Guangzhou

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Guangzhou
广州市
Canton; Kwangchow
Canton Tower 20220626 (cropped).jpg
Liu Rong Si Ta *Liu Rong Si *Guang Zhou *(Zheng Nan Fang ).jpg
Five-Ram Sculpture (2).jpg
Shi Shi Jiao Tang *Yan Zhou *Fu Shi .jpg
Yan Zhou Zhen Hai Lou 2019 (cropped).jpg
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall 2018.jpg
Nicknames: 
City of Rams, City of Flowers, City of Rice Spike
Guangzhou
Guangdong subdivisions - Guangzhou.svg
Location of Guangzhou City jurisdiction in Guangdong
China Guangdong location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Guangzhou
Location of the city center in Guangdong
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Guangzhou
Guangzhou (China)
Coordinates(Guangdong People's Government): 23°07′48″N113°15′36″E / 23.13000°N 113.26000°E / 23.13000; 113.26000 Coordinates: 23°07′48″N113°15′36″E / 23.13000°N 113.26000°E / 23.13000; 113.26000
CountryChina
Province Guangdong
Settled214 BC
Founded by Qin dynasty
Municipal seat Yuexiu District
Government
  Type Sub-provincial city
  Body Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Lin Keqing
   Congress Chairman Wang Yanshi
   Mayor Guo Yonghang
   CPPCC Chairman Li Yiwei
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level and subprovincial city 7,434.4 km2 (2,870.4 sq mi)
  Urban
3,843.431 km2 (1,483.957 sq mi)
  Metro
19,870.4 km2 (7,672.0 sq mi)
Elevation
21 m (69 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [2]
   Prefecture-level and subprovincial city 18,676,605
  Density2,500/km2 (6,500/sq mi)
   Urban
[3]
16,492,590
  Urban density4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Metro
65,594,622
  Metro density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
Demonym Cantonese
Time zone UTC+08:00 (china standard time)
Postal code
510000
Area code (0)20
ISO 3166 code CN-GD-01
GDP (nominal) [4] 2021
 - Total¥2.823 trillion
$437.7 billion
 - Per capita¥151,162
$23,436
 - GrowthIncrease2.svg 8.1%
License plate prefixes粤A
City Flower Bombax ceiba
City Bird Chinese hwamei
Languages Cantonese, Standard Chinese
Website Guangzhou International
Guangzhou
Guangzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Guangzhou" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters

Natural resources

There are 47 different types of minerals and also 820 ore fields in Guangzhou, including 18 large and medium-sized oil deposits. The major minerals are granite, cement limestone, ceramic clay, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline, syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water, and geothermal mineral water. Since Guangzhou is located in the water-rich area of southern China, it has a wide water area with many rivers and water systems, accounting for 10% of the total land area. The rivers and streams improve the landscape and keep the ecological environment of the city stable. [125]

Climate

Despite being located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa/Cwa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from 14.1 °C (57.4 °F) in January to 29.4 °C (84.9 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 22.8 °C (73.0 °F). [11] Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time. [126] The relative humidity is approximately 73 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over 1,700 mm (67 in). [11] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0 °C (32 °F) to 39.1 °C (102.4 °F). [127] The last recorded snowfall in the city was on 24 January 2016, 87 years after the second last recorded snowfall. [128]

