Granaries viewed from the left bank of the Vistula
Grudziądz Granaries (Polish : Spichrze w Grudziądzu) is a unique 14th-century fortification complex of river bank granaries on the Vistula river in Grudziądz, Poland.
Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. Ancient or primitive granaries are most often made out of pottery. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.
The Vistula, the longest and largest river in Poland, is the 9th-longest river in Europe, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage-basin area of the Vistula is 193,960 km2 (74,890 sq mi), of which 168,868 km2 (65,200 sq mi) lies within Poland. The remainder lies in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.
After the Teutonic Order founded the settlement of present-day Grudziądz in 1291, the Order began building fortifications encompassing the town in the fourteenth-century. Formerly, a line of fortifications already existed on a scarp to the west of the settlement. It was in the years 1346-51 that the first granary, Bornwald Granary, was built, followed by several in 1364. By 1504, around modern-day Spichrzowa Street (lit. Granary Street), fourteen granaries had already been constructed, reflecting the importance of Grudziądz in trade of craftsmanship in the region. A century later, there were 16 granaries. The construction of the granaries on top of the town walls along the Vistula river was done so to be in close proximity with the river port, and thus take advantage of the flourishing grain trade. Due to the different elevations of town and river, the granaries, which from the river side look like imposing multi-stories buildings, from the town side feature only one or two floors.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1192 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Grudziądz, in old-fashioned English Graudence, is a city of around 95,045 inhabitants (2018) on the Vistula River in northern Poland. Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, the city was in the Toruń Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998. Grudziądz is the 4th-largest city in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province and its Old Town complex with 14th-century granaries was declared a National Historic Monument of Poland.
Other than for grain trading purposes, the granaries performed other functions, i.e. one of the granaries, between 1603 and 1608 (or 1618) served as a Lutheran place of worship. During the Deluge at the hand of the Swedes, most of the granaries were burned down and only six had survived during the Swedish siege of Grudziądz. Rebuilding works lasted until the eighteenth-century, as a consequence of which, in relation to the former granary plans, those rebuilt had been less wide, covering smaller parcels of land individually. The following, nineteenth-century, further framework granaries had been built along the river scarp and riverfront (presently non-existent). Five granaries burned down in 1903, some were utilised for housing via enlarging windows and creating balconies on each elevation.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes.
Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War (1655–1660) only; In Poland and Lithuania this period is called the Swedish Deluge, or less commonly the Russo–Swedish Deluge due to the Russian invasion in 1654. The term deluge was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge (1886).
A monumental amount of damage occurred during the final Soviet Vistula–Oder Offensive during 1945. The granaries were rebuilt between 1946 and 1966. Presently, some of the granary building still perform their storage function, some have been adapted for residential use, whilst others are occupied by the Museum of Grudziądz.
The Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. Its territory included much of Eastern Europe, as well as part of Northern Europe and all of Northern and Central Asia. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945. It saw the capture of Kraków, Warsaw and Poznań.
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 120,142 inhabitants. It is the capital of Elbląg County and has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Previously it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship (1975–1998) and a county seat within Gdańsk Voivodeship (1945–1975).
Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany.
Toruń is a historical city on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its population was 202,074, as of December 2018. Previously, it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–1998) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship (1921–1945). Since 1999, Toruń has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and, as such, is one of its two capitals, together with Bydgoszcz. The cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz–Toruń twin city metropolitan area.
Bydgoszcz is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 350,178, and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the eighth-largest city in Poland. It has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947. Located in the historical region of Kuyavia, it is its largest city.
Tczew is a town on the Vistula River in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,279 inhabitants. The city is known for its Old Town and the Vistula Bridge, or Bridge of Tczew, which played a key role in the Invasion of Poland during World War II.
Cēsis, is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Central Vidzeme Upland. Cēsis is on the Gauja River valley, and is built on a series of ridges above the river overlooking the woods below. Cēsis was one of the candidate cities for the title of European Capital of Culture 2014.
Brzeg is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,110 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County. It is situated in Silesia in the Opole Voivodeship on the left bank of the Oder.
Kuyavia, also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło. It is divided into three traditional parts: north-eastern, central, and south-eastern.
Kazimierz Dolny is a small town in central eastern Poland, on the right (eastern) bank of the Vistula river in Puławy County, Lublin Voivodeship. Historically it belongs to Lesser Poland, and in the past it used to be one of the most important cities of the province.
Nowy Korczyn is a town in Busko County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Nowy Korczyn. It lies in Lesser Poland, approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Busko-Zdrój and 67 km (42 mi) south of the regional capital Kielce. It is located close to the confluence of the Nida and the Vistula rivers. The village has a population of 1,032, and in the past it was an important administrative center of Lesser Poland. Nowy Korczyn was a town from 1258 to 1869.
Bydgoszcz Canal is a canal, 24.7 km long, between the cities of Bydgoszcz and Nakło in Poland, connecting Vistula river with Oder river, through Brda and Noteć rivers. The level difference along the canal is regulated by 6 locks. The canal was built in 1772–1775, at the order of Frederick II, king of Prussia.
The Łęczyca Royal Castle is a medieval castle situated in Łęczyca, Poland. The castle was erected by Casimir III the Great as a fortification during 1357-1370.
The Piotrków Trybunalski Royal Castle is a Gothic-Renaissance structure in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland. It was built in the form of a residential tower in the 16th century and was transformed into a museum open to the public in 1919.
Mill Island is a historic area located in the Old Town of Bydgoszcz, covering approximately 6.5 ha: today it is a place with cultural and recreational facilities, surrounded by the Brda river and its branch. The island received the 2012 Certificate for Best Tourist Attraction from the Polish Tourist Organisation.
Grodzka Street is a historical street in Old Town of Bydgoszcz, Poland. The street is located in the northern part of the Old Town: it stretches along Brda River waterfront, following an east-west axis. The street starts at the intersection with Bernardyńska street and ends at Tadeusz Malczewski street's crossing. Its length is approximately 430 m. The Grodzka Street was laid out in mid-14th century, when Bydgoszcz became a charter city. Grodzka Street buildings vary greatly one from the other, beginning with the three historic granaries from late 18th century, to the all-glass similar-shape modern mBank in Bydgoszcz, which became an icon of Polish architecture.
Stary port Street is located in Bydgoszcz Old Town, Poland, along the northern bank of Brda river. It bears several buildings registered on the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Heritage List.
The National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk is a maritime museum in Gdańsk, Poland, established on 1 January 1962. It is dedicated to gathering, researching and preserving artifacts and documents concerning ship transport, international trade, fishing and culture of people working at sea, rivers and those ashore – as well as the dissemination of knowledge on maritime history of Poland and its economy through the ages.