Grudziądz Granaries

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Grudziądz Granaries
Grudziadz Granaries 2009.JPG
Granaries viewed from the left bank of the Vistula
General information
Type Granaries
Architectural style Gothic
Location Grudziądz, Poland
Completed1346-1351, 1504

Grudziądz Granaries (Polish : Spichrze w Grudziądzu) is a unique 14th-century fortification complex of river bank granaries on the Vistula river in Grudziądz, Poland. [1]

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Granary storage building for grain

A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. Ancient or primitive granaries are most often made out of pottery. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.

Vistula river in Eastern Europe

The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland. The remainder lies in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.

History

After the Teutonic Order founded the settlement of present-day Grudziądz in 1291, the Order began building fortifications encompassing the town in the fourteenth-century. Formerly, a line of fortifications already existed on a scarp to the west of the settlement. It was in the years 1346-51 that the first granary, Bornwald Granary, was built, followed by several in 1364. By 1504, around modern-day Spichrzowa Street (lit. Granary Street), fourteen granaries had already been constructed, reflecting the importance of Grudziądz in trade of craftsmanship in the region. A century later, there were 16 granaries. The construction of the granaries on top of the town walls along the Vistula river was done so to be in close proximity with the river port, and thus take advantage of the flourishing grain trade. Due to the different elevations of town and river, the granaries, which from the river side look like imposing multi-stories buildings, from the town side feature only one or two floors. [2]

Teutonic Order Medieval military order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1192 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Grudziądz Place in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Grudziądz, in old-fashioned English Graudence, is a city of around 95,045 inhabitants (2018) on the Vistula River in northern Poland. Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, the city was in the Toruń Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998. Grudziądz is the 4th-largest city in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province and its Old Town complex with 14th-century granaries was declared a National Historic Monument of Poland.

Other than for grain trading purposes, the granaries performed other functions, i.e. one of the granaries, between 1603 and 1608 (or 1618) served as a Lutheran place of worship. During the Deluge at the hand of the Swedes, most of the granaries were burned down and only six had survived during the Swedish siege of Grudziądz. Rebuilding works lasted until the eighteenth-century, as a consequence of which, in relation to the former granary plans, those rebuilt had been less wide, covering smaller parcels of land individually. The following, nineteenth-century, further framework granaries had been built along the river scarp and riverfront (presently non-existent). Five granaries burned down in 1903, some were utilised for housing via enlarging windows and creating balconies on each elevation. [3]

Grain small, hard, dry seed used as food; may be ground into flour

A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes.

Lutheranism form of Protestantism commonly associated with the teachings of Martin Luther

Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.

Deluge (history) war between Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War (1655–1660) only; In Poland and Lithuania this period is called the Swedish Deluge, or less commonly the Russo–Swedish Deluge due to the Russian invasion in 1654. The term deluge was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge (1886).

A monumental amount of damage occurred during the final Soviet Vistula–Oder Offensive during 1945. The granaries were rebuilt between 1946 and 1966. Presently, some of the granary building still perform their storage function, some have been adapted for residential use, whilst others are occupied by the Museum of Grudziądz. [4]

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. Its territory included much of Eastern Europe, as well as part of Northern Europe and all of Northern and Central Asia. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Vistula–Oder Offensive conflict

The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945. It saw the capture of Kraków, Warsaw and Poznań.

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References

  1. "Spichrze w Grudziądzu - Grudziądz Inne obiekty Atrakcje Grudziądza Ciekawe miejsca w Grudziądzu Polskie Szlaki". www.polskieszlaki.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  2. "Grudziądz. Spichlerze stoją murem nad Wisłą - Otwarty Przewodnik Krajoznawczy". www.krajoznawcy.info.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  3. "Spichrze w Grudziądzu – TuHistoria.pl". www.tuhistoria.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  4. www.sam3.pl, CONCEPT Intermedia. "Spichrze - Portal - Muzeum w Grudziądzu". muzeum.grudziadz.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 31 August 2017.