Guangdong

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Guangdong Province

广东省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)
  AbbreviationGD / (pinyin :Yuè; Jyutping :Jyut6)
Canton Tower 2013.11.15 18-12-45.jpg
China Resources Headquarters Nanshan Shenzhen China.jpg
West section of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (20180902174105).jpg
Dan Xia Shan 04.jpg
From top to bottom, left to right: Canton Tower in Guangzhou, Nanshan District skyline of Shenzhen, Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, Views of Mount Danxia
Guangdong in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5 Coordinates: 23°24′N113°30′E / 23.4°N 113.5°E / 23.4; 113.5
Named for Abbreviated from "Guǎngnándōng Lù" (A "" (often translated “Circuit”) was equal to a province or a state in Song China)
广 = wide, vast, expanse
= east
literally, "At the East of the Expanse" (Guangxi being the West)
Capital Guangzhou
Largest city Shenzhen
Divisions21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1642 townships
Government
   Secretary Li Xi
  Governor Ma Xingrui
Area
[1]
  Total179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Highest elevation
1,902 m (6,240 ft)
Population
 (2018) [2]
  Total113,460,000 [3]
  Rank 1st
  Density rank 7th
Demonym(s) Cantonese
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99%
Zhuang – 0.7%
Yao – 0.2%
  Languages and dialects Cantonese and other Yue languages, Hakka, Min Nan languages (Teochew & Leizhou Min), Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang
ISO 3166 code CN-GD
GDP (2019) [4] ¥10.77 trillion
$1.66 trillion
 • Per Capita¥85,738
$13,190
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.791 [5]
high · 4th
Website www.gd.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Guangdong
Guangdong (Chinese characters).svg
"Guangdong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 广东
Traditional Chinese 廣東
Postal Kwangtung
Literal meaning"Eastern Expanse"
Abbreviation
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning[an ancient name for southern China's Baiyue]

Guangdong (alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung) is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 113.46 million (as of 2018 [6] ) across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), [1] Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the 4th largest sub-national economy in the world with GDP of 1.66 trillion USD (10.77 trillion CNY) in 2019. [6] The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities.

Contents

The province of Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; [7] [8] the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. [9] This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. [10] Its population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. [11] Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC). Pratas Island in the South China Sea is part of Cijin District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC); the island was previously part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War. [12] [13]

Guangdong has a highly diversified economy. Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. As of 2018, Guangdong's GDP reached 1.47 trillion US dollars (CNY 9.73 trillion), exceeding that of Spain with GDP of 1.43 trillion US dollars, the 13th largest in the world. [14] The province contributes approximately 12% of the total economic output of mainland China, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong has benefited from its proximity to the financial hub of Hong Kong, which it borders to the south. Guangdong also hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou.

After the unification of Lingnan region in the Qin dynasty, the immigrants from the Central Plains moved in and formed the local culture with a unique style. With the outward movement of the Guangdong people, the Hakka and Cantonese languages, music, cuisine, opera and tea ceremony have been spread throughout the nation, Southeast Asia and other countries. The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau fall within the scope of Guangdong cultural influence, and Guangdong culture still has profound influences on the Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia.

Name

"Guǎng" (traditional Chinese :; simplified Chinese :广) means "wide" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. [15] The name "Guang" ultimately came from Guangxin (廣信; 广信), an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong (Liangkwang; 兩廣; 两广; liǎng guǎng; léuhng gwóng) During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù (廣南東路; 广南东路; 'East Circuit in Southern Guang') and Guǎngnán Xīlù (廣南西路; 广南西路; 'West Circuit in Southern Guang'), which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù (廣東路; 广东路) and Guǎngxī Lù (廣西路; 广西路).

"Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), usually by itself refers to the provincial capital Guangzhou. [16] [17] Historically, Canton was also used for the province itself, [18] but often either specified as a province (e.g. Canton Province), or written as Kwangtung in the Wade–Giles system and now most commonly as Guangdong in Pinyin. [19] The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.[ citation needed ]

History

Kwangtung Provincial Government of the Republic of China Kwangtung Provincial Government.jpg
Kwangtung Provincial Government of the Republic of China

Prehistory

The Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta (珠江三角洲) 7,000 years before present (BP), with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP (c. 5050–3050 BC), and the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP (c. 3050–1550 BC). In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was likely introduced from the middle Yangtze River area (Jiao 2013). In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present (BP). The Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture (石峽文化), which occurred from 4600 to 4200 BP (c. 2650–2250 BC). [20]

Imperial

Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue ("Hundred Yue"), the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. The region was an independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE.[ citation needed ]

Once known as Canton, the town was a prosperous port city along a tropical frontier region beset by disease and wild animals, but rich in oranges, banyan, bananas, and lychee fruits, they traded slaves, silk and chinaware with Persians, Brahmans and Malays in exchange for their renowned medicines and fragrant tropical woods. Shi'a Muslims who had fled persecution in Khorasan and Buddhists from India lived side by side in the thriving town each erecting their own houses of worship. A foreign quarter sprang up along the river where many traders of diverse backgrounds including Arabs, and Singhalese took up residence. [21]

The port's importance declined after it was raided by Arabs and Persians in 758 and the foreign residents were at times troubled by the corrupt local officials, sometimes responding violently. During one incident in 684, for example, a merchant vessel's captain murdered a corrupt governor who had used his position to steal from the merchant. [21]

Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit (廣南東路) in 971 during the Song dynasty (960–1279). "Guangnan East" (廣南東) is the source of the name "Guangdong" (廣東; 广东). [22] :227

As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong gradually shifted to (Han)[ when? ] Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, and abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s. [23] As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture [24] or displaced.

As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou. The defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty (960–1279). [25]

During the Mongol Yuan dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi. [26] Its present name, "Guangdong Province" was given in early Ming dynasty.

Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.[ citation needed ]

In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of Western imperialists' incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan (modern day area of Zhanjiang) to the French.[ citation needed ]

Due to the large number of people that emigrated out of the Guangdong province, and in particular the ease of immigration from Hong Kong to other parts of the British Empire (later British Commonwealth), many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong and/or Cantonese culture. In particular, the Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew dialects have proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than Mandarin-speaking Chinese. Additionally, many Taishanese-speaking Chinese emigrated to Western countries, with the results that many Western versions of Chinese words were derived from the Cantonese dialects rather than through the mainstream Mandarin language, such as "dim sum". Some Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin also came from the original foreign language by way of Cantonese. For example, the Mandarin word níngméng (simplified Chinese :柠檬; traditional Chinese :檸檬), meaning "Lemon", came from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as lìng mung. [27] In the United States, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the county-level city of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).

During the 1850s, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, was allied with a local Guangdong Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856). Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.

20th century

During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for the Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under a unified central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.

In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.

In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline (Qinzhou, Lianzhou (now Hepu County), Fangchenggang and Beihai) was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong, but it was separated into its own province in 1988.

Geography

Pearl River and Humen Bridge Hu Men Da Qiao .JPG
Pearl River and Humen Bridge

Guangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of 4,300 km (2,700 mi) of coastline. The Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong with an elevation of 6,240 feet (1,902 meters) above sea level.

Guangdong borders Fujian to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. Pratas Island, which were traditionally governed as part of Guangdong, are part of Cijin District, Kaoshiung, Taiwan (ROC). [28]

Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.

Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18 °C (64 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F), respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.

Economy

The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be compared to that of many countries. In 2019, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1.6 trillion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 11 percent of the China' $14.4 trillion GDP. [4] In 2019, Guangdong's GDP was slightly larger than that of Spain ranking 13th. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 4 country subdivisions: California, England, Texas and New York.

Shops in one of the electronic markets of Huaqiangbei, Shenzhen specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local and global consumer electronics manufacturers. Hua Qiang Dian Zi Shi Jie 2.jpg
Shops in one of the electronic markets of Huaqiangbei, Shenzhen specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local and global consumer electronics manufacturers.