Climate data for Guangzhou (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)28.4
(83.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.1
(89.8)
33.3
(91.9)
36.2
(97.2)
38.9
(102.0)
39.1
(102.4)
38.3
(100.9)
37.6
(99.7)
36.2
(97.2)
33.4
(92.1)
29.6
(85.3)
39.1
(102.4)
Average high °C (°F)19.0
(66.2)
20.7
(69.3)
22.8
(73.0)
26.5
(79.7)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
33.7
(92.7)
33.5
(92.3)
32.1
(89.8)
29.7
(85.5)
25.3
(77.5)
21.0
(69.8)
27.2
(81.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)14.1
(57.4)
16.4
(61.5)
18.9
(66.0)
22.7
(72.9)
26.4
(79.5)
27.9
(82.2)
29.4
(84.9)
29.1
(84.4)
27.9
(82.2)
25.1
(77.2)
20.2
(68.4)
15.6
(60.1)
22.8
(73.1)
Average low °C (°F)10.8
(51.4)
13.5
(56.3)
15.9
(60.6)
20.0
(68.0)
23.3
(73.9)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
24.7
(76.5)
21.6
(70.9)
16.5
(61.7)
12.0
(53.6)
19.6
(67.3)
Record low °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
1.3
(34.3)
3.2
(37.8)
7.7
(45.9)
14.6
(58.3)
18.8
(65.8)
21.6
(70.9)
20.9
(69.6)
15.5
(59.9)
9.5
(49.1)
4.9
(40.8)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)44.3
(1.74)
67.9
(2.67)
94.9
(3.74)
183.5
(7.22)
285.6
(11.24)
315.0
(12.40)
240.0
(9.45)
230.8
(9.09)
200.9
(7.91)
70.5
(2.78)
38.4
(1.51)
29.4
(1.16)
1,801.2
(70.91)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)7.511.215.016.318.318.215.916.812.57.15.54.9149.2
Average relative humidity (%)68757679777975767266646373
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.571.662.465.1104.0140.2202.0173.5170.2181.8172.7166.01,628
Percent possible sunshine 35221717263549434651525037
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000) [129] [130] all-time extreme temperature [127]

Administrative divisions

Guangzhou is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over eleven districts:

Administrative divisions of Guangzhou
Division
code
[131]
DivisionArea
(km2) [132]
Population
(2020) [133]
SeatPostal
code
Subdivisions [134]
Subdistricts Towns Residential
communities
Administrative
villages
440100Guangzhou7,434.4018,676,605 Yuexiu 5100001363415331142
440103 Liwan 59.101,238,305Shiweitang Subdistrict51000022 195 
440104 Yuexiu 33.801,038,643 Beijing Subdistrict 51000018 267 
440105 Haizhu 90.401,819,037Jianghai Subdistrict51000018 257 
440106 Tianhe 96.332,241,826Tianyuan Subdistrict51000021 205 
440111 Baiyun 795.793,742,991Jingtai Subdistrict510000184253118
440112 Huangpu 484.171,264,447Luogang Subdistrict5105001419028
440113 Panyu 529.942,658,397 Shiqiao Subdistrict 51140011587177
440114 Huadu 970.041,642,360Huacheng Subdistrict5108004650188
440115 Nansha 783.86846,584 Huangge Town5114003628128
440117 Conghua 1,974.50717,684Jiekou Subdistrict5109003546221
440118 Zengcheng 1,616.471,466,331Licheng Subdistrict5113004755282

Economy

The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building 1957 Canton Fair.jpg
The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building

Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2021, its GDP reached ¥2,823 billion (US$444.37 billion in nominal), making it the 2nd largest economy in the South-Central China region after Shenzhen. [135] Guangzhou's GDP (nominal) was US$444.37 billion in 2021, exceeding that of Nigeria with a GDP of US$ 440.77 billion, the largest economy in Africa. [136] Guangzhou's per capita was ¥151,162 (US$23,794 in nominal). [135] Guangzhou is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. Guangzhou ranks 10th in the world and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen) in terms of the number of billionaires according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020. [26] Guangzhou is projected to be among the world top 10 largest cities in terms of nominal GDP in 2035 (together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen in China) according to a study by Oxford Economics, [137] and its nominal GDP per capita will reach above US$42,000 in 2030. [138] Guangzhou also ranks 21st globally (between Washington, D.C. and Amsterdam) and 8th in the whole Asia & Oceania region (behind Shanghai, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, Shenzhen and Dubai) in the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index (GFCI). [23] Owing to rapid industrialization, it was once also considered a rather polluted city. After green urban planning was implemented, it is now one of the most livable cities in China.

Canton Fair

The Canton Fair, formally the "China Import and Export Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trade. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. It is the trade fair with the longest history, highest level, and largest scale in China. [139] From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center ( 广州 国际 会展 中心 ) in Pazhou, from the older complex in Liuhua. The GICEC is served by two stations on Line 8 and three stations on Tram Line THZ1. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases.

