Guangdong

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Guangdong
广东
Canton, Kwangtung
Province of Guangdong
Chinese transcription(s)
   Simplified Chinese 广东省
   Hanyu pinyin Guǎngdōng shěng
   Cantonese Jyutping gwong2 dung1 saang2
  AbbreviationGD / (Yuè / jyut6)
Canton Tower 20220626 (cropped 2).jpg
China Resources Headquarters&Shenzhen Bay gymnasium in Nanshan District2020.jpg
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (Zhuhai section).jpg
Huangmanzhai.jpg
Yan Dong Sheng Tai Shan Xia Chuan Dao De Hai Wan  - panoramio.jpg
From top to bottom, left to right: Canton Tower in Guangzhou, Shenzhen Bay, Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, Huangmanzhai Waterfall, Taishan Xiachuan Island
Guangdong in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5
Country China
Named for Abbreviated from "Guǎngnándōng Lù" (A "" (often translated "Circuit") was equal to a province or a state in
  • Capital
  • (and largest city)
Guangzhou
Government
  Type Province
  BodyGuangdong Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Huang Kunming
  Congress Chairman Huang Chuping
   Governor Wang Weizhong
  Provincial CPPCC Chairman Lin Keqing
   National People's Congress Representation169 deputies
Area
[1]
  Total179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)
  Rank 15th
Highest elevation1,902 m (6,240 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total126,012,510
  Rank 1st
  Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
   Rank 7th
Demographics
  Ethnic composition

In 2022, Guangdong's GDP was 13.57 trillion RMB ($1.9 trillion in GDP nominal, $3.78 trillion in PPP), with a per capita GDP of CN¥102,465 (US$15,234 in nominal or US$25,016 in PPP). [5] It is the richest province in South Central China region and the seventh richest among all provinces by GDP per capita. Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. [35] Its GDP exceeded that of Australia ($1.70 trillion) and South Korea ($1.67 trillion), the world's 12th and 13th largest economy, respectively. [36] If it was a country, Guangdong would be the 12th-largest economy as of 2022 and the 11th most populous. [5] Compared to country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP in nominal is larger than all but four country subdivisions: California, Texas, New York State, and England. Compared to country subdivisions in PPP terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than all, except California. [36] By PPP terms, as of 2022, Guangdong's economy ranked between Turkey and Italy with a GDP of $3.35 trillion and US$3.06 trillion respectively, the 11th and 12th largest in the world respectively. [36]

Shops in one of the electronic markets of Huaqiangbei, Shenzhen specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local and global consumer electronics manufacturers. Hua Qiang Dian Zi Shi Jie 2.jpg
Shops in one of the electronic markets of Huaqiangbei, Shenzhen specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local and global consumer electronics manufacturers.
Guangdong
Guangdong (Chinese characters).svg
"Guangdong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Historical GDP of Guangdong Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [4]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [37] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20168,085,4911,217,2732,306,1217.574,01611,14321,1116.64233.5061
20157,402,7431,188,5462,085,8098.068,62911,01919,3376.22843.5491
20146,890,1431,121,6621,940,7217.864,49110,49918,1656.14283.5503
20136,345,5441,024,5991,774,0348.559,7569,64916,7066.19323.5769
20125,799,354918,7101,633,2538.254,9738,70915,4826.31253.5508
20115,395,920835,4371,539,27310.051,5237,97714,6986.45883.5055
20104,657,712688,0441,406,90912.445,2846,68913,6786.76953.3106
20052,272,329277,394794,79914.124,8283,0318,6848.19172.8590
20001,081,021130,583397,53611.512,8181,5484,7148.27842.7193
1990155,90332,59491,56811.62,4845191,4594.78321.7026
198024,96516,66116,69316.64813213221.49841.4955
197818,58511,0391.03702201.6836

After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.[ citation needed ]

Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. Guangdong was one of the first provinces to receive permission from the central government to receive foreign investment. [38] :148 In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.[ citation needed ]

Shenzhen famous building and tourist attractions Shenzhen city montage.png
Shenzhen famous building and tourist attractions

Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value-added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well. [39]

The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China, [40] the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent. [39]

In 2021, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 534 billion RMB (US$79.4 billion), 5.28 trillion RMB (US$785.6 billion), and 7.09 trillion RMB (US$1.05 trillion), respectively. [5] Guangdong contributes approximately 10.6% of the total national economic output. [5] Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.

