Satellite image of Guanabara Bay
|Location||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Native name||Baía de Guanabara (Portuguese)|
|Ocean/sea sources||South Atlantic|
|Max. length||31 km (19 mi)|
|Max. width||28 km (17 mi)|
|Surface area||412 km2 (159 sq mi)|
|Islands||Ilha do Governador, Ilha de Paquetá, Freguesia|
|Settlements||Rio de Janeiro, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo|
Guanabara Bay (Portuguese : Baía de Guanabara, IPA: [ɡwanaˈbaɾɐ] ) is an oceanic bay located in Southeast Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro. On its western shore lies the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias, and on its eastern shore the cities of Niterói and São Gonçalo. Four other municipalities surround the bay's shores. Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in area in Brazil (after the All Saints' Bay), at 412 square kilometres (159 sq mi), with a perimeter of 143 kilometres (89 mi).
Guanabara Bay is 31 kilometres (19 mi) long and 28 kilometres (17 mi) wide at its maximum. Its 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) wide mouth is flanked at the eastern tip by the Pico do Papagaio (Parrot's Peak) and the western tip by Pão de Açúcar (Sugar Loaf).
The name Guanabara comes from the Tupi language, goanã-pará, from gwa "bay", plus nã "similar to" and ba'ra "sea". Traditionally, it is also translated as "the bosom of sea".
Guanabara Bay was first encountered by Europeans on January 1, 1502, when one of the Portuguese explorers Gaspar de Lemos and Gonçalo Coelhoarrived on its shores. According to some historians, the name given by the exploration team to the bay was originally Ria de Janeiro "January's Lagoon", then a confusion took place between the word ria "lagoon" and rio "river". As a result, the name of the bay was soon fixed as Rio de Janeiro. Later, the city was named after the bay. Natives of the Tamoio and Tupiniquim tribes inhabited the shores of the bay.
After the initial arrival of the Portuguese, no significant European settlements were established until French colonists and soldiers, under the Huguenot Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon invaded the region in 1555 to establish the France Antarctique. They stayed briefly on Lajes Island, then moved to Serigipe Island, near the shore, where they built Fort Coligny. After they were expelled by Portuguese military expeditions in 1563, the colonial government built fortifications in several points of Guanabara Bay, rendering it almost impregnable against a naval attack from the sea. They were the Santa Cruz, São João, Lajes and Villegaignon forts, forming a fearsome crossfire rectangle of big naval guns. Other islands were adapted by the Navy to host naval storehouses, hospitals, drydocks, oil reservoirs and the National Naval Academy.
Underwater exploration in the bay was disallowed by the Brazilian government in 1985 amid a dispute with an American treasure hunter.
There are more than 130 islands dotting the bay, including:
The bay is crossed by the Rio-Niterói Bridge (13.29 kilometres (8.26 mi) long and with a central span 72 metres (236 ft) high) and there is heavy boat and ship traffic, including regular ferryboat lines. The Port of Rio de Janeiro, as well as the city's two airports, Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport (on Governador Island) and Santos Dumont Airport (on reclaimed land next to downtown Rio), are located on its shores. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro main campus is located on the artificial Fundão Island. A maze of smaller bridges interconnect the two largest islands, Fundão and Governador, to the mainland.
There is an Environmental Protection Area (APA), which is located mostly in the municipality of Guapimirim and given the name of Guapimirim APA.
Guanabara Bay's once rich and diversified ecosystem has suffered extensive damage in recent decades, particularly along its mangrove areas.The bay has been heavily impacted by urbanization, deforestation, and pollution of its waters with sewage, garbage, and oil spills. As of 2014, more than 70% of the sewage from 12 million inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro now flows into the bay untreated.
There have been three major oil spills in Guanabara Bay. The most recent was in 2000 when a leaking Petrobras underwater pipeline released 1,300,000 litres (340,000 US gal) of oil into the bay, destroying large swaths of the mangrove ecosystem.[ citation needed ] Recovery measures are currently[ when? ] being attempted, but more than a decade after the incident, the mangrove areas have not returned to life.[ citation needed ]
One of the world's largest landfills is located at Jardim Gramacho adjacent to Guanabara Bay. It was closed in 2012 after 34 years of operation. The landfill attracted attention from environmentalists and it supported 1700 people scavenging for recyclable materials.
