Guan Yi

Last updated

Guan Yi
Born1962 (age 5859)
Nationality Hong Kong
Alma mater Medical College of Nanchang University
Peking Union Medical College
University of Hong Kong
Scientific career
Fields Virology
Institutions University of Hong Kong
Doctoral advisor Kennedy Francis Shortridge
Other academic advisors Robert Webster
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese

Guan Yi (simplified Chinese :管轶; traditional Chinese :管軼; born 1962) is a Chinese virologist. In 2014, he was ranked as 11th in the world by Thomson Reuters (now known as Clarivate Analytics) [1] among global researchers in the field of microbiology. He obtained his PhD in microbiology at the University of Hong Kong and is now a professor of microbiology at his alma mater. His research on the viral respiratory disease SARS helped the Chinese government avert the 2004 outbreak of this disease. [2] He is the current director (China affairs) [3] of the State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases University of Hong Kong. [4] In early 2017, Guan warned that the H7N9 influenza virus "poses the greatest threat to humanity than any other in the past 100 years." [5]

Contents

Education

Guan received his MD degree from the Medical College of Nanchang University (also known as Jiangxi Medical College), his advanced medical degree from Peking Union Medical College, and his PhD from the University of Hong Kong. [2]

Career

Focusing his research on influenza viruses throughout his career, Guan has identified all the major precursors and transmission pathways of the H5N1 variant that circulates in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa and has provided most of the World Health Organization recommended pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines strains.

Guan has, also, initiated the systematic study of H9N2 viruses, which, along with H5 viruses that are now regarded as the most likely novel influenza subtypes to cause a pandemic.

Guan has defined the role of domestic ducks in harboring and spreading influenza viruses and made major contributions in recognizing the emergence, evolutionary history and development of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and revealed the genesis, infection source, evolutionary pathway and possible transmission route of the 2017 emerging H7N9 influenza virus. [2] [5] [6]

Guan has also contributed to the identification of animal reservoirs for coronaviruses, leading a team to identify bats as a reservoir host for SARS-CoV [7] and palm civets as an intermediate host for SARS-CoV. [8] [9]

COVID-19 pandemic

Guan Yi has given expert comments on SARS-CoV-2 when interviewed by Caixin, warning that the coronavirus could be 10 times worse than the 2003 Sars outbreak. [10] He said to media, ""I have been through so many [disease outbreaks], and I have never been scared. Most [of the outbreaks] are manageable, but this time I am scared." [11] What he said in his interview with Caixin were apparently different from that in most Chinese media, and it became highly controversial as journalists of state media reposted his previous statement, which he made on 15 January, claiming that the disease was manageable. The journalists also reposted the information that Guan's lab was once fined by the government in 2005. Wang Duan, the Caixin journalist who interviewed Guan Yi, described such behavior as "personal attacks" and complained that no expert had so far come forward to refute what Guan said. [12]

Guan Yi didn't give interview since 23 January. [13]

In mid July when a cluster of resurgent cases in Beijing was reported, Guan was interviewed by iNewsweek journal (中国新闻周刊) which shared his supportive opinion to the speculation that the virus imported into Beijing via contaminated frozen salmon fishes. [14]

In 2005, Time featured Guan as one of its 18 "Global Health Heroes", and in 2006, named him an "Asian Hero" for his influenza virus research work. [15] [16] In 2021 he was awarded the Canada Gairdner Global Health Award. [17]

Academic publications

Guan's publication record contained in the United States National Institutes of Health PubMed database shows his having over 280 peer-reviewed articles with over 26,000 citations and an h-index of 79. [2] [18]

Related Research Articles

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the first identified strain of the SARS coronavirus species severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). The syndrome caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak. Around late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of Asian palm civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Xiyang Yi Ethnic Township, Yunnan.

Spanish flu 1918–1920 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus

The Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 influenza pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting from February 1918 to April 1920, it infected 500 million people – about a third of the world's population at the time – in four successive waves. The death toll is typically estimated to have been somewhere between 20 million and 50 million, although estimates range from a conservative 17 million to a possible high of 100 million, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in human history.

2002–2004 SARS outbreak Epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome originating in China

The 2002–2004 SARS outbreak was an epidemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The outbreak was first identified in Foshan, Guangdong, China, on 16 November 2002.

Influenza pandemic Epidemic of a flu that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population

An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads across a large region and infects a large proportion of the population. There have been five in the last 140 years, with the 1918 flu pandemic being the most severe; this pandemic is estimated to have been responsible for the deaths of 50–100 million people. The most recent, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, resulted in under a million deaths and is considered relatively mild. These pandemics occur irregularly.