This is a trend of official estimates of the gross domestic product of the Province of Guangdong with figures in millions of Chinese Yuan:

Historical GDP of Guangdong Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008) [29]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017 [30] )
yearGDPGDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millionsreal
growth
(%)
GDPpcexchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNYUSDPPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
20168,085,4911,217,2732,306,1217.574,01611,14321,1116.64233.5061
20157,402,7431,188,5462,085,8098.068,62911,01919,3376.22843.5491
20146,890,1431,121,6621,940,7217.864,49110,49918,1656.14283.5503
20136,345,5441,024,5991,774,0348.559,7569,64916,7066.19323.5769
20125,799,354918,7101,633,2538.254,9738,70915,4826.31253.5508
20115,395,920835,4371,539,27310.051,5237,97714,6986.45883.5055
20104,657,712688,0441,406,90912.445,2846,68913,6786.76953.3106
20052,272,329277,394794,79914.124,8283,0318,6848.19172.8590
20001,081,021130,583397,53611.512,8181,5484,7148.27842.7193
1990155,90332,59491,56811.62,4845191,4594.78321.7026
198024,96516,66116,69316.64813213221.49841.4955
197818,58511,0391.03702201.6836

After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.[ citation needed ]

Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.[ citation needed ]

Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value-added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well. [31]

The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China, [32] the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB. [33] By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent. [31]

In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan, respectively. [34] Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965). [35] Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output. [36] Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.

In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion. [37]

Economic and technological development zones

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [40] 28,011,000    
1928 [41] 32,428,000+15.8%
1936-37 [42] 32,453,000+0.1%
1947 [43] 27,210,000−16.2%
1954 [44] 34,770,059+27.8%
1964 [45] 42,800,849+23.1%
1982 [46] 59,299,220+38.5%
1990 [47] 62,829,236+6.0%
2000 [48] 85,225,007+35.6%
2010 [49] 104,303,132+22.4%
Hainan Province part of Guangdong Province until 1988.
Guangzhou part of Guangdong Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Guangdong Province.

Guangdong officially became the most populous province in 2005. [7] [8] Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th-most populous province of China with about 80 million people, though an influx of migrants, temporary workers, and newly settled individuals numbered around 30 million. [50] The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twenty largest countries of the world by population.

Urbanization

Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China Guangzhou skyline.jpg
Guangzhou is the third largest city in the People's Republic of China

Guangdong's population is 70.7% urban and 29.3% rural. [3]

Genealogy

Guangdong is the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.

Gender ratio

Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls. [51]

Religion

Religion in Guangdong (2012) [52]

  Non religious and traditional faiths [53] (92.7%)
   Buddhism (6.2%)
   Protestantism (0.8%)
   Catholicism (0.2%)

According to a 2012 survey [52] only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.2%. Around 93% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religions worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.

According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, [54] the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.

Rong Gui Yu Hua Si .jpg
The Buddhist Yuhua Temple in Ronggui, Shunde.
Wong Tai Sin Temple Canton.jpg
Temple of Huang Daxian in Guangzhou.
Guangzhou Nanhaishen Miao 2013.10.01 10-31-35.jpg
Temple of Nanhaishen (God of the Southern Sea) in Guangzhou.
Chiwan Tianhou Temple 20140515.JPG
Temple of Tianhou in Chiwan, Shenzhen.
Jie Yang Cheng Huang Miao .JPG
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Jieyang.
Guangzhou Dafo Si 2014.01.26 14-46-33.jpg
Temple of the Great Buddha in Guangzhou.

Politics

Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.

Media

Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.

Culture

The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.

The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng Min people in Shanwei, speak Hokkien, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.

The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese :汉剧; traditional Chinese :漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).

The outcast Tanka people traditionally live on boats throughout the coasts and rivers of Guangdong and much of Southern China.

Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is dominated by the Leizhou dialect, a variety of Minnan; Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.

Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.

Guangdong Province is notable for being the birthplace of many famed Xiangqi (Chinese chess) grandmasters such as Lü Qin, Yang Guanli, Cai Furu and Xu Yinchuan.

Education

Guangdong Province Department of Education is the department of the provincial government that oversees education.