Economic and technological development zones

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [43] 28,011,000    
1928 [44] 32,428,000+15.8%
1936–37 [45] 32,453,000+0.1%
1947 [46] 27,210,000−16.2%
1954 [47] 34,770,059+27.8%
1964 [48] 42,800,849+23.1%
1982 [49] 59,299,220+38.5%
1990 [50] 62,829,236+6.0%
2000 [51] 85,225,007+35.6%
2010 [52] 104,303,132+22.4%
2020 [2] 126,012,510+20.8%
Hainan Province part of Guangdong Province until 1988.
Guangzhou part of Guangdong Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Guangdong Province.

Guangdong officially became the most populous province in 2005. [8] [9] Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the fourth-most populous province of China with about 80 million people, though an influx of migrants, temporary workers, and newly settled individuals numbered around 30 million. [53] The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twelfth largest countries of the world by population.

Urbanization

Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China Guangzhou skyline.jpg
Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China

In 2021, Guangdong's population is 74.6% urban and 25.4% rural. [5]

Genealogy

Guangdong is the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, the Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong, especially the Siyi area. Many people from the region also traveled to California and other parts of the United States during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later.

Languages and ethnicities

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. Shaozhou Tuhua is spoken in Shaoguan and Leizhou Min is spoken in the Leizhou Peninsula. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.

Gender ratio

Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in The British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls. [54]

Religion

Religion in Guangdong (2012) [55]

   Irreligious or folk religion (90.7%)
   Buddhism (6.2%)
   Protestantism (1.9%)
   Catholicism (1.2%)

According to a 2012 survey [55] only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 1.8% and Catholics with 1.2%. Around 90% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religion worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.

According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, [56] the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.

Rong Gui Yu Hua Si .jpg
The Buddhist Yuhua Temple in Ronggui, Shunde.
Wong Tai Sin Temple Canton.jpg
Temple of Huang Daxian in Guangzhou.
Guangzhou Nanhaishen Miao 2013.10.01 10-31-35.jpg
Temple of Nanhaishen (God of the Southern Sea) in Guangzhou.
Chiwan Tianhou Temple 20140515.JPG
Temple of Tianhou in Chiwan, Shenzhen.
Jie Yang Cheng Huang Miao .JPG
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Jieyang.
Guangzhou Dafo Si 2014.01.26 14-46-33.jpg
Temple of the Great Buddha in Guangzhou.

Politics

Guangdong is governed by a one-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Dissent

According to Freedom House's China Dissent Monitor, Guangdong accounted for 17% of dissent events in the first quarter of 2024 – over 100 events despite heavy Censorship in China. [57] In 2024, Freedom House rated China as below zero on political rights (−2 out of 40). [58]

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.

Media

Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.

Culture

Put chai ko cake Bo Zi Gao Put chai ko-Hong Kong street food.jpg
Put chai ko cake

The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Dim Sum is one famous example of Cantonese cuisine, dividing Cantonese food into small portions and served with small dishes. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.

The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng Min people in Shanwei, speak Hokkien, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.

The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese :汉剧; traditional Chinese :漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).

Jieyang architecture Puning, Jieyang, Guangdong, China - panoramio (123).jpg
Jieyang architecture

The outcast Tanka people traditionally live on boats throughout the coasts and rivers of Guangdong and much of Southern China.

Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is dominated by the Leizhou dialect, a variety of Minnan; Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.

Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.

Guangdong Province is notable for being the birthplace of many famous Xiangqi (Chinese chess) grandmasters such as Lü Qin, Yang Guanli, Cai Furu and Xu Yinchuan.