Local products

Industry

Business Environment

Guangzhou is a hub for international businesses. According to an article by China Briefing, over 30,000 foreign-invested companies had settled in Guangzhou by 2018, including 297 Fortune Global 500 companies with projects and 120 Fortune Global 500 companies with headquarters or regional headquarters in the city. [143]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950 [144] 2,567,645    
1960 [144] 3,683,104+43.4%
1970 [144] 4,185,363+13.6%
1980 [144] 5,018,638+19.9%
1990 [144] 5,942,534+18.4%
2000 [144] 9,943,000+67.3%
2002 [145] 10,106,229+1.6%
2005 [146] 9,496,800−6.0%
2006 [146] 9,966,600+4.9%
2007 [146] 10,530,100+5.7%
2008 [146] 11,153,400+5.9%
2009 [146] 11,869,700+6.4%
2010 [144] 12,701,948+7.0%
2011 [147] 12,751,400+0.4%
2012 [147] 12,832,900+0.6%
2013 [147] 12,926,800+0.7%
2014 [147] 13,080,500+1.2%
201814,904,400+13.9%
Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.

The 2010 census found Guangzhou's population to be 12.78 million. As of 2014, it was estimated at 13,080,500, [148] [147] with 11,264,800 urban residents. [3] Its population density is thus around 1,800 people per km2. The built-up area of the Guangzhou proper connects directly to several other cities. The built-up area of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone covers around 17,573 km2 (6,785 sq mi) and has been estimated to house 22 million people, including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, Shenzhen (5.36m), Dongguan (3.22m), Zhongshan (3.12m), most of Foshan (2.2m), Jiangmen (1.82m), Zhuhai (890k), and Huizhou's Huiyang District (760k).[ citation needed ] The total population of this agglomeration is over 28 million after including the population of the adjacent Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.[ citation needed ] The area's fast-growing economy and high demand for labor has produced a huge "floating population" of migrant workers; thus, up to 10 million migrants reside in the area least six months each year.[ citation needed ] In 2008, about five million of Guangzhou's permanent residents were hukouless migrants. [149]

Ethnicity and language

Most of Guangzhou's population is Han Chinese. Almost all Cantonese people speak Cantonese as their first language, [151] while most migrants speak forms of Mandarin. [149] In 2010, each language was the native tongue of roughly half of the city's population, [152] although minor but substantial numbers speak other varieties as well.[ citation needed ] In 2018, He Huifeng of the South China Morning Post stated that younger residents have increasingly favored using Mandarin instead of Cantonese in their daily lives, causing their Cantonese-speaking grandparents and parents to use Mandarin to communicate with them. He Huifeng stated that factors included local authorities discouraging the use of Cantonese in schools and the rise in prestige of Mandarin-speaking Shenzhen. [153] Jinan University released a survey result of the Guangzhou youths born in the year 2000 or after that were part of this educational study showed that 69% could still speak and understand Cantonese, 20% can understand Cantonese, but unable to speak it, and 11% completely had no knowledge of Cantonese. Jinan University's study of these Guangzhou youths also indicated when it came to the daily recreational use of Cantonese, roughly 40%-50% of them participated in these recreational functions with the usage of Cantonese with 51.4% of them in mobile games, 47% in Social Platforms, 44.1% in TV shows, and 39.8% in Books and Newspapers. Despite some decline in the use of Cantonese, it is faring better in survival, popularity, and prestige than other Chinese languages due to the historical pride in the language and culture, as well as the wide popularity and availability of mainstream Cantonese entertainment, which encourages locals to retain the Cantonese language. [154] [155] As of the 2020s, additional renewed efforts were introduced to preserve the local Cantonese language and culture with some limited Cantonese language classes now being taught in some schools as well as hosting Cantonese appreciation cultural events along with hosting activities that cater to the local Cantonese culture and language as well as many local Cantonese speaking families are now placing much stronger emphasis on their children to speak Cantonese to preserve the culture and language. In a 2018 report study by Shan Yunming and Li Sheng, the report showed that 90% of people living in Guangzhou are bilingual in both Cantonese and Mandarin, though fluency will vary depending on if they are locally born to the city and the surrounding Guangdong province or migrants from other provinces, which shows how much importance the Cantonese language still has in the city despite the strict policy rules from the government to be using Mandarin as the country's official language. [156] [157] Guangzhou has an even more unbalanced gender ratio than the rest of the country. While most areas of China have 112–120 boys per 100 girls, the Guangdong province that houses Guangzhou has more than 130 boys for every 100 girls. [158] [159] [160]