Colleges and universities

National

Provincial

Sports

Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou. Tianhe Stadium.jpg
Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou.

List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:

Sport League Tier ClubCityStadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou R&F F.C. Guangzhou Yuexiushan Stadium
Football Hong Kong Premier League 1st R&F Guangzhou Yanzigang Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Shenzhen F.C. Shenzhen Shenzhen Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Hakka F.C. Wuhua Wuhua County Stadium
Football China League One 2nd Meizhou Meixian Techand F.C. Meizhou Meixian Tsang Hin-chi Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Ledman F.C. Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium
Football China League Two 3rd Shenzhen Pengcheng F.C. Shenzhen Xixtre
Futsal China Futsal Super League 1st Zhuhai Mingshi Zhuhai Zhuhai Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Southern Tigers Dongguan Nissan Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Shenzhen Leopards Shenzhen Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Long-Lions Guangzhou Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball ASEAN Basketball League 1st Zhuhai Wolf Warriors Zhuhai Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus)
Basketball Women's Basketball Association 1st Guangdong Asia Aluminum Zhaoqing Zhaoqing Stadium
Volleyball Men's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong GSports Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div A 1st Guangdong Evergrande Shenzhen Shenzhen Gymnasium
Volleyball Women's Volleyball League Div B 2nd Guangdong Jianlong Taishan Taishan Stadium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Guangzhou Huangcun Stadium
Table Tennis China Table Tennis Super League 1st Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai Shenzhen Bao'an Stadium

Tourism

Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Guangdong
Division code [55] Division Area in km2 [56] Population 2010 [57] SeatDivisions [58]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
440000Guangdong Province179,800.00104,303,132 Guangzhou city6534320
440100 Guangzhou city7,434.4012,701,948 Yuexiu District 11
440200 Shaoguan city18,412.532,826,246 Zhenjiang District 3412
440300 Shenzhen city1,996.7810,358,381 Futian District 9*
440400 Zhuhai city1,724.321,562,530 Xiangzhou District 3
440500 Shantou city2,248.395,389,328 Jinping District 61
440600 Foshan city3,848.497,197,394 Chancheng District 5
440700 Jiangmen city9,505.424,450,703 Pengjiang District 34
440800 Zhanjiang city13,225.446,994,832 Chikan District 423
440900 Maoming city11,424.85,817,494 Maonan District 23
441200 Zhaoqing city14,891.233,916,467 Duanzhou District 341
441300 Huizhou city11,342.984,598,402 Huicheng District 23
441400 Meizhou city15,864.514,238,461 Meijiang District 251
441500 Shanwei city4,861.792,935,469 Cheng District 121
441600 Heyuan city15,653.632,950,195 Yuancheng District 15
441700 Yangjiang city7,955.272,421,748 Jiangcheng District 211
441800 Qingyuan city19,152.903,698,412 Qingcheng District 2222
441900 Dongguan city**2,465.008,220,207 Nancheng Subdistrict
442000 Zhongshan city**1,783.673,121,275 Dongqu Subdistrict
445100 Chaozhou city3,145.892,669,466 Xiangqiao District 21
445200 Jieyang city5,265.385,884,347 Rongcheng District 221
445300 Yunfu city7,779.122,367,154 Yuncheng District 221

* - not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
** - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions

The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (64 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CitiesUrban area [59] District area [59] City proper [59] Census date
1 Shenzhen 10,358,38110,358,38110,358,3812010-11-01
2 Guangzhou [lower-alpha 1] 9,702,14411,071,42412,701,9482010-11-01
(2)Guangzhou (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 939,2641,630,524see Guangzhou2010-11-01
3 Dongguan 7,271,3228,220,2078,220,2072010-11-01
4 Foshan 6,771,8957,197,3947,197,3942010-11-01
5 Shantou 3,644,0175,329,0245,389,3282010-11-01
6 Zhongshan 2,740,9943,121,2753,121,2752010-11-01
7 Huizhou 1,807,8582,344,6344,598,4022010-11-01
8 Jiangmen 1,480,0231,822,6144,450,7032010-11-01
9 Zhuhai 1,369,5381,562,5301,562,5302010-11-01
10 Zhanjiang 1,038,7621,611,8686,994,8322010-11-01
11 Puning 874,9542,055,552see Jieyang2010-11-01
12 Jieyang [lower-alpha 2] 734,670746,3545,884,3472010-11-01
(12)Jieyang (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 492,1781,159,118see Jieyang2010-11-01
13 Shaoguan 726,267991,6002,826,2462010-11-01
14 Qingyuan [lower-alpha 3] 639,659811,2333,698,4122010-11-01
(14)Qingyuan (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 276,794698,811see Qingyuan2010-11-01
15 Maoming [lower-alpha 4] 637,8791,217,5965,817,4942010-11-01
(15)Maoming (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 395,3171,218,716see Maoming2010-11-01
16 Lufeng 579,5271,358,265see Shanwei2010-11-01
17 Zhaoqing [lower-alpha 5] 559,887644,0323,916,4672010-11-01
(17)Zhaoqing (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 224,755753,120see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
18 Yangjiang [lower-alpha 6] 499,053676,8572,421,7482010-11-01
(18)Yangjiang (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 193,487442,762see Yangjiang2010-11-01
19 Heyuan 450,953463,9072,950,1952010-11-01
20 Chaozhou [lower-alpha 7] 448,226452,4692,669,4662010-11-01
(20)Chaozhou (new district) [lower-alpha 7] 808,0421,334,796see Chaozhou2010-11-01
21 Taishan 394,855941,095see Jiangmen2010-11-01
22 Xingning 392,000962,883see Meizhou2010-11-01
23 Kaiping 371,019699,242see Jiangmen2010-11-01
24 Shanwei 370,608492,2622,935,4692010-11-01
25 Lianjiang 359,225927,275see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
26 Sihui 355,709542,873see Zhaoqing2010-11-01
27 Meizhou [lower-alpha 8] 353,769380,7714,238,4612010-11-01
(27)Meizhou (new district) [lower-alpha 8] 258,782554,745see Meizhou2010-11-01
28 Gaozhou 352,0061,288,665see Maoming2010-11-01
29 Yingde 346,927941,952see Qingyuan2010-11-01
30 Leizhou 344,0431,427,664see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
31 Xinyi 333,965913,708see Maoming2010-11-01
32 Wuchuan 332,6721,443,099see Zhanjiang2010-11-01
33 Huazhou 320,4181,178,809see Maoming2010-11-01
34 Heshan 282,580494,938see Jiangmen2010-11-01
35 Luoding 263,338959,006see Yunfu2010-11-01
36 Enping 244,257492,814see Jiangmen2010-11-01
37 Yunfu [lower-alpha 9] 242,040318,1452,367,1542010-11-01
(37)Yunfu (new district) [lower-alpha 9] 56,874269,636see Yunfu2010-11-01
38 Lechang 191,457397,779see Shaoguan2010-11-01
39 Lianzhou 161,667367,642see Qingyuan2010-11-01
40 Nanxiong 140,017316,179see Shaoguan2010-11-01
41 Yangchun 28,739849,504see Yangjiang2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Conghua Conghua CLC), Zengcheng (Zengcheng CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Jiedong (Jiedong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Qingxin (Qingxin County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Dianbai (Dianbai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Gaoyao (Gaoyao CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Yangdong (Yangdong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. 1 2 New district established after census: Chao'an (Chao'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. 1 2 New district established after census: Meixian (Meixian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. 1 2 New district established after census: Yun'an (Yun'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.

International relations

Guangdong is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Guangzhou Prefecture-level and Subprovincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Guangzhou, also known as Canton and alternately romanized as Kwangchow, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou was captured by the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major transshipment port. Due to a high urban population and large volumes of port traffic, Guangzhou is classified as a Large-Port Megacity, the largest type of port-city in the world.

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Shenzhen Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

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Fujian Province of China

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Shandong Province of China

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Anhui Province of China

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Hunan Province of China

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