Global spread of H5N1

The global spread of H5N1 influenza in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While other H5N1 influenza strains are known, they are significantly different on a genetic level from a recent, highly pathogenic, emergent strain of H5N1, which was able to achieve hitherto unprecedented global spread in 2008. The H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic and panzootic. Unless otherwise indicated, "H5N1" in this timeline refers to the recent highly pathogenic strain of H5N1.

Yuen Kwok-yung Hong Kong microbiologist and physician

Yuen Kwok-yung is a Hong Kong microbiologist, physician and surgeon. He is a prolific researcher, with most of his nearly 800 papers related to research on novel microbes or emerging infectious diseases. He led a team identifying the SARS coronavirus that caused the SARS pandemic of 2003–4, and traced its genetic origins to wild bats. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, he has acted as expert adviser to the Hong Kong government.

Fujian flu

Fujian flu refers to flu caused by either a Fujian human flu strain of the H3N2 subtype of the Influenza A virus or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. These strains are named after Fujian, a coastal province in Southeast China.

Professor Malik Peiris FRS, d'Honneur, is a Sri Lankan pathologist and virologist. He has been long based in Hong Kong. His research interests include ecology, evolution, pathogenesis, epidemiology of animal-human influenza and other human respiratory viral infections, authoring over 320 research publications. Peiris is most notable for being the first person to isolate SARS virus.

2009 swine flu pandemic in Hong Kong

The 2009 flu pandemic in Hong Kong was part of the worldwide pandemic that started with the city's first reported case of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 infection, commonly called swine flu, on 1 May 2009, in a Mexican national who had travelled to Hong Kong via Shanghai. It was also the first reported case of in Asia. As of 25 November 2009, there have been 32,301 confirmed cases of swine flu in the city.

Keiji Fukuda is an American physician with expertise in influenza epidemiology. After joining the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005, Fukuda worked as Coordinator of the Global Influenza Program from 2006 to 2008 and was then appointed its Director. In March 2009, Fukuda was appointed Assistant Director-General for Health, Security and Environment ad interim for the World Health Organization, and he held this position from September 2010 to November 2016. The media referred to him as the WHO "flu chief" during the 2009 swine flu pandemic. Before joining WHO, Fukuda was Chief of the Epidemiology Unit, Influenza Branch at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After retiring from the WHO in 2016, he became the Director of the School of Public Health of Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. In October 2020, senior management team of the University of Hong Kong decided not to renew his contract. Keiji will thus leave the University of Hong Kong in late 2021.

2009 swine flu pandemic in Asia

The 2009 flu pandemic in Asia, part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing what has been commonly called swine flu, afflicted at least 394,133 people in Asia with 2,137 confirmed deaths: there were 1,035 deaths confirmed in India, 737 deaths in China, 415 deaths in Turkey, 192 deaths in Thailand, and 170 deaths in South Korea. Among the Asian countries, South Korea had the most confirmed cases, followed by China, Hong Kong, and Thailand.

Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 Subtype of the influenza A virus

Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (A/H7N9) is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A. Avian influenza A H7 viruses normally circulate amongst avian populations with some variants known to occasionally infect humans. An H7N9 virus was first reported to have infected humans in March 2013, in China. Cases continued to be reported throughout April and then dropped to only a few cases during the summer months. At the closing of the year, 144 cases had been reported of which 46 had died. It is known that influenza tends to strike during the winter months, and the second wave, which began in October, was fanned by a surge in poultry production timed for Chinese New Year feasts that began at the end of January. January 2014 brought a spike in reports of illness with 96 confirmed reports of disease and 19 deaths. As of April 11, 2014, the outbreak's overall total was 419, including 7 in Hong Kong, and the unofficial number of deaths was 127.

Neil Ferguson (epidemiologist) British epidemiologist and researcher

Neil Morris Ferguson is a British epidemiologist and professor of mathematical biology, who specialises in the patterns of spread of infectious disease in humans and animals. He is the director of the Jameel Institute for Disease and Emergency Analytics (J-IDEA), director of the MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, and head of the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology in the School of Public Health and Vice-Dean for Academic Development in the Faculty of Medicine, all at Imperial College London.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei was first manifested by a cluster of mysterious pneumonia in Wuhan, the provincial capital of Hubei, China. A Wuhan hospital notified the local center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and health commissions on December 27, 2019. On December 31, Wuhan CDC admitted that there was a cluster of unknown pneumonia cases related to Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market after the unverified documents appeared on the Internet. The potential disease outbreak soon drew nationwide attention including that of the National Health Commission (NHC) in Beijing which sent experts to Wuhan on the following day. On January 8, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of the pneumonia. The sequence of the virus was soon published on an open-access database. Measures taken by China have been controversial. They were praised by the World Health Organization (WHO) for improvements over SARS-CoV-2 responses, but maligned by many in the international community for being slow to publicly disclose key facts or deceptive about the outbreak and for aggressively censoring information relating to the outbreak and public discontent from citizens online.

