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The grzywna (Polish: [ˈɡʐɨvna] ) was a measure of weight, mainly for silver, commonly used throughout medieval central and eastern Europe, particularly in the Kingdom of Poland and Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech : hřivna).
Grzywna was also a unit of measure of a unit of exchange, and as such used as money in the 10th–15th centuries. Silver ingots acted as commodity money before the widespread use of minted coins. Several different grzywnas developed with their own system of weight and exchange, such as the Kulm grzywna and the Kraków grzywna.
The name is derived from Proto-Slavic *grivĭna 'necklace' from Proto-Slavic *griva 'neck, nape, mane'.  In modern Polish language, grzywna literally translates as fine (legal penalty).
The Kraków grzywna, used in Poland, weighed anywhere from 196.26 g to 201.86 g, depending on the timeframe. In the 14th century, it was equal to 196.26 g, while in the beginning of the 16th century in weighed 197.684 g, but after 1558 it was equivalent to 201.802 g and after 1650 it was 201.86 g.
The Kraków grzywna was subdivided thus: 4 wiarduneks or quarters = 8 ounces = 16 drams = 24 skojecs = 96 grains = 240 denarii = 480 obols
As a measure of unit of exchange, the Kraków grzywna was equal to 48 Prague groschen. During the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high 576 denarii were struck from one Kraków grzywna of silver. During the rule of his son Casimir the Great, 768 denarii were struck from it and during the reign of Władysław II Jagiełło, it was 864 denarii.
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Władysław I Łokietek, in English known as the "Elbow-high" or Ladislaus the Short, was King of Poland from 1320 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years. He was a member of the royal Piast dynasty, the son of Duke Casimir I of Kuyavia, and great-grandson of High-Duke Casimir II the Just.
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£sd is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae, solidi, and denarii. In the United Kingdom, these were referred to as pounds, shillings, and pence.
The talent was a unit of weight that was introduced in Mesopotamia at the end of the 4th millennium BC, and was normalized at the end of the 3rd millennium during the Akkadian-Sumer phase, divided into 60 minas or 3,600 shekels. In classical antiquity, the talent was the heaviest of common weight units for commercial transactions. An Attic weight talent was approximately 26.0 kilograms, and a Babylonian talent was 30.2 kg. Ancient Israel adopted the Babylonian weight talent, but later revised it. The heavy common talent, used in New Testament times, was 58.9 kg. A Roman talent was 1+1⁄3 Attic talents, approximately 32.3 kg ; an Egyptian talent was 80 librae, approximately 27 kg (60 lb).
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Groschen a name for various coins, especially a silver coin used in various states of the Holy Roman Empire and other parts of Europe. The word is borrowed from the late Latin description of a tornose, a grossus denarius Turnosus, in English the "thick denarius of Tours". Groschen was frequently abbreviated in old documents to gl, whereby the second letter was not an l, but an abbreviation symbol; later it was written as Gr or g.
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Tyniec is a historic village in Poland on the Vistula river, since 1973 a part of the city of Kraków. Tyniec is notable for its Benedictine abbey founded by King Casimir the Restorer in 1044.
A Zuz was an ancient Jewish silver coin struck during the Bar Kochba revolt, as well as a Jewish name for the various types of non-Jewish small silver coinage, used before and after the period of the revolt. The name was used from the Greek era of drachmas, through the Roman era of Denarius, and then as the quarter denomination of Bar Kochba coinage. The Jewish insurrectionists' zuz were overstruck on Roman Imperial denarii or Roman provincial drachmas of Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Trajan and Hadrian. Four Zuzzim, denarii or drachmas make a Shekel, a Sela or a Tetradrachm.
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The Wiardunek was a Mediaeval Central European unit of mass most widely used in Poland and Germany. Wiardunek was also used as a unit of account, and as a such as commodity money.
Kopa was a medieval unit of measurement used in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in the 15–18th-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It denoted 60 pieces or 5 dozens of whatever was counted. It was used for counting large amounts of money. For example, ransoms and war reparations after the Battle of Grunwald were counted in kopas of Prague groschen; the 16th-century treasury of the Grand Duchy was counted in kopas of Lithuanian groschens. Kopa was also used to count grain sheaves or quantities of other products.
The so-called Lithuanian long currency was a type of money used by the Baltic tribes and in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 12th–15th centuries. It was commodity money in the form of silver ingots. Most often they were semicircular rods about 13 cm (5.1 in) in length and weighted between 100 and 110 g. Other trading centers, notably Kievan Rus' and Veliky Novgorod, developed their own version of such ingots which are known as grivna or grzywna. The ingots were replaced by minted coins in the middle of the 15th century.
The Carolingian monetary system, also called the Carolingian coinage system or just the Carolingian system, was a currency structure introduced by Charlemagne in the late 8th century as part of a major reform, the effects of which subsequently dominated much of Europe, including Britain, for several centuries. It is characterised by having three denominations in the ratio 1:20:240 the units of which went under different names in the different languages, but which corresponded to the Latin terms libra (pound), solidus (shilling) and denarius (penny).