Gruffydd ap Rhys

Last updated

Gruffydd ap Rhys (c. 1090 – 1137) was Prince of Deheubarth, in Wales. His sister was the Princess Nest ferch Rhys. He was the father of Rhys ap Gruffydd, known as 'The Lord Rhys', who was one of the most successful rulers of Deheubarth during this period.

Contents

Family

Issue prior to marriage to Gwenllian: [1] [2]

Second he married Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd and by her he had issue: [3] [4]

Early life

Gruffydd was born in Llandeilo. Following the death of his father Rhys ap Tewdwr in 1093, Deheubarth was taken over by the Normans, and Gruffydd spent much of his early years in exile in Ireland.

In 1113 [5] or 1115 [6] Gruffydd returned to South Wales. He was accused by King Henry I of England and so went to Gruffudd ap Cynan for help. Gruffudd ap Cynan planned to murder Gruffydd to receive a reward from King Henry I, but Gruffydd's sister Nest warned him and he was able to escape to Llŷn. [6]

In 1116 Gruffydd attacked Castle Llanmyddyfri, but was defeated. He also attacked Swansea Castle, and destroyed the outer walls; and captured [6] or destroyed [5] Carmarthen Castle, and either in this year [6] or in 1114 [5] captured Kidwelly Castle. [6] However an attack on Aberystwyth was defeated and Gruffydd's army dispersed.

In 1121 [5] or 1122 [6] Gruffydd made peace with King Henry I and was allowed to rule a portion of his father's kingdom, the Cantref Mawr, although he was soon under pressure from the Normans again and was forced to flee to Ireland for a period in 1127.

Rebellion

In 1135 Gruffydd was summoned by King Stephen of England to London, but refused to go. [6]

In 1136 he joined Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr, the sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, in a rebellion against Norman rule. While Gruffydd was away from home, his wife Gwenllian led her husband's troops against Maurice of London, but was defeated, captured, and beheaded. In this battle his son Morgan was also slain, and his son Maelgwn was captured. [6] In revenge for his wife's execution Gruffydd attacked the English and the Fleming residents of South Wales, causing great destruction of property, crops, and livestock. [6] Gruffydd himself with Owain and Cadwaladr gained a crushing victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan the same year. In celebration of driving the English and the Fleming from South Wales, Gruffydd hosted a grand festival that lasted for 40 days. [5] [6]

Death and succession

In 1136 [5] or early 1137 [6] Gruffydd died in uncertain circumstances. Florence of Worcester claimed that Gruffydd was murdered by his second wife. [6]

He was succeeded by his son, Anarawd. Of his other sons, Cadell, Maredydd, and Rhys (later known as The Lord Rhys) all ruled Deheubarth in turn.

Related Research Articles

Rhys ap Gruffydd Prince of Deheubarth

Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. Today, he is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys, although this title may have not been used in his lifetime. He usually used the title "Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth" or "Prince of South Wales", but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title "Prince of Wales" or "Prince of the Welsh". Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes, and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, the dominant power in Wales.

Owain ap Gruffudd was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan. He was called "Owain the Great" and the first to be styled "Prince of Wales". He is considered to be the most successful of all the North Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He became known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from the contemporary king of Powys Wenwynwyn, Owain ap Gruffydd ap Maredudd, who became known as Owain Cyfeiliog.

Gruffudd ap Cynan King of Gwynedd

Gruffudd ap Cynan, sometimes written as Gruffydd ap Cynan, was King of Gwynedd from 1081 until his death in 1137. In the course of a long and eventful life, he became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman rule, and was remembered as King of all Wales. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr, Gruffudd ap Cynan was a senior member of the princely House of Aberffraw.

Kingdom of Gwynedd Kingdom in north Wales

The Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

Rhys ap Tewdwr

Rhys ap Tewdwr was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093.

Aberystwyth Castle Grade I listed castle in Ceredigion

Aberystwyth Castle is a Grade I listed Edwardian fortress located in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Mid Wales. It was built in response to the First Welsh War in the late 13th century, replacing an earlier fortress located a mile to the south. During a national uprising by Owain Glyndŵr, the Welsh captured the castle in 1404, but it was recaptured by the English four years later. In 1637 it became a Royal mint by Charles I, and produced silver shillings. The castle was slighted by Oliver Cromwell in 1649.

Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd was Princess consort of Deheubarth in Wales, and married to Gruffydd ap Rhys, Prince of Deheubarth. Gwenllian was the daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan (1055–1137), Prince of Gwynedd and Angharad ferch Owain, and a member of the princely Aberffraw family of Gwynedd. Gwenllian's "patriotic revolt" and subsequent death in battle at Kidwelly Castle contributed to the Great Revolt of 1136.

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Wales Prince of Gwynedd in 1170, was a Welsh poet and military leader. Hywel was the son of Owain Gwynedd, prince of Gwynedd, and an Irishwoman named Pyfog. In recognition of this, he was also known as Hywel ap Gwyddeles. Hywel was also known as the Poet Prince for his bardic skills.

Anarawd ap Gruffydd was a Prince of Deheubarth in Southwest Wales.

Cadell ap Gruffydd was prince of the Kingdom of Deheubarth in Southwest Wales.

Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1131–1155) was a prince of the kingdom of Deheubarth in Southwest Wales.

Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd was the third son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd, and brother of Owain Gwynedd.

This article is about the particular significance of the century 1101–1200 to Wales and its people.

History of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages

The history of Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th through the 13th centuries. Gwynedd, located in the north of Wales, eventually became the most dominant of Welsh principalities during this period. Distinctive achievements in Gwynedd include further development of Medieval Welsh literature, particularly poets known as the Beirdd y Tywysogion associated with the court of Gwynedd; the reformation of bardic schools; and the continued development of Cyfraith Hywel. All three of these further contributed to the development of a Welsh national identity in the face of Anglo-Norman encroachment of Wales.

The House of Aberffraw is a historiographical and genealogical term historians use to illustrate the clear line of succession from Rhodri the Great of Wales through his eldest son Anarawd.

Ferch may refer to:

Angharad ferch Owain (1065–1162) was the wife of Gruffudd ap Cynan, a king of Gwynedd.

Cadwallon ap Gruffydd was the eldest son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd.

References

  1. Turvey, R. 1997, The Lord Rhys: Prince of Deheubarth. Gomer. ISBN   1-85902-430-0., p. 30
  2. Pierce, T. J., (1959). GRUFFYDD ap RHYS (c. 1090 - 1137), prince of Deheubarth. Dictionary of Welsh Biography. Retrieved 10 Aug 2020, from https://biography.wales/article/s-GRUF-APR-1090.
  3. Cadw, Welsh Government (Crown Copyright), 2013. Heroes and Heroines of Wales: Gwenllian
  4. Cadw (Llywodraeth Cymru Welsh Government), April 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2020, from https://cadw.gov.wales/sites/default/files/2019-04/20140916gwenlliancardsen.pdf.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pickering, W (1864). Archaeologia Cambrensis.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Glenn, Thomas Allen (1913). Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania. Oxford, England. ISBN   0806304308.
Preceded by
Rhys ap Tewdwr
King of Deheubarth
1116–1137
Succeeded by
Anarawd ap Gruffydd