Liu Wen (刘文) is one of the "whistleblowers" of the COVID-19 pandemic and a doctor working in the neurology department at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital.

Leo Poon (潘烈文) is the Head of the Division of Public Health Laboratory Science of the University of Hong Kong. In July 2020, Professor Malik Peiris stepped down from the position of Co-Director of the joint research pole between Hong Kong University and the Pasteur Institute (HKU-Pasteur), and Professor Leo Poon succeeded to this crucial WHO recognized Centre. He is one of the worlds' leading scientists investigating the emergence of viral diseases transferring from animals to humans, such as new strains of Influenza viruses and coronaviruses. Along with colleagues in his Division, he has made major contributions to the understanding of disease causes, diagnostic testing, and epidemiological control of these pandemic viral diseases.

Ih-Jen Su is a Taiwanese medical researcher and distinguished investigator and was the director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan.

The Central Epidemic Command Center is an agency of the National Health Command Center (NHCC). It has been activated by the government of Taiwan for several disease outbreaks, such as the 2009 swine flu pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic. The head of the agency is Chen Shih-chung, the minister of Health and Welfare. The CECC is associated with the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control.

Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 Sequence of major events in a virus pandemic

This article documents the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December.

Civet SARS-CoV is a coronavirus associated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) infected with masked palm civet, which infected humans and caused SARS events from 2002 to 2003. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is highly similar, with a genome sequence similarity of about 99.8%. Because several patients infected at the early stage of the epidemic had contact with fruit-eating Japanese Raccoon Dog in the market, fruit-eating Tanuki may be a direct source of human SARS coronavirus. At the end of 2003, four more people in Guangzhou, China were infected with the disease. Sequence analysis found that the similarity with the Tanuki virus reached 99.9%, and the SARS coronavirus was also caused by cases of Tanuki transmission.

References

  1. "Highly Citied Researchers". hcr.stateofinnovation.com. Clarivate Analytics. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Guan, Yi". hku.hk. University of Hong Kong . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  3. "Members". State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases. University of Hong Kong . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  4. "State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases". hku.hk. University of Hong Kong . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  5. 1 2 "Why Chinese Scientists Are More Worried Than Ever About Bird Flu". npr.org. NPR. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  6. Johnson, Lorie (11 April 2017). "Scary Bird Flu Mutations Could Lead to Worst Pandemic in History". cbn.com. Christian Broadcasting Network . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  7. Tang, X. C.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wang, P.; Fan, X. H.; Li, L. F.; Li, G.; Dong, B. Q.; Liu, W.; Cheung, C. L.; Xu, K. M. (1 August 2006). "Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Coronaviruses in Bats from China". Journal of Virology. 80 (15): 7481–7490. doi:10.1128/JVI.00697-06. ISSN   0022-538X. PMC   1563713 . PMID   16840328.
  8. Guan, Y.; Zheng, B. J.; He, Y. Q.; Liu, X. L.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Cheung, C. L.; Luo, S. W.; Li, P. H.; Zhang, L. J.; Guan, Y. J.; Butt, K. M. (10 October 2003). "Isolation and Characterization of Viruses Related to the SARS Coronavirus from Animals in Southern China". Science. 302 (5643): 276–278. Bibcode:2003Sci...302..276G. doi: 10.1126/science.1087139 . ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   12958366.
  9. Kan, Biao; Wang, Ming; Jing, Huaiqi; Xu, Huifang; Jiang, Xiugao; Yan, Meiying; Liang, Weili; Zheng, Han; Wan, Kanglin; Liu, Qiyong; Cui, Buyun (15 September 2005). "Molecular Evolution Analysis and Geographic Investigation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in Palm Civets at an Animal Market and on Farms". Journal of Virology. 79 (18): 11892–11900. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.18.11892-11900.2005. ISSN   0022-538X. PMC   1212604 . PMID   16140765.
  10. Liu, Zhen (23 January 2020), China coronavirus outbreak could be 10 times worse than Sars, expert says, South China Morning Post
  11. "香港病毒专家估算武汉疫情比SARS感染规模大10倍". Radio Free Asia (in Chinese). Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  12. 梓鹏 (29 January 2020). "武汉疫情与中港"一国两制"下的医护镜像". BBC News 中文 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  13. in English news and in Chinese news
  14. "北京爆第二波疫情 管軼:料經冷凍食物傳播". Fight Covid-19 (in Chinese). 16 June 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  15. Walsh, Bryan (31 October 2005). "Bird-Flu Hunter GUAN YI". Time Magazine . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  16. Greenfeld, Karl (13 November 2006). "Guan Yi & Malik Peiris". Time Magazine . Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  17. Canada Gairdner Global Health Award 2021
  18. "Guan, Yi". PubMed.gov. National Institutes of Health . Retrieved 12 April 2017.