Recent years have seen a huge influx of migrants, with up to 30 million additional migrants living in the Guangzhou area for at least six months out of every year with the majority being female migrants and many becoming local Guangzhou people. This huge influx of people from other areas, called the floating population, is due to the city's fast-growing economy and high labor demands. Guangzhou Mayor Wan Qingliang told an urban planning seminar that Guangzhou is facing a very serious population problem stating that, while the city had 10.33 million registered residents at the time with targets and scales of land use based on this number, the city actually had a population with migrants of nearly 15 million. According to the Guangzhou Academy of Social Sciences researcher Peng Peng, the city is almost at its maximum capacity of just 15 million, which means the city is facing a great strain, mostly due to a high population of unregistered people. [158]

According to the 2000 National Census, marriage is one of the top two reasons for permanent migration and particular important for women as 29.3% of the permanent female migrants migrate for marriage [Liang et al.,2004]. Many of the female economic migrants marry men from Guangzhou in hopes of a better life. [161] but like elsewhere in the People's Republic of China, the household registration system (hukou) limits migrants' access to residences, educational institutions and other public benefits. It has been noted that many women end up in prostitution. [162] In May 2014, legally employed migrants in Guangzhou were permitted to receive a hukou card allowing them to marry and obtain permission for their pregnancies in the city, rather than having to return to their official hometowns as previously. [163]

Historically, the Cantonese people have made up a sizable part of the 19th- and 20th-century Chinese diaspora; in fact, many overseas Chinese have ties to Guangzhou. This is particularly true in the United States, [164] Canada, [165] and Australia.

Demographically, the only significant immigration into China has been by overseas Chinese, but Guangzhou sees many foreign tourists, workers, and residents from the usual locations such as the United States. Notably, it is also home to thousands of African immigrants, including people from Nigeria, Somalia, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. [166]

Metropolitan area

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 25 million. [167] [168]

Development of Guangzhou

ScienceDirect provided a report on their website of the development of Guangzhou from 1990 until 2020. Their map report showed in 1990, the developed residential districts were almost exclusively concentrated to a small part of western Guangzhou whereas other parts of Guangzhou had smaller limited amount of developed residential communities being overwhelmingly surrounded by agricultural and forest lands. However, from 2005 until 2020, other parts of the city eventually began to develop more so residential communities and in the 2020 map report, it showed fully developed residential communities going from west to east of the city whereas the very southern part and large portions of northern Guangzhou still remain mainly agricultural and forest lands with very limited developed residential communities. [169] [170] [171] [172]

Transportation

The east square of Guangzhou railway station in 1991 Guangzhou 1991.jpg
The east square of Guangzhou railway station in 1991

Urban mass transit

When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of thirteen lines, covering a total length of 476.26 km (295.93 mi). [173] A long-term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over 500 km (310 mi) by 2020 with 15 lines in operation. In addition to the metro system there is also the Haizhu Tram line which opened on 31 December 2014. [174]

The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010 along Zhongshan Road. It has several connections to the metro and is the world's 2nd-largest bus rapid transit system with 1,000,000 passenger trips daily. [175] It handles 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour a capacity second only to the TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota. [176] The system averages one bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around 260 m (850 ft) including bridges.

Motor transport

In the 19th century, the city already had over 600 long, straight streets; these were mostly paved but still very narrow. [44] In June 1919, work began on demolishing the city wall to make way for wider streets and the development of tramways. The demolition took three years in total. [177]

In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games which were held in the city. [178] At present[ when? ], Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.[ citation needed ]

Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government banned motorcycles in Guangdong's urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban are confiscated. [179] The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban. [180]

Airports

Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Baiyun District; it opened on August 5, 2004. [181] This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city center but failed to meet the city's rapidly growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport now has three runways, with two more planned. [182] Terminal 2 opened on April 26, 2018. [183] Another airport located in Zengcheng District is under planning. [184]

Guangzhou is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Lianhuashan Ferry Terminal and Nansha Ferry Port in Nansha District to the HKIA Skypier. [185] There are also coach bus services connecting Guangzhou with HKIA. [186]

Railways

Guangzhou is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou–Maoming and Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway started service, with multiple unit trains covering 980 km (608.94 mi) at a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph). In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway and Nanning-Guangzhou railway began service with trains running at top speeds of 250 km/h (155 mph) and 200 km/h (124 mph), respectively. [187] The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately 182 km (113 mi) in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city. A number of regional railways radiating from Guangzhou started operating such as the Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway and the Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing intercity railway.

