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|West Indian elm|
Guazuma ulmifolia, commonly known as West Indian elm or bay cedar, is a medium-sized tree normally found in pastures and disturbed forests. This flowering plant from the Malvaceae family grows up to 30m in height and 30–40 cm in diameter. It is widely found in areas such as the Caribbean, South America, Central America and Mexico serving a number of uses that varies from its value in carpentry to its utility in medicine.
Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species. Well-known members of economic importance include okra, cotton, cacao and durian. There are also some genera containing familiar ornamentals, such as Alcea (hollyhock), Malva (mallow) and Lavatera, as well as Tilia. The largest genera in terms of number of species include Hibiscus, Sterculia, Dombeya, Pavonia and Sida.
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.
Guazuma ulmifolia grows to 30 m in height and 30–40 cm in diameter and comes with a rounded crown. Leaves are distributed in an alternate pattern with 2 rows in assembled flatly. The leaves are ovate to lance-shaped, finely saw toothed margin, usually have a rough texture and are 6–13 cm in length and 2.5–6 cm in diameter. 3-5 main veins arise from the base (rounded or notched, unequal sided) of the leaf which has a darker green upper surface and a fairer green color underneath. They are virtually hairless and thin. The leaf stalks of this species are lean, approximately 6-12mm long, and are covered with small “star-shaped” hairs.
The panicles (indeterminate flower clusters) are in a branched pattern around 2.5–5 cm in length and are found at the bottom of the leaves. The flowers come in many, are short stalked, small in size, have a brown-yellow color, five parted, 1 cm in length and have a small fragrance to them. The calyx contains are lobed (2-3), have hairs that are brown or light grey in color, as well as greenish. They have 5 petals with a yellow-like stamen, 15anthers per pistil, 5 stigmas (combined), ovary lighter green in color with hairs, and also contains a style. The fruit which have capsules that are round to elliptical in shape are 15-25mm in length. They have many seeds which are shaped like eggs and are 3mm in length, grey in color.
The species itself flowers throughout the year, in particular from April to October. Guazuma ulmifolia can be cultivated by either directly planting seeds or cuttings of the plant, as well as root stumps and bare-root seedlings. Before planting the seeds they need to be soaked in boiling water for 30 seconds; the water should be drained afterwards. 7–14 days after fresh seeds are planted, germination occurs (60-80% rate).When they reach a height of 30–40 cm which is usually about 15 weeks later they are then prepared for “outplanting.” When using root stumps as a means for propagation they are left to dwell in a nursery for a period of time until the stem of the diameter reached 1.5-2.5 cm, which is usually about 5–8 months.
The Guazuma ulmifolia falls prey most commonly to the defoliating insect Phelyypera distigma . It is also faced with other defoliators such as Arsenura armida and Epitragussp.. These defoliators very rarely cause problems, but has been witnessed: Aepytus sp., Automeris rubrescens , Hylesia lineata , Lirimiris truncata and Periphoba arcaei .
Arsenura armida, the giant silk moth, is a moth of the family Saturniidae. It is found mainly in South and Central America, from Mexico to Bolivia, and Ecuador to south-eastern Brazil. It was first described by Pieter Cramer in 1779.
Lirimiris truncata is a species of prominent moth in the family Notodontidae. It is found in North America.
Guazuma ulmifolia is normally found in the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. Places such as India have been cultivating them or more than 100 years. Indonesia has in recent times introduced the species into their territory.
The wood of the Guazuma ulmifolia is utilized for posts, interior carpentry, light construction, boxes, crates, shoe horns, tool handles and charcoal. The wood is found to be very unproblematic to work with. The sapwood has a color of brown (light) and the heartwood is pink to brown.
Guazuma ulmifolia serves as a very vital source of fodder for livestock approaching the end of the dry season of the native array dry areas. It is the favored tree for fodder in Jamaica. The trees also serve to bestow shade in pastures. The immature fruits and leaves are given as food to horses and cattle. The fruits are also given to the hogs in Puerto Rico. The leaves and fruits are usually fed to the cattle throughout the arid season. The trees may also serve the purpose of being actual posts surrounding pastures. The crunchy, woody fruits and its seeds are edible raw or cooked, and have a mild, sweet, honey/granola like flavor.
A beverage of crushed seeds soaked in water is used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, colds, coughs, contusions, and venereal disease. It is also used as a diuretic and astringent.
The radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Chamaecyparis thyoides, a species of Cupressaceae, is native to the Atlantic coast of North America and is found from southern Maine to Georgia and along the Gulf of Mexico coast from Florida to Mississippi. It is one of two species of Chamaecyparis found in North America. C. thyoides resides on the East Coast and C. lawsoniana can be found on the West Coast. There are two geographically isolated subspecies, treated by some botanists as distinct species, by others at just varietal rank: Chamaecyparis thyoides thyoides and Chamaecyparis thyoides henryae (H.L.Li) E.Murray The species grows in forested wetlands where they tend to dominate the canopy. The trees are associated with a wide variety of other wetland species because of their wide north-south range. The remaining populations are now found mostly in remote locations that would be difficult to harvest, so its popularity as a source of lumber has decreased.