Education and research

As of 2022, Guangdong hosts 160 institutions of higher education, ranking first in South Central China region and 2nd among all Chinese provinces/municipalities after Jiangsu (168). [13] Guangdong is also the seat of 14 adult higher education institutions. [13] Many universities and colleges are located in major cities like Shenzhen and Guangzhou. Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong, hosts 83 institutions of higher education (excluding adult colleges), ranking 1st in South China region and 2nd (tie) nationwide after Beijing. [59] Guangdong Province Department of Education is the department of the provincial government that oversees education.

As of 2023, two major cities in the province ranked in the top 20 cities in the world (Guangzhou 8th and Shenzhen 19th) by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index. [60]

Colleges and universities

National / Double First-Class

Guangzhou (7)
Shenzhen
Shenzhen University - Medical building SHENZHEN UNIVERSITY GENERAL HOSPITAL.jpg
Shenzhen University – Medical building

Provincial

Sports

Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium.jpg
Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou

List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:

Sport League Tier ClubCityStadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Shenzhen Peng City Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Meizhou Hakka Wuhua Wuhua County Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Guangzhou F.C. Guangzhou Huadu Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Foshan Nanshi Foshan Nanhai Sports Center
Futsal China Futsal League 1st Zhuhai Mingshi Zhuhai Zhuhai Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Southern Tigers Dongguan Nissan Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Shenzhen Leopards Shenzhen Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Long-Lions Guangzhou Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball National Basketball League 2nd Hefei Yuanchuang Foshan
Basketball Women's Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Asia Aluminum Zhaoqing Zhaoqing Stadium
Volleyball Men's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong GSports Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Evergrande Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Shenzhen Phoenix Shenzhen
Baseball China National Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangzhou Huangcun Stadium
Table Tennis China Table Tennis Super League 1st Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Esports(Overwatch) Overwatch League 1st Guangzhou Charge Guangzhou Tianhe Gymnasium
Esports ( League of Legends ) League of Legends Pro League 1st Victory Five Shenzhen Shenzhen Media Group Longgang Production Center

Tourism

Huangmanzhai Waterfall Huangmanzhai.jpg
Huangmanzhai Waterfall

Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan. In Shenzhen, there are Window of the World, Tencent Building, Happy Valley theme park, Rose Beach, Xiaomeisha Beach, etc.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Guangdong
Division code [61] Division Area in km2 [62] Population 2020 [63] SeatDivisions [64]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
440000Guangdong Province179,800.00126,012,510 Guangzhou city6534320
440100 Guangzhou city7,434.4018,676,605 Yuexiu District 11
440200 Shaoguan city18,412.532,855,131 Zhenjiang District 3412
440300 Shenzhen city1,996.7817,560,061 Futian District 9*
440400 Zhuhai city1,724.322,439,585 Xiangzhou District 3
440500 Shantou city2,248.395,502,031 Jinping District 61
440600 Foshan city3,848.499,498,863 Chancheng District 5
440700 Jiangmen city9,505.424,798,090 Pengjiang District 34
440800 Zhanjiang city13,225.446,981,236 Chikan District 423
440900 Maoming city11,424.86,174,050 Maonan District 23
441200 Zhaoqing city14,891.234,113,594 Duanzhou District 341
441300 Huizhou city11,342.986,042,852 Huicheng District 23
441400 Meizhou city15,864.513,873,239 Meijiang District 251
441500 Shanwei city4,861.792,672,819 Cheng District 121
441600 Heyuan city15,653.632,837,686 Yuancheng District 15
441700 Yangjiang city7,955.272,602,959 Jiangcheng District 211
441800 Qingyuan city19,152.903,969,473 Qingcheng District 2222
441900 Dongguan city**2,465.0010,466,625 Nancheng Subdistrict
442000 Zhongshan city**1,783.674,418,060 Dongqu Subdistrict
445100 Chaozhou city3,145.892,568,387 Xiangqiao District 21
445200 Jieyang city5,265.385,577,814 Rongcheng District 221
445300 Yunfu city7,779.122,383,350 Yuncheng District 221

* – not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
** – direct-piped cities – does not contain any county-level divisions