Water transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.

Culture

Guangzhou Opera House Guangzhou Opera House(Near).JPG
Guangzhou Opera House

Within China, the culture of the Cantonese people is a subset of the larger "Southern" or "Lingnan" cultural areas. Notable aspects of Guangzhou's cultural heritage include:

The Guangzhou Opera House & Symphony Orchestra also perform classical Western music and Chinese compositions in their style. Cantonese music is a traditional style of Chinese instrumental music, while Cantopop is the local form of pop music and rock-and-roll which developed from neighboring Hong Kong.

Religions

Before the postmodern era, Guangzhou had about 124 religious pavilions, halls, and temples. [44] Today, in addition to the Buddhist Association, Guangzhou also has a Taoist Association, a Jewish community, [190] [191] as well as a history with Christianity, reintroduced to China by colonial powers.[ clarification needed ]

Taoism

Taoism and Chinese folk religion are still represented at a few of the city's temples. Among the most important is the Temple of the Five Immortals, dedicated to the Five Immortals credited with introducing rice cultivation at the foundation of the city. The five rams they rode were supposed to have turned into stones upon their departure and gave the city several of its nicknames. [192] However, the temple has not been restored as a Taoist temple status yet. Other famous temples include the City God Temple of Guangzhou and Sanyuan Palace. During the Cultural Revolution, all Taoist temples and shrines were practically destroyed or damaged by the red guards. Only handful of them like Sanyuan Palace were restored during 1980s. Guangzhou, like most of southern China, is also notably observant and continue the practice of Chinese ancestral worship during major festive occasions like the Qing Ming Festival and Zhong Yuan Festival.

Buddhism

Buddhism is the most prominent religion in Guangzhou. [193] The Zhizhi Temple was founded in AD 233 from the estate of a Wu official; it is said to comprise the residence of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue kings, and has been known as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Piety") since the Ming dynasty. The Buddhist missionary monk, Bodhidharma is traditionally said to have visited Panyu during the Liu Song or Liang dynasty (5th or 6th century). Around AD 520, Emperor Wu of the Liang ordered the construction of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to store the relics of Cambodian Buddhist saints which had been brought to the city and to house the monks beginning to assemble there. The Baozhuangyan is now known as the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, after a famous poem composed by Su Shi after a visit during the Northern Song.[ citation needed ] The Xilai Monastery was renamed as the Hualin Temple ("Flowery Forest Temple") after its reconstruction during the Qing dynasty.

The temples were badly damaged by both the Republican campaign to "Promote Education with Temple Property" ( ) and the PRC's Cultural Revolution but have been renovated since the opening up that began in the 1980s. The Ocean Banner Temple on Henan Island, once famous in the west as the only tourist spot in Guangzhou accessible to foreigners, has been reopened as the Hoi Tong Monastery.

Christianity

Nestorian Christians first arrived in China via the overland Silk Road, but suffered during Emperor Wuzong's 845 persecution and were essentially extinct by the year 1000. [194] [ specify ] The Qing-era ban on foreigners limited missionaries until it was abolished following the First Opium War, although the Protestant Robert Morrison was able to perform some work through his service with the British factory. The Catholic archdiocese of Guangzhou is housed at Guangzhou's Sacred Heart Cathedral, known locally as the "Stone House". A Gothic Revival edifice which was built by hand from 1861 to 1888 under French direction, its original Latin and French stained-glass windows were destroyed during the wars and amid the Cultural Revolution; they have since been replaced by English ones. The Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both founded by missionaries and now form part of Guangzhou's Lingnan University. Since the opening up of China in the 1980s, there has been renewed interest in Christianity, but Guangzhou maintains pressure on underground churches which avoid registration with government officials. [195] The Catholic archbishop Dominic Tang was imprisoned without trial for 22 years; however, his present successor is recognized by both the Vatican and China's Patriotic Church.

