Guerrero Negro

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Guerrero Negro
Salt production in Guerrero Negro.jpg
Salt production in Guerrero Negro.
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Guerrero Negro
Location in Mexico
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Guerrero Negro
Guerrero Negro (Baja California Sur)
Coordinates: 27°57′32″N114°03′22″W / 27.95889°N 114.05611°W / 27.95889; -114.05611
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Baja California Sur
Municipality Mulegé
30 ft (9 m)
 (2015 [1] )
  Total14,316 [2]
Time zone UTC-7 (Pacific (US Mountain))
  Summer (DST) UTC-6 (Pacific)

Guerrero Negro is the largest town located in the municipality of Mulegé in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur (BCS). It had a population of 14,316 in the 2015 census. [3] The town is served by Guerrero Negro Airport.

Municipalities are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state. As of the establishment of two new municipalities in Chiapas in September 2017, there are 2,448 municipalities in Mexico, not including the 16 delegaciones of Mexico City. The internal political organization and their responsibilities are outlined in the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution and detailed in the constitutions of the states to which they belong. Municipalities are distinct from cities, a form of Mexican locality, some municipalities as large as states, while cities can be measured in city blocks.

Mulegé Municipality Municipality in Baja California Sur, Mexico

Mulegé is the northernmost municipality of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. It is the second-largest municipality by area in the country, with an area of 32,092.2 km². In the census of 2010 it had a population of 59,114 inhabitants. Isla Natividad is part of the municipality.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.


Whale Festival

The town has a celebration each year to hail the annual arrival of the gray whales that calve in the lagoons of Baja California Sur (BCS). This festival occurs during the first half of February. The port of San Blas, also in BCS, has a similar festival on February 24 and 25. [4]

Gray whale species of mammal

The gray whale, also known as the grey whale, gray back whale, Pacific gray whale, or California gray whale, is a baleen whale that migrates between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. It reaches a length of 14.9 meters (49 ft), a weight of 36 tonnes, and lives between 55 and 70 years. The common name of the whale comes from the gray patches and white mottling on its dark skin. Gray whales were once called devil fish because of their fighting behavior when hunted. The gray whale is the sole living species in the genus Eschrichtius, which in turn is the sole living genus in the family Eschrichtiidae. This mammal descended from filter-feeding whales that appeared at the beginning of the Oligocene, over 30 million years ago.

Lagoon A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs

A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

Saltworks operation

Guerrero Negro was founded in 1957 when Daniel Ludwig built a salt works there to supply the demand of salt in the western United States. The salt mine was established around the Ojo de Liebre coastal lagoon to take advantage of its strong salinity. This company, called Exportadora de Sal, S.A., of C.V. ("Salt Exporters, Inc."), eventually became the greatest salt mine in the world, with a production of seven million tons of salt per year, exported to the main centers of consumption in the Pacific basin, especially Japan, Korea, the United States, Canada, Taiwan and New Zealand.

Sodium chloride Chemical compound

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

The company is located in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, the settlement of which began in 1957 when a U.S. American by the name of Daniel Ludwig—who also constructed the hotel Acapulco Princess in the port of Acapulco, Guerrero—installed a salt works there to supply the demand of salt in the western United States. The salt mine was established around the Ojo de Liebre coastal lagoon taking advantage of the heavy salinity of the place. The company, called Exportadora de Sal, S.A., of C.V., produces around seven million tons of salt per annum, exporting to countries including Japan, Korea, the United States, Canada, Taiwan and New Zealand.

Ludwig also constructed the hotel Acapulco Princess in the port of Acapulco, Guerrero. In 1973, he sold the salt company to the Mexican government and the corporation Mitsubishi, 51% and 49% respectively. The company is distinguished not only by its growth and its yield, but also by the progress which has reached more than a thousand employees, their community and its ecological surroundings: The salt works, located in a site of extraordinary beauty, within a biosphere reserve, has been pivotal in the development of the region. Its economic success has contributed to environmental conservation, where each winter whales gather, many species of resident and migratory birds stay, visiting birds originating mainly in the United States and Europe.

<i>Zaibatsu</i> industrial and financial business conglomerate in the Empire of Japan

Zaibatsu is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II. They were succeeded by the Keiretsu in the second half of the 20th century.

Mitsubishi group of autonomous, Japanese multinational companies

The Mitsubishi Group is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.


Guerrero Negro is near a lagoon frequented by Grey whales El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve Landsat picture annotated.jpg
Guerrero Negro is near a lagoon frequented by Grey whales

The town was named Guerrero Negro when founded in 1957 after the Black Warrior, a U.S. American whaling ship from Duxbury, Massachusetts (near Boston). That ship, captained by Robert Brown, wrecked in what was then called Frenchman's Lagoon on December 20, 1858. The bay was later renamed after the ship. [5] Contrary to a few sources, it was not named after the leader of the rebellion and early president of independent Mexico, Vicente Guerrero, the national hero who was of Mestizo and African ancestry, and sometimes called El Guerrero Negro. [6] There is a town named Vicente Guerrero over 400 km north in Baja.

Duxbury, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Duxbury is a historic seaside town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. A suburb located on the South Shore approximately 35 miles (56 km) to the southeast of Boston, the population was 15,059 at the 2010 census.

Vicente Guerrero leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence and President of Mexico

Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico, coming to power in a coup. He was of Afro-Mestizo descent, championed the cause of Mexico's common people, and abolished slavery during his brief term as president. His execution in 1831 by the conservative government that ousted him in 1829 was a shock to the nation.

It was during this era that Captain Charles Melville Scammon discovered a prolific gray whale breeding lagoon; it became a choice hunting ground for American and European whalers. Although locally known as " Laguna Ojo de Liebre" ("eye of the jackrabbit"), this lagoon became known to English-speaking whale watchers and boaters from around the world as "Scammon's Lagoon." Since the 20th century, a whale-watching industry has developed around the whales in the lagoon. Due to familiarity with humans, the whales that come to this lagoon are particularly known for their willingness to approach the whale-watching boats; sometimes the whales (especially the newborns) allow themselves to be petted by observers.

Charles Melville Scammon American whaler and illustrator

Charles Melville Scammon (1825-1911) was a 19th-century whaleman, naturalist, and author. He was the first to hunt the gray whales of both Laguna Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio Lagoon, the former once being called "Scammon's Lagoon" after him. In 1874 he wrote the book The Marine Mammals of the North-western Coast of North America, which was a financial failure. It is now considered a classic.

The town is on Federal Highway 1.


Historical population
1995 10,220    
2010 13,054    
2010 14,316+9.7%

See also

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  3. "Mulegé". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  4. Quintanar Hinojosa, Beatriz (February 2008). "Breves". Guía México Desconocido: Oaxaca. 372: 8.
  5. "Shipwreck".
  6. "But Guerrero Negro Isn't Named After the Hero".
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-15. Retrieved 2014-09-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Coordinates: 27°57′32″N114°03′22″W / 27.95889°N 114.05611°W / 27.95889; -114.05611