In June 2014 Dutch windsurfer and former Olympic and world champion Dorian van Rijsselberghe made an urgent appeal to government and industry in the Netherlands to collaborate in cleaning up the bay, together with the Plastic Soup Foundation.The Dutch government picked up the message and formulated a Clean Urban Delta Initiative Rio de Janeiro together with a consortium of Dutch industry, knowledge institutes and NGOs which will be presented to the Brazilian authorities in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
As part of the preparations for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio, the government was supposed to improve the conditions, but progress has been slow. There have been concerns that the efforts may only be short-term and abandoned following the Games, as there would be little political incentive to continue with them.
The marine ecosystem of Guanabara Bay was severely damaged; the bay was once a whaling ground , and today whales are no longer or rarely seen while Bryde's whales can be seen around the bay entrance. The bay is also home to a population of botos and this population faces severe risks of population decline.
Ilhabela is an archipelago and city situated in the Atlantic Ocean four miles off the coast of São Paulo state in Brazil. The city is 205 km (127 mi) from the city of São Paulo and 340 km (210 mi) from the city of Rio de Janeiro. The largest island, although commonly called Ilhabela, is officially named Ilha de São Sebastião. It, the other islands and the islets make up the municipality of Ilhabela.
Paquetá Island is an island in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The name of the island is a Tupi word meaning "many pacas". The island is an auto-free zone, so travel is limited to bicycles and horse-drawn carriages. Paquetá has twenty baobabs, the only ones in Brazil beside the Baobá in Passeio Público. One of the trees is called "Maria Gorda", which residents kiss for luck.
The Ilhas Cagarras are an uninhabited archipelago located 5 km off Ipanema, a major beach of the southern coast of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They have been designated a federal natural monument since 2010.
Governador Island is the largest island in Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It has a population of about 211,018 inhabitants, in a small area of 42 km2 (16 sq mi).
Ilha da Conceição is an island and one of the 48 administrative districts in which the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is divided. It lies in the northern zone of the city, in the Guanabara Bay.
The Baixada Fluminense is a region in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. It is located on Guanabara Bay, between Rio de Janeiro to the south and the Serra dos Órgãos range of hills to the north.
Ilha Grande is an island located off the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The island, which is part of the municipality of Angra dos Reis, remains largely undeveloped. For almost a century it was closed by the Brazilian government to free movement or settlement because it first housed a leper colony and then a top-security prison. Cândido Mendes high-security prison housed some of the most dangerous prisoners within the Brazilian penal system. It was closed in 1994. The largest village on the island is called Vila do Abraão with approximately 1900 inhabitants.
Itaboraí is a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, that belongs to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. It was founded in 1672. In 2018, it had a population of 238,695.
Galeão may refer to:
Petrópolis Environmental Protection Area is a protected area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.
Carioca Bowl is a beach American football league based in Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Saquarema, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The league's current champions are the America Red Lions.
The Macacu River is a river of Rio de Janeiro state in southeastern Brazil.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba União da Ilha do Governador was founded on March 7, 1953 by the friends Maurício Gazelle, and Quincas Orphylo, who were in Cacuia, the main site of the carnival parade of the Ilha do Governador, watching the presentation of small schools of samba and blocks of various districts of the island. It was then decided that the neighborhood of Cacuia should be represented by a samba school. Currently, the school is based in Estrada do Galeão in the neighborhood of Cacuia.
Ilha das Cobras is an island located within Guanabara Bay in the city and state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is east of the neighborhood Guanabara. It is home to the Arsenal de Marinha do Rio de Janeiro base of the Brazilian Navy.
Freguesia is a neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Galeão is a neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located on Governador Island besides the Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport.
Jardim Guanabara is an upper middle class neighborhood located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its major point of interest is a beach called "Praia da Bica", where you can enjoy a privileged view of the city.
The Ilha Anchieta State Park is a state park in the state of São Paulo, Brazil
The Central Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest Mosaic (Portuguese: Mosaico da Mata Atlântica Central Fluminense is a protected area mosaic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mosaic is inland, to the east of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
The Bacia do Rio Macacu Environmental Protection Area is an environmental protection area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Guanabara Bay at Wikimedia Commons