Islam

Guangzhou has had ties with the Islamic world since the Tang dynasty. [196] Relations were often strained: Arab and Persian pirates sacked the city on October 30, 758; the port was subsequently closed for fifty years. [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] Their presence came to an end under the revenge of Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with that of the Jews, Christians, [61] [62] [63] and Parsis. [64] [65] Nowadays, the city is home to halal restaurants. [197]

Sport

Guangdong Olympic Stadium Stade Olympique Guangdong.JPG
Guangdong Olympic Stadium
Tianhe Stadium is the home of Guangzhou F.C. Tianhe Stadium.jpg
Tianhe Stadium is the home of Guangzhou F.C.
Yuexiushan Stadium is the home of Guangzhou City F.C. Yuexiushan Stadium After Refurb (2019).jpg
Yuexiushan Stadium is the home of Guangzhou City F.C.

The 11,468 seat Guangzhou Gymnasium was one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup. [198]

From 12 to 27 November 2010, Guangzhou hosted the 16th Asian Games. The same year, it hosted the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19. Combined, these were the major sporting events the city ever hosted. [199]

Guangzhou also hosted the following major sporting events:

Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou include:

SportLeagueTierClubStadium
Football China League One 2nd Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou City Yuexiushan Stadium
Esports (Overwatch) Overwatch League 1st Guangzhou Charge Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Loong Lions Tianhe Gymnasium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Tianhe Sports Center baseball field

In the 2010s, Guangzhou has risen to be a football powerhouse of China, having won eight national titles between 2011 and 2019. The team has also won the AFC Champions League in 2013 and 2015. The club has competed at the 2013 and 2015 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semifinal stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League winners FC Bayern Munich and the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League winners FC Barcelona, respectively. [200]

Destinations

Eight Views

Canton Tower Guangzhou Tower.jpg
Canton Tower

The Eight Views of Ram City are Guangzhou's eight most famous tourist attractions. They have varied over time since the Song dynasty, with some being named or demoted by emperors. The following modern list was chosen through public appraisal in 2011:[ citation needed ]

Bombax ceiba, Guangzhou's official flower Semal (Bombax ceiba) flowers in Kolkata W IMG 4132.jpg
Bombax ceiba , Guangzhou's official flower

Parks and gardens

  • Baiyun Mountain
  • Nansha Wetland Park
  • People's Park
  • South China Botanical Garden
  • Yuexiu Park
  • Dongshanhu Park (东山湖公园; 東山湖公園)
  • Liuhuahu Park (流花湖公园; 流花湖公園)
  • Liwanhu Park (荔湾湖公园; 荔灣湖公園)
  • Luhu Park (麓湖公园; 麓湖公園)
  • Martyrs' Park (广州起义烈士陵园; 廣州起義烈士陵園)
  • Pearl River Park (珠江公园; 珠江公園)
  • Yuntai Garden (云台花园; 雲臺花園)
  • Shimen National Forest Park(石门国家森林公园; 石門國家森林公園)
  • Haizhu Lake Park(海珠湖公园; 海珠湖公園)

Tourist attractions

Guangzhou attracts more than 223 million visitors each year, and the total revenue of the tourism exceeded 400 billion in 2018. [202] There are many tourist attractions, including:

PanoramaofCanton.jpg
Modern Guangzhou by day
PanoramaofCantonatnight.jpg
Modern Guangzhou at night

Pedestrian streets

In every district there are many shopping areas where people can walk on the sidewalks; however most of them are not set as pedestrian streets.

Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street 1 guangzhou shopping 2011.JPG
Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street

The popular pedestrian streets are:

Malls and shopping centers

There are many malls and shopping centers in Guangzhou. The majority of the new malls are located in the Tianhe district.

Major buildings

Media

Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin Chinese. However, in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programs on most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. The Beijing-based China National Radio also broadcasts Mandarin programs in the city. Radio Guangdong has a 30-minute weekly English programs, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the World Radio Network. Daily English news programs are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong.

Guangzhou has some of the most notable Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city, the Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation, and the Yangcheng Evening News Group. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily . The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers. The most successful is That's Guangzhou, which started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into That's PRD , producing expatriate magazines in Beijing and Shanghai as well. It also produces In the Red.