The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 122 county-level divisions (65 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#Cities2020 Urban area [65] 2010 Urban area [66] 2020 City proper
1 Shenzhen 17,444,60910,358,38117,494,398
2 Guangzhou 16,096,7249,702,144 [lower-alpha 2] 18,676,605
3 Dongguan 9,644,8717,271,32210,466,625
4 Foshan 9,042,5096,771,8959,498,863
5 Zhongshan 3,841,8732,740,9944,418,060
6 Shantou 3,838,9003,644,0175,502,031
7 Huizhou 2,900,1131,807,8586,042,852
8 Zhuhai 2,207,0901,369,5382,439,585
9 Jiangmen 1,795,4591,480,0234,798,090
10 Zhanjiang 1,400,7091,038,7626,981,236
11 Maoming 1,307,802637,879 [lower-alpha 3] 6,174,050
12 Chaozhou 1,254,007448,226 [lower-alpha 4] 2,568,387
13 Jieyang 1,242,906734,670 [lower-alpha 5] 5,577,814
14 Qingyuan 1,197,581639,659 [lower-alpha 6] 3,969,473
15 Zhaoqing 1,035,810559,887 [lower-alpha 7] 4,113,594
16 Shaoguan 1,028,460726,2672,855,131
17 Puning 935,668874,954see Jieyang
18 Yangjiang 859,595499,053 [lower-alpha 8] 2,602,959
19 Meizhou 694,495353,769 [lower-alpha 9] 3,873,239
20 Heyuan 662,950450,9532,837,686
21 Lufeng 545,474579,527see Shanwei
22 Gaozhou 490,301352,006see Maoming
23 Huazhou 472,746320,418see Maoming
24 Sihui 452,536355,709see Zhaoqing
25 Lianjiang 443,812359,225see Zhanjiang
26 Taishan 433,266394,855see Jiangmen
27 Kaiping 430,035371,019see Jiangmen
28 Xinyi 418,731333,965see Maoming
29 Leizhou 412,291344,043see Zhanjiang
30 Yingde 398,066346,927see Qingyuan
31 Wuchuan 388,714332,672see Zhanjiang
32 Yunfu 380,044242,040 [lower-alpha 10] 2,383,350
33 Xingning 365,661392,000see Meizhou
34 Yangchun 360,359287,391see Yangjiang
35 Shanwei 345,373370,6082,738,482
36 Heshan 334,432282,580see Jiangmen
37 Luoding 317,060263,338see Yunfu
38 Enping 251,742244,257see Jiangmen
39 Lechang 199,438191,457see Shaoguan
40 Lianzhou 176,572161,667see Qingyuan
41 Nanxiong 171,215140,017see Shaoguan
Zengcheng see Guangzhou710,146 [lower-alpha 2] see Guangzhou
Conghua see Guangzhou229,118 [lower-alpha 2] see Guangzhou
Gaoyao see Zhaoqing224,755 [lower-alpha 7] see Zhaoqing
  1. UK: /ɡwæŋˈdʊŋ/ , US: /ɡwɑːŋ-/ ; [3] formerly romanized as Canton or Kwangtung
  2. 1 2 3 New districts established after 2010 census: Conghua (Conghua CLC) & Zengcheng (Zengcheng CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. New district established after 2010 census: Dianbai (Dianbai County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. New district established after 2010 census: Chao'an (Chao'an County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. New district established after 2010 census: Jiedong (Jiedong County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. New district established after 2010 census: Qingxin (Qingxin County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after 2010 census: Gaoyao (Gaoyao CLC). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. New district established after 2010 census: Yangdong (Yangdong County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. New district established after 2010 census: Meixian (Meixian County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.
  10. New district established after 2010 census: Yun'an (Yun'an County). The new district not included in the urban area count of the pre-expanded city.

