Guangdong

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Guangdong Province

广东省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)
  AbbreviationGD / (pinyin: Yuè, Jyutping: Jyut6)
Guangdong in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5 Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5
Named for Abbreviated from "Guǎngnándōng Lù" (A "" was equal to a province or a state in Song China)
广 = wide, vast, expanse
= east
literally, "At the East of the Expanse" (Guangxi being the West)
Capital
(and largest city)
Guangzhou
Divisions21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1642 townships
Government
   Secretary Li Xi
  Governor Ma Xingrui
Area
[1]
  Total179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Highest elevation
1,902 m (6,240 ft)
Population
(2015) [2]
  Total108,500,000
  Rank 1st
  Density600/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
  Density rank 7th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99%
Zhuang – 0.7%
Yao – 0.2%
  Languages and dialects Cantonese and other Yue languages, Hakka, Min Nan languages (Teochew & Leizhou Min), Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang
ISO 3166 code CN-GD
GDP (2018) CNY 9.73 trillion
US$1.47 trillion [3] (1st)
 • per capita CNY 87,763
US$13,257 (8th)
HDI (2017)0.786 [4] (high) (5th)
Website www.gd.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Guangdong
Guangdong (Chinese characters).svg
"Guangdong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 广东
Traditional Chinese 廣東
Literal meaning"Eastern Expanse"
Abbreviation
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning[an ancient name for southern China's Yue people]

Guangdong ( [kwàŋ.tʊ́ŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); formerly romanised as Kwangtung or Canton Province) is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; [5] [6] the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. [7] This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab [8] and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. [9] The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. [10]

Provinces of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province are controlled by the People's Republic of China.

South China geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China

South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context.

South China Sea A marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres (1,400,000 sq mi). The sea carries tremendous strategic importance; one-third of the world's shipping passes through it carrying over $3 trillion in trade each year, it contains lucrative fisheries that are crucial for the food security of millions in Southeast Asia, and huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed.

Contents

Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, a.k.a. Taiwan), and were previously part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War. [11] [12]

Taiwan state in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Nearby states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations.

Chinese Civil War 1927–1950 civil war in China

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC). Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, with the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, and essentially ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in 1950. The conflict took place in two stages: the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950, with the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937–1945 separating them. The war marked a major turning point in modern Chinese history, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the Republic of China (ROC) to retreat to Taiwan. It resulted in a lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars (CNY 8.99 trillion), making its economy roughly the same size as Mexico. Since 1989, Guangdong has had the highest GDP among all provinces of Mainland China. The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong also hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou.

Jiangsu Province of China

Jiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

Shandong Province

Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

Mainland China geopolitical area under the jurisdiction of the Peoples Republic of China excluding Special Administrative Regions

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland.

Name

"Guǎng" (simplified Chinese :广; traditional Chinese :) means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. [13] Guangdong and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean "expanse east" and "expanse west". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong (Liangkwang; traditional Chinese :兩廣; simplified Chinese :两广; pinyin :liǎng guǎng; Cantonese Yale :léuhng gwóng; literally: "Two Expanses") Vietnamese: QuangDong Province. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù (廣南東路; 广南东路; "vast south east region") and Guǎngnán Xīlù (廣南西路; 广南西路; "vast south west region"), which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù (廣東路; 广东路) and Guǎngxī Lù (廣西路; 广西路).

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Guangxi Autonomous region

Guangxi ( ; formerly romanised as Kwangsi; Chinese: 广西; Zhuang: Gvangjsih, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in south China and bordering Vietnam. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958.

"Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries. The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways.

Guangzhou Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.

Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology, linguistics, semiotics, and law. Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage.

History

Kwangtung Provincial Government of the Republic of China Kwangtung Provincial Government.jpg
Kwangtung Provincial Government of the Republic of China

The Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta (珠江三角洲) 7,000 years before present (BP), with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP (c. 5050–3050 BC), and the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP (c. 3050–1550 BC). In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was likely introduced from the middle Yangtze River area (Jiao 2013). In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present (BP). The Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture (石峽文化), which occurred from 4600–4200 BP (c. 2650–2250 BC). [14]

The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained in the Neolithic stage of development until European contact.

Pearl River Delta Metropolitan region and area

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered an emerging megacity. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, while the Chinese government's development plans consider it part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.

Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue ("Hundred Yue"), the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE.[ citation needed ]

As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong gradually shifted to (Han) Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, and abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s. [15] As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture [16] or displaced.

Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty (960–1279). "Guangnan East" (廣南東) is the source of the name "Guangdong" (廣東; 广东). [17] :227

As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou. The defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty (960–1279). [18]

During the Mongol Yuan dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi. [19] Its present name, "Guangdong Province" was given in early Ming dynasty.

Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.[ citation needed ]

In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of Western imperialists' incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan (modern day area of Zhanjiang) to the French.[ citation needed ]

Due to the large number of people that emigrated out of the Guangdong province, many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong. In particular, the Cantonese and Teochew dialects have proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than Mandarin-speaking Chinese. Additionally, many Cantonese-speaking Chinese emigrated to Western countries, with the results that many Western versions of Chinese words were derived from the Cantonese dialects rather than through the main stream Mandarin language, such as "dim sum". Some Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin also came from the original foreign language by way of Cantonese. For example, the Mandarin word níngméng (simplified Chinese :柠檬; traditional Chinese :檸檬), meaning "Lemon", came from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as lìng mung. [20] In the United States, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the county-level city of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).

During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.

During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under the central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.

In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.

In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong, but it was separated as its own province in 1988.

Geography

Pearl River and Humen Bridge 虎门大桥.JPG
Pearl River and Humen Bridge

Guangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of 4,300 km (2,700 mi) of coastline. The Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong with an elevation of 6,240 feet (1,902 meters) above sea level.

Guangdong borders Fujian to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. The Pratas Islands, which were traditionally governed as part of Guangdong, are now administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan. [21]

Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.

Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18 °C (64 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F), respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.

Economy

The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be compared to that of many countries. In 2017, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1331.19 billion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 10.87 percent of the China' $12.25 trillion GDP. [22] In 2015, Guangdong's GDP was slightly larger than that of Mexico ranking 15th in terms of US dollar or Purchasing Power Parity. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 6 country subdivisions: England, California, Texas, New York and Tokyo. It is comparable to the GDP of the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

Shops in one of the streets of Guangzhou specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local consumer electronics manufacturers. The shop in front is in the LED business. Guangzhou-electronic-components-shop-0481.jpg
Shops in one of the streets of Guangzhou specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local consumer electronics manufacturers. The shop in front is in the LED business.

This is a trend of official estimates of the gross domestic product of the Province of Guangdong with figures in millions of Chinese Yuan:

Historical GDP of Guangdong Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [23]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [24] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20168,085,4911,217,2732,306,1217.574,01611,14321,1116.64233.5061
20157,402,7431,188,5462,085,8098.068,62911,01919,3376.22843.5491
20146,890,1431,121,6621,940,7217.864,49110,49918,1656.14283.5503
20136,345,5441,024,5991,774,0348.559,7569,64916,7066.19323.5769
20125,799,354918,7101,633,2538.254,9738,70915,4826.31253.5508
20115,395,920835,4371,539,27310.051,5237,97714,6986.45883.5055
20104,657,712688,0441,406,90912.445,2846,68913,6786.76953.3106
20052,272,329277,394794,79914.124,8283,0318,6848.19172.8590
20001,081,021130,583397,53611.512,8181,5484,7148.27842.7193
1990155,90332,59491,56811.62,4845191,4594.78321.7026
198024,96516,66116,69316.64813213221.49841.4955
197818,58511,0391.03702201.6836

After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.[ citation needed ]

Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.[ citation needed ]

Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value-added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well. [25]

The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China, [26] the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB. [27] By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent. [25]

In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan, respectively. [28] Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965). [29] Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output. [30] Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.

In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion. [31]

Economic and technological development zones

Demographics

Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China Guangzhou skyline.jpg
Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [34] 28,011,000    
1928 [35] 32,428,000+15.8%
1936-37 [36] 32,453,000+0.1%
1947 [37] 27,210,000−16.2%
1954 [38] 34,770,059+27.8%
1964 [39] 42,800,849+23.1%
1982 [40] 59,299,220+38.5%
1990 [41] 62,829,236+6.0%
2000 [42] 85,225,007+35.6%
2010 [43] 104,303,132+22.4%
Hainan Province part of Guangdong Province until 1988.
Guangzhou part of Guangdong Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Guangdong Province.

Guangdong officially became the most populous province in January 2005. [5] [6] Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th-most populous province of China with about 80 million people (also, Sichuan, traditionally the most populous province, was divided into Sichuan and Chongqing in 1997) but recently released information suggests that there are an additional 30 million migrants who reside in Guangdong for at least six months every year, making it the most populous province with a population of more than 110 million. [44] The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twenty largest countries of the world by population, more populous than France, Germany, or the United Kingdom, and more populous than the largest three US states (California, Texas, and Florida) combined.

Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.

Religion in Guangdong (2012) [45]

  Non religious and traditional faiths [46] (92.7%)
   Buddhism (6.2%)
   Protestantism (0.8%)
   Catholicism (0.2%)

Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls. [47]

Religion

According to a 2012 survey [45] only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.2%. Around 93% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religions worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.

According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, [48] the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.

容桂雨花寺.jpg
The Buddhist Yuhua Temple in Ronggui, Shunde.
Wong Tai Sin Temple Canton.jpg
Temple of Huang Daxian in Guangzhou.
Guangzhou Nanhaishen Miao 2013.10.01 10-31-35.jpg
Temple of Nanhaishen (God of the Southern Sea) in Guangzhou.
Chiwan Tianhou Temple 20140515.JPG
Temple of Tianhou in Chiwan, Shenzhen.
揭阳城隍庙.JPG
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Jieyang.
Guangzhou Dafo Si 2014.01.26 14-46-33.jpg
Temple of the Great Buddha in Guangzhou.

Politics

Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.

Media

Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.

Culture

The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.

The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng people in Shanwei, speak Teochew, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.

The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese :汉剧; traditional Chinese :漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).

Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is dominated by the Leizhou dialect, a variety of Minnan; Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.

Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.

Guangdong Province is notable for being the birthplace of many famed Xiangqi (Chinese chess) grandmasters such as Lü Qin, Yang Guanli, Cai Furu and Xu Yinchuan.

Education

Colleges and universities

National

Provincial

Sports

List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:

Sport League Tier ClubCityStadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou R&F F.C. Guangzhou Yuexiushan Stadium
Football Hong Kong Premier League 1st R&F Guangzhou Yanzigang Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Shenzhen F.C. Shenzhen Shenzhen Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Hakka F.C. Wuhua Wuhua County Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Meixian Techand F.C. Meizhou Meixian Tsang Hin-chi Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Ledman F.C. Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Pengcheng F.C. Shenzhen Xixiang Sports Center
Football China Women's League One 2nd Meizhou Hunjun Wuhua Wuhua County Stadium
Futsal China Futsal Super League 1st Shenzhen Nanling Tielang Shenzhen Qiushanshui Park Sports Centre
Futsal China Futsal Super League 1st Yingde Yanjiyou Yingde Yingde Gymnasium
Futsal China Futsal Super League 1st Zhuhai Mingshi Zhuhai Zhuhai Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Southern Tigers Dongguan Nissan Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Shenzhen Leopards Shenzhen Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Long-Lions Guangzhou Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball ASEAN Basketball League 1st Zhuhai Wolf Warriors Zhuhai Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus)
Basketball Women's Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Asia Aluminum Zhaoqing Zhaoqing Stadium
Volleyball Men's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong GSports Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Evergrande Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div B 2nd Guangdong Jianlong Taishan Taishan Stadium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangzhou Huangcun Stadium
Table Tennis China Table Tennis Super League 1st Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium

Tourism

Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Guangdong
Guangdong prfc map.png

    Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

No. Division code [49] DivisionArea in km2 [50] Population 2010 [51] SeatDivisions [52]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
 440000Guangdong Province179800.00104,303,132 Guangzhou city6534320
9440100 Guangzhou city7434.4012,701,948 Yuexiu District 11
2440200 Shaoguan city18412.532,826,246 Zhenjiang District 3412
21440300 Shenzhen city1996.7810,358,381 Futian District 9*
20440400 Zhuhai city1724.321,562,530 Xiangzhou District 3
14440500 Shantou city2248.395,389,328 Jinping District 61
8440600 Foshan city3848.497,197,394 Chancheng District 5
18440700 Jiangmen city9505.424,450,703 Pengjiang District 34
15440800 Zhanjiang city13225.446,994,832 Chikan District 423
16440900 Maoming city13225.445,817,494 Maonan District 23
6441200 Zhaoqing city14891.233,916,467 Duanzhou District 341
11441300 Huizhou city11342.984,598,402 Huicheng District 23
4441400 Meizhou city15864.514,238,461 Meijiang District 251
12441500 Shanwei city4861.792,935,469 Cheng District 121
3441600 Heyuan city15653.632,950,195 Yuancheng District 15
17441700 Yangjiang city7955.272,421,748 Jiangcheng District 211
1441800 Qingyuan city19152.903,698,412 Qingcheng District 2222
10441900 Dongguan city**2465.008,220,207 Nancheng Subdistrict
19442000 Zhongshan city**1783.673,121,275 Dongqu Subdistrict
5445100 Chaozhou city3145.892,669,466 Xiangqiao District 21
13445200 Jieyang city5265.385,884,347 Rongcheng District 221
7445300 Yunfu city7779.122,367,154 Yuncheng District 221