Ziziphus mauritiana, also known as Chinese date, ber, Chinee apple, jujube, Indian plum, Regi pandu, Indian jujube, dunks and masau, is a tropical fruit tree species belonging to the family Rhamnaceae.
Marah oregonus, the Oregon manroot, coastal manroot or western wild-cucumber, is a common manroot of the northwest coast of the United States. It ranges from California north to Canada.
Catalpa speciosa, commonly known as the northern catalpa, hardy catalpa, western catalpa, cigar tree, catawba-tree, or bois chavanon, is a species of Catalpa native to the midwestern United States.
Talisia esculenta is a medium-sized tree native to the Amazon Basin, and is found in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Paraguay and Bolivia.
Ulmus 'Nanguen' is a complex fourth generation hybrid cultivar from the cross 'Plantyn' ×, an ancestry comprising four field elms, a wych elm, the curious Exeter Elm ('Exoniensis'), and a frost-resistant selection of the Himalayan elm.
Muntingia is a genus of plants in the family Muntingiaceae, comprising only one species, Muntingia calabura. It is native to the neotropics, from Mexico south to Bolivia.
Eugenia stipitata is a fruit tree native to Amazon Rainforest vegetation in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.
Alnus acuminata is a species of deciduous tree in the Betulaceae family. It is found in montane forests from central Mexico to Argentina.
Magnolia guatapensis is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae family. It is endemic to Colombia. Common names include: almanegra, almanegra de Guatapé.
Cryptocarya alba, the peumo or Chilean acorn, is an evergreen tree that grows in Chile and Argentina from 33 to 40° southern latitude. It can live both in wet and as in dry conditions. Its distribution can reach up to 1500 meters (5000 ft) above sea level. It measures up to 20 meters (65 ft) height and one meter diameter, with cracked gray bark. An associate tree is the endangered Chilean Wine Palm, Jubaea chilensis, which species prehistorically had a much wider range.
Pyrus pashia, the wild Himalayan pear, is a small to medium size deciduous tree of the small and oval shaped crown with ovate, finely toothed leaves, attractive white flowers with red anthers and small pear-like fruits. It is a fruit bearing tree that is native to southern Asia. Locally, it is known by many names such as batangi (Urdu), tangi (Kashmiri), mahal mol (Hindi) and passi (Nepal).
Angelica acutiloba is a perennial herb from the family Apiaceae or Umbelliferous. It is predominately in Japan and perhaps endemic (unique). It is now distributed widely and cultivated in Jilin, China, Korea, Taiwan and Indonesia.
Artocarpus camansi, the breadnut, is a medium-sized tree found in the mulberry family Moraceae. Native to New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, and the Philippines, it is a relative of the breadfruit and is commonly used as a staple crop. Other common names for plant include kluwih in Indonesia, chataigne, castaña 'tropical', and katahar in Guyana, pana de pepita in Puerto Rico, pan de fruta in Dominican Republic, kamansi in the Philippines, kapiak in New Guinea, and kos-del in Sri Lanka. It is also sometimes known as the seeded breadfruit, to distinguish it from its mostly seedless close relative Artocarpus altilis. Calamansi is a type of lime
Solanum macrocarpon otherwise known as the African eggplant, Vietnamese eggplant or gboma is a plant of the Solanaceae family. S. macrocarpon is a tropical perennial plant that is closely related to the eggplant. S. macrocarpon originated from West Africa, but is now widely distributed in Central and East Africa. Through an introduction from West Africa, the plant also grows in the Caribbean, South America, and some parts of Southeast Asia. S. macrocarpon is widely cultivated for its use as a food, its medicinal purposes, and as an ornamental plant.
Chrysophyllum oliviforme, commonly known as the satinleaf, is a medium-sized tree native to Florida, the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and Belize. It is also known as Damson plum, wild star-apple, saffron-tree, Caimitillo, Caimitillo de Perro, Camitillo Cimarró, Teta de Burra, Macanabo, and Caïmite Marron. It gets the name satinleaf from the distinctive colors of the leaves. The top of the leaf is dark green while the bottom is light brown or copper. This distinctive look makes it a very aesthetically pleasing tree that is commonly used as an ornamental in yards and public spaces.
Diospyros candolleana, is a tree in the Ebony family, endemic to the Western Ghats of India and Sri Lanka. The trees are usually 20m tall, and found as subcanopy trees in wet evergreen forests up to 90m.
Toona sureni is a species of tree in the mahogany family. It is native to South Asia, Indochina, Malesia, China, and Papua New Guinea. It is commonly known as the suren toon, surian, limpaga, iron redwood or the red cedar. It is also known as the Indonesian mahogany or the Vietnamese mahogany. The species is a valuable timber tree.
Cotoneaster bullatus, the hollyberry cotoneaster, is a species of shrub in the genus Cotoneaster within the rose family. Its natural range is in Western China, where it is found in a range of woodland and shrub biotopes from 900 to 3200 m above sea level.
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