mugwumps, morals, & politics, 1884–1920 (1975) ISBN   978-0-87023-175-9
  • McWilliams, Tennant S., "James H. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation." Pacific Historical Review 1988 57(1): 25–46. in JSTOR.
  • Merrill, Horace Samuel. Bourbon Leader: Grover Cleveland and the Democratic Party (1957) 228 pp
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896 (1969).
  • Nevins, Allan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (1932) Pulitzer Prize-winning biography, the major resource on Cleveland.
  • Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. A History of the United States since the Civil War. Volume V, 1888–1901 (Macmillan, 1937). 791 pp; comprehensive old-fashioned political history
  • Pafford, John M. The Forgotten Conservative: Rediscovering Grover Cleveland (Simon and Schuster, 2013). excerpt
    • Dwight D. Murphey, "The Forgotten Conservative: Rediscovering Grover Cleveland" The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies 38#4 (Winter 2013): 491–500. review
  • Reitano, Joanne R. The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of 1888 (1994). ISBN   978-0-271-01035-9.
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850: 1877–1896 (1919) online complete; old, factual and heavily political, by winner of Pulitzer Prize
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes Through McKinley: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (Greenwood, 2003).
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884 (2000). ISBN   978-0-8078-4849-4. campaign techniques and issues online edition
  • Tugwell, Rexford Guy, Grover Cleveland Simon & Schuster, Inc. (1968).
  • Walters, Ryan S. Grover Cleveland: The Last Jeffersonian President (2021) excerpt
  • Welch, Richard E. Jr. The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (1988) ISBN   978-0-7006-0355-8, scholarly study of the presidential years
  • Wilson, Woodrow, Mr. Cleveland as PresidentAtlantic Monthly (March 1897): pp. 289–301 online; Wilson later became president
  • Zakaria, Fareed From Wealth to Power (1999) Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0-691-01035-9.
Primary sources
  • Cleveland, Grover. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland (1892) online edition
  • Cleveland, Grover. Presidential Problems. (1904) online edition
  • Nevins, Allan ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1933)
  • National Democratic Committee (1896). Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party. National Democratic committee., handbook of the Gold Democrats, who admired Cleveland
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, 1877–1901: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (2003) online edition
  • Wilson, William L. The Cabinet Diary of William L. Wilson, 1896–1897 (1957) online edition


Letters and speeches

Media coverage