* - not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
** - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions

The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (64 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [53] District area [53] City proper [53] Census date
1 Shenzhen 10,358,38110,358,38110,358,3812010-11-01
2 Guangzhou [lower-alpha 1] 9,702,14411,071,42412,701,9482010-11-01
(2)Guangzhou (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 939,2641,630,524see Guangzhou2010-11-01
3 Dongguan 7,271,3228,220,2078,220,2072010-11-01
4 Foshan 6,771,8957,197,3947,197,3942010-11-01
5 Shantou 3,644,0175,329,0245,389,3282010-11-01
6 Zhongshan 2,740,9943,121,2753,121,2752010-11-01
7 Huizhou 1,807,8582,344,6344,598,4022010-11-01
8 Jiangmen 1,480,0231,822,6144,450,7032010-11-01
9 Zhuhai 1,369,5381,562,5301,562,5302010-11-01
10 Zhanjiang 1,038,7621,611,8686,994,8322010-11-01
11 Puning 874,9542,055,552see Jieyang2010-11-01
12 Jieyang [lower-alpha 2] 734,670746,3545,884,3472010-11-01
(12)Jieyang (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 492,1781,159,118see Jieyang2010-11-01
13 Shaoguan 726,267991,6002,826,2462010-11-01
14 Qingyuan [lower-alpha 3] 639,659811,2333,698,4122010-11-01
(14)Qingyuan (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 276,794698,811see Qingyuan2010-11-01
15 Maoming [lower-alpha 4] 637,8791,217,5965,817,4942010-11-01
(15)Maoming (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 395,3171,218,716see Maoming2010-11-01
16 Lufeng 579,5271,358,265see Shanwei2010-11-01
17 Zhaoqing [lower-alpha 5] 559,887644,0323,916,4672010-11-01
(17)Zhaoqing (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 224,755753,120see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
18 Yangjiang [lower-alpha 6] 499,053676,8572,421,7482010-11-01
(18)Yangjiang (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 193,487442,762see Yangjiang2010-11-01
19 Heyuan 450,953463,9072,950,1952010-11-01
20 Chaozhou [lower-alpha 7] 448,226452,4692,669,4662010-11-01
(20)Chaozhou (new district) [lower-alpha 7] 808,0421,334,796see Chaozhou2010-11-01
21 Taishan 394,855941,095see Jiangmen2010-11-01
22 Xingning 392,000962,883see Meizhou2010-11-01
23 Kaiping 371,019699,242see Jiangmen2010-11-01
24 Shanwei 370,608492,2622,935,4692010-11-01
25 Lianjiang 359,225927,275see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
26 Sihui 355,709542,873see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
27 Meizhou [lower-alpha 8] 353,769380,7714,238,4612010-11-01
(27)Meizhou (new district) [lower-alpha 8] 258,782554,745see Meizhou2010-11-01
28 Gaozhou 352,0061,288,665see Maoming2010-11-01
29 Yingde 346,927941,952see Qingyuan2010-11-01
30 Leizhou 344,0431,427,664see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
31 Xinyi 333,965913,708see Maoming2010-11-01
32 Wuchuan 332,6721,443,099see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
33 Huazhou 320,4181,178,809see Maoming2010-11-01
34 Heshan 282,580494,938see Jiangmen2010-11-01
35 Luoding 263,338959,006see Yunfu2010-11-01
36 Enping 244,257492,814see Jiangmen2010-11-01
37 Yunfu [lower-alpha 9] 242,040318,1452,367,1542010-11-01
(37)Yunfu (new district) [lower-alpha 9] 56,874269,636see Yunfu2010-11-01
38 Lechang 191,457397,779see Shaoguan2010-11-01
39 Lianzhou 161,667367,642see Qingyuan2010-11-01
40 Nanxiong 140,017316,179see Shaoguan2010-11-01
41 Yangchun 28,739849,504see Yangjiang2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Conghua Conghua CLC), Zengcheng (Zengcheng CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Jiedong (Jiedong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Qingxin (Qingxin County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Dianbai (Dianbai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Gaoyao (Gaoyao CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Yangdong (Yangdong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Chao'an (Chao'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Meixian (Meixian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Yun'an (Yun'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.

International relations

Guangdong is twinned with:

See also

Portal-puzzle.svg Guangdongportal

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