International relations

Guangdong is twinned with:

See also

Notes

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    Jiangmen, alternately romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. It consists of three urban districts, Heshan, and the more rural Siyi, which is the ancestral homeland of approximately 4 million overseas Chinese. As of the 2020 census, the entire prefecture has a total population of about 4,798,090 inhabitants; its urban region has 2,657,062 inhabitants, which can also be considered part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen metro conurbation with 65,565,622 inhabitants.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhanjiang</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

    Zhanjiang, historically spelled Tsamkong, is a city in Guangdong province, China. The prefecture-level city of Zhanjiang administers the whole of Leizhou Peninsula, facing Haikou city of Hainan across the Qiongzhou Strait.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Meizhou</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

    Meizhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province, China. It has an area of 15,864.51 km2 (6,125.32 sq mi), and a population of 3,873,239 as of the 2020 census. It comprises Meijiang District, Meixian District, Xingning City and five counties. Its built-up or metro area made up of two urban districts was home to 992,351 inhabitants.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Dongguan</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, China

    Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. An important industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is part of the Pearl River Delta built-up area with more than 65.57 million inhabitants as of the 2020 census spread over nine municipalities across an area of 19,870 square kilometers (7,670 sq mi).

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Shaoguan</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

    Shaoguan is a prefecture-level city in northern Guangdong Province (Yuebei), South China, bordering Hunan to the northwest and Jiangxi to the northeast. It is home to the mummified remains of the sixth Zen Buddhist patriarch Huineng. Its built-up area made up of Zhenjiang, Wujiang and Qujiang urban conurbated districts was home to 1,028,460 inhabitants as of the 2020 census.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Foshan</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, China

    Foshan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi) and had a population of 9,498,863 as of the 2020 census. The city is part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone whose built-up area was home to 65,694,622 inhabitants as of 2020, making it the biggest urban area of the world.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Huizhou</span> City in Guangdong, China

    Huizhou is a city in central-east Guangdong Province, China, forty-three miles north of Hong Kong. Huizhou borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the west, Shenzhen and Dongguan to the southwest, Shaoguan to the north, Heyuan to the northeast, Shanwei to the east, and Daya Bay of the South China Sea to the south. As of the 2020 census, the city has about 6,042,852 inhabitants and is administered as a prefecture-level city. Huizhou's core metropolitan area, which is within Huicheng and Huiyang Districts, is home to around 2,090,578 inhabitants.

    The Han Chinese people can be defined into subgroups based on linguistic, cultural, ethnic, genetic, and regional features. The terminology used in Mandarin to describe the groups is: "minxi", used in mainland China or "zuqun", used in Taiwan. No Han subgroup is recognized as one of People's Republic of China's 56 official ethnic groups, in Taiwan only three subgroups, Hoklo, Hakka and Waishengren are recognized.

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is a special economic zone on the southeastern coast of China. Located in the Pearl River Delta, it consists of the Chinese cities of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Jiangmen, and parts of Huizhou and Zhaoqing. Adjacent Hong Kong and Macau are not part of the economic zone.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Guangdong</span>

    The economy of Guangdong is one of the most prosperous in China. Guangdong is located in southern China, bordering on Fujian Province to the east, Hunan Province to the north, Guangxi Autonomous Region to the west and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau to the south. It is also the largest economy of a sub-national entity in terms of GDP in all of Asia and 3rd largest sub-national entity in the world.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Guangxi</span> Autonomous region of southern China

    Guangxi, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area</span> Pearl River Delta metropolitan region in China

    The Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area, commonly as the Greater Bay Area (GBA), is a megalopolis, consisting of nine cities and two special administrative regions in South China. It is envisioned by Chinese government planners as an integrated economic area aimed at taking a leading role globally by 2035.

    As of 2020, Shenzhen had a total permanent population of 17,560,000, with 5,874,000 (33.4%) of them hukou holders. As Shenzhen is a young city, senior citizens above 60 years old took up only 5.36 percent of the city's total population. Despite this, the life expectancy in Shenzhen is 81.25 in 2018, ranking among the top twenty cities in China. The male to female ratio in Shenzhen is 130 to 100, making the city having the highest sex disparity in comparison to other cities in Guangdong. Shenzhen also has a high birth rate compared to other Chinese cities with 21.7 babies for every 10,000 of its 13.44 million population in 2019. Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shenzhen is the fifth most populous city proper in China. Shenzhen is part of the Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region, the world's largest urban area according to the World Bank, and has a population of 78 million according to the 2020 Census.

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