Guangdong

Last updated

Guangdong Province
广东省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)
  AbbreviationGD / (pinyin :Yuè; Jyutping :Jyut6)
Canton Tower 2013.11.15 18-12-45.jpg
GZ Twin Towers.png
West section of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (20180902174105).jpg
Dan Xia Shan 04.jpg
Guangdong in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5 Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5
CountryFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Named for Abbreviated from "Guǎngnándōng Lù" (A "" (often translated “Circuit”) was equal to a province or a state in Song China)
广 = wide, vast, expanse
= east
literally, "At the East of the Expanse" (Guangxi being the West)
Capital
(and largest city)
Guangzhou
Divisions21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1643 townships
Government
  Type Province
  BodyGuangdong Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Li Xi
  Congress chairmanLi Yumei
   Governor Wang Weizhong
   CPPCC chairman Wang Rong
   National People's Congress Representation161 deputies
Area
[1]
  Total179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Highest elevation1,902 m (6,240 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total126,012,510
  Rank 1st
  Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
  Density rank 7th
Demonym(s) Cantonese, Guangdongese [3]
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99%
Zhuang – 0.7%
Yao – 0.2%
  Languages and dialects Cantonese and other Yue languages, Hakka, Teochew, Leizhou Min, Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang, Yao
ISO 3166 code CN-GD
GDP (2020) CNY 11.076 trillion
USD 1.605 trillion (1st) [4]
 - per capita CNY 94,172
USD 13,651 (8th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 2.3%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.793 [5]
high · 6th
Website www.gd.gov.cn (in Chinese)
   Irreligious or folk religion (90.7%)
   Buddhism (6.2%)
   Protestantism (1.9%)
   Catholicism (1.2%)

According to a 2012 survey [55] only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 1.8% and Catholics with 1.2%. Around 90% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religions worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.

According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, [56] the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.

Rong Gui Yu Hua Si .jpg
The Buddhist Yuhua Temple in Ronggui, Shunde.
Wong Tai Sin Temple Canton.jpg
Temple of Huang Daxian in Guangzhou.
Guangzhou Nanhaishen Miao 2013.10.01 10-31-35.jpg
Temple of Nanhaishen (God of the Southern Sea) in Guangzhou.
Chiwan Tianhou Temple 20140515.JPG
Temple of Tianhou in Chiwan, Shenzhen.
Jie Yang Cheng Huang Miao .JPG
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Jieyang.
Guangzhou Dafo Si 2014.01.26 14-46-33.jpg
Temple of the Great Buddha in Guangzhou.

Politics

Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.

Media

Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.

Culture

Guangdong
Guangdong (Chinese characters).svg
"Guangdong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters

The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.

The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng Min people in Shanwei, speak Hokkien, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.

The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese :汉剧; traditional Chinese :漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).

The outcast Tanka people traditionally live on boats throughout the coasts and rivers of Guangdong and much of Southern China.

Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is dominated by the Leizhou dialect, a variety of Minnan; Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.

Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.

Guangdong Province is notable for being the birthplace of many famous Xiangqi (Chinese chess) grandmasters such as Lü Qin, Yang Guanli, Cai Furu and Xu Yinchuan.

Education

Guangdong Province Department of Education is the department of the provincial government that oversees education.

Colleges and universities

National

Provincial

Sports

Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium.jpg
Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou

List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:

Sport League Tier ClubCityStadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou F.C. Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou City F.C. Guangzhou Yuexiushan Stadium
Football Hong Kong Premier League 1st R&F Guangzhou Yanzigang Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Shenzhen F.C. Shenzhen Shenzhen Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Hakka F.C. Wuhua Wuhua County Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Meixian Techand F.C. Meizhou Meixian Tsang Hin-chi Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Ledman F.C. Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Pengcheng F.C. Shenzhen Xixtre
Futsal China Futsal Super League 1st Zhuhai Mingshi Zhuhai Zhuhai Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Southern Tigers Dongguan Nissan Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Shenzhen Leopards Shenzhen Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Long-Lions Guangzhou Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball ASEAN Basketball League 1st Zhuhai Wolf Warriors Zhuhai Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus)
Basketball Women's Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Asia Aluminum Zhaoqing Zhaoqing Stadium
Volleyball Men's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong GSports Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Evergrande Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div B 2nd Guangdong Jianlong Taishan Taishan Stadium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangzhou Huangcun Stadium
Table Tennis China Table Tennis Super League 1st Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium

Tourism

Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Guangdong
Division code [57] Division Area in km2 [58] Population 2020 [59] SeatDivisions [60]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
440000Guangdong Province179,800.00126,012,510 Guangzhou city6534320
440100 Guangzhou city7,434.4018,676,605 Yuexiu District 11
440200 Shaoguan city18,412.532,855,131 Zhenjiang District 3412
440300 Shenzhen city1,996.7817,560,061 Futian District 9*
440400 Zhuhai city1,724.322,439,585 Xiangzhou District 3
440500 Shantou city2,248.395,502,031 Jinping District 61
440600 Foshan city3,848.499,498,863 Chancheng District 5
440700 Jiangmen city9,505.424,798,090 Pengjiang District 34
440800 Zhanjiang city13,225.446,981,236 Chikan District 423
440900 Maoming city11,424.86,174,050 Maonan District 23
441200 Zhaoqing city14,891.234,113,594 Duanzhou District 341
441300 Huizhou city11,342.986,042,852 Huicheng District 23
441400 Meizhou city15,864.513,873,239 Meijiang District 251
441500 Shanwei city4,861.792,672,819 Cheng District 121
441600 Heyuan city15,653.632,837,686 Yuancheng District 15
441700 Yangjiang city7,955.272,602,959 Jiangcheng District 211
441800 Qingyuan city19,152.903,969,473 Qingcheng District 2222
441900 Dongguan city**2,465.0010,466,625 Nancheng Subdistrict
442000 Zhongshan city**1,783.674,418,060 Dongqu Subdistrict
445100 Chaozhou city3,145.892,568,387 Xiangqiao District 21
445200 Jieyang city5,265.385,577,814 Rongcheng District 221
445300 Yunfu city7,779.122,383,350 Yuncheng District 221

* - not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
** - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions

The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (64 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CitiesUrban area [61] District area [61] City proper [61] Census date
1 Shenzhen 10,358,38110,358,38110,358,3812010-11-01
2 Guangzhou [lower-alpha 1] 9,702,14411,071,42412,701,9482010-11-01
(2)Guangzhou (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 939,2641,630,524see Guangzhou2010-11-01
3 Dongguan 7,271,3228,220,2078,220,2072010-11-01
4 Foshan 6,771,8957,197,3947,197,3942010-11-01
5 Shantou 3,644,0175,329,0245,389,3282010-11-01
6 Zhongshan 2,740,9943,121,2753,121,2752010-11-01
7 Huizhou 1,807,8582,344,6344,598,4022010-11-01
8 Jiangmen 1,480,0231,822,6144,450,7032010-11-01
9 Zhuhai 1,369,5381,562,5301,562,5302010-11-01
10 Zhanjiang 1,038,7621,611,8686,994,8322010-11-01
11 Puning 874,9542,055,552see Jieyang2010-11-01
12 Jieyang [lower-alpha 2] 734,670746,3545,884,3472010-11-01
(12)Jieyang (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 492,1781,159,118see Jieyang2010-11-01
13 Shaoguan 726,267991,6002,826,2462010-11-01
14 Qingyuan [lower-alpha 3] 639,659811,2333,698,4122010-11-01
(14)Qingyuan (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 276,794698,811see Qingyuan2010-11-01
15 Maoming [lower-alpha 4] 637,8791,217,5965,817,4942010-11-01
(15)Maoming (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 395,3171,218,716see Maoming2010-11-01
16 Lufeng 579,5271,358,265see Shanwei2010-11-01
17 Zhaoqing [lower-alpha 5] 559,887644,0323,916,4672010-11-01
(17)Zhaoqing (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 224,755753,120see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
18 Yangjiang [lower-alpha 6] 499,053676,8572,421,7482010-11-01
(18)Yangjiang (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 193,487442,762see Yangjiang2010-11-01
19 Heyuan 450,953463,9072,950,1952010-11-01
20 Chaozhou [lower-alpha 7] 448,226452,4692,669,4662010-11-01
(20)Chaozhou (new district) [lower-alpha 7] 808,0421,334,796see Chaozhou2010-11-01
21 Taishan 394,855941,095see Jiangmen2010-11-01
22 Xingning 392,000962,883see Meizhou2010-11-01
23 Kaiping 371,019699,242see Jiangmen2010-11-01
24 Shanwei 370,608492,2622,935,4692010-11-01
25 Lianjiang 359,225927,275see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
26 Sihui 355,709542,873see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
27 Meizhou [lower-alpha 8] 353,769380,7714,238,4612010-11-01
(27)Meizhou (new district) [lower-alpha 8] 258,782554,745see Meizhou2010-11-01
28 Gaozhou 352,0061,288,665see Maoming2010-11-01
29 Yingde 346,927941,952see Qingyuan2010-11-01
30 Leizhou 344,0431,427,664see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
31 Xinyi 333,965913,708see Maoming2010-11-01
32 Wuchuan 332,6721,443,099see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
33 Huazhou 320,4181,178,809see Maoming2010-11-01
34 Heshan 282,580494,938see Jiangmen2010-11-01
35 Luoding 263,338959,006see Yunfu2010-11-01
36 Enping 244,257492,814see Jiangmen2010-11-01
37 Yunfu [lower-alpha 9] 242,040318,1452,367,1542010-11-01
(37)Yunfu (new district) [lower-alpha 9] 56,874269,636see Yunfu2010-11-01
38 Lechang 191,457397,779see Shaoguan2010-11-01
39 Lianzhou 161,667367,642see Qingyuan2010-11-01
40 Nanxiong 140,017316,179see Shaoguan2010-11-01
41 Yangchun 28,739849,504see Yangjiang2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Conghua Conghua CLC), Zengcheng (Zengcheng CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Jiedong (Jiedong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Qingxin (Qingxin County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Dianbai (Dianbai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Gaoyao (Gaoyao CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Yangdong (Yangdong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Chao'an (Chao'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Meixian (Meixian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Yun'an (Yun'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.

International relations

Guangdong is twinned with:

See also

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