Education and research

Sun Yat-sen University main gate North Square of SYSU.jpg
Sun Yat-sen University main gate
The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University Zhong Shan Da Xue Zhong Shan Yi Xue Yuan Zheng Men 2006.JPG
The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University
Guangzhou Library Guangzhou Library 2013.11.15 18-30-36.jpg
Guangzhou Library

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, also known as Guangzhou University Town ( 广州 大学 ), is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. It occupies the entirety of Xiaoguwei Island in Panyu District, covering an area of about 18 km2 (7 sq mi). The complex accommodates campuses from ten higher education institutions and can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers, and 50,000 staff. [203]

As of 2022, Guangzhou hosts 83 institutions of higher education (excluding adult colleges), ranking 2nd (tie) nationwide with Wuhan and 1st in South China region. [204] Guangzhou is a major centre of research and innovation in the Asia-Pacific with a high level of scientific research output, ranking 10th globally, 5th in the Asia-Pacific, 4th in China after (Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing) and 1st in South Central China region. [205]

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center's higher education campuses are as follows:

Guangzhou's other fully accredited and degree-granting universities and colleges include:

The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Library is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013. [206] Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China. [207]

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Consulates General/consulates

As of October 2020, Guangzhou hosts 65 foreign consulates-general/consulates, excluding the Hong Kong and Macao trade office, making it one of the major cities to host more than 50 foreign representatives in China after Beijing and Shanghai. [24] [25]

Honours

Guangzhou Peninsula in Antarctica is named after the city, which was a major market and processing centre for the nineteenth-century Antarctic sealing industry. [208]

See also

Notes

  1. The lexicographer only accepted Canton as a proper noun referring to the city, and considered usages with reference to the province as an “ellipsis”, see Yule & al. [39]
  2. A. Hamilton (1727) used Canton to refer to both the city and the province, but used Canton for the city more frequently in the same work, especially when he wrote Canton without reference to “Quantung”. See A. Hamilton (1727; pp. 224–238) [43]
  3. Given in contemporary sources as the "Guisi Day" ( 癸巳 ) of the 9th lunar month of the first year of the Qianyuan Era under Emperor Suzong of the Tang.
  4. The term "Persian" may, however, have been loosely applied and referred indifferently to any similar-looking foreign women. [68]
  5. "Buying and selling of children was scarcely unknown in Ming China, but the large new demands of the Portuguese may have stimulated kidnapings from good families..." [81]
  6. "Some early Chinese historians go even so far as to give vivid details of the price paid for the children and how they were roasted." [86]
  7. "On the day of St Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: 'Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers.' A report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 Sept. 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pieces round the belly. In the streets of Canton, outside the walls, in the suburbs, through the principal streets they were put to death, at distances of one crossbow shot from one another, that all might see them, both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk of the Portuguese. Thus... they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the mandarins of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills. And from henceforth it was resolved not to allow any more Portuguese into the country nor other strangers." [91]
  8. The Shaowu Emperor's remains are buried in Yuexiu Park.
  9. In fact, the Danish Asiatic Company was formally chartered in April 1732 while this first ship, the Cron-Printz Christian, was on its return trip. [101] Counting the Cron-Printz Christian, up to 1833, the DAC dispatched 130 ships to Guangzhou, losing five. The average voyage from Copenhagen took 216 days and the voyage back, 192. [98]
  10. The statement is an excerpt from the longer proverb "Be born in Suzhou, play in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, and die in Liuzhou" ( 蘇州 杭州 廣州 柳州 ).
  11. The other seven are the cuisines of Anhui, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Zhejiang. [189]

Related Research Articles

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Guangdong, alternatively romanized as Canton or Kwangtung, is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 126.01 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area as well as the second-most populous country subdivision in the world. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the fifth largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP (nominal) of 1.95 trillion USD in 2021. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities and leading financial centres in the Asia-Pacific region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (former)</span> Former airport of Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (1934—2004)

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foshan</span> Prefecture-level city in Guangdong, China

Foshan, alternately romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi) and had a population of 9,498,863 as of the 2020 census. The city is part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone whose built-up area was home to 65,694,622 inhabitants as of 2020, making it the biggest urban area of the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cantonese</span> Variety of Yue Chinese spoken in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau

Cantonese is a language within the Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has over 80 million native speakers. While the term Cantonese specifically refers to the prestige variety, it is often used to refer to the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nansha District</span> District & State-level new area in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Line 22 (Guangzhou Metro)</span>

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