Guillaume-Charles Faipoult

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Guillaume-Charles Faipoult
Guillaume-Charles Faipoult 1752-1817 by Robert de Launay after a drawing by Anne Germain.jpg
Portrait by Launay after a drawing by Anne Germain
BornGuillaume-Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelle
(1752-12-04)4 December 1752
Paris, France
Died 8 October 1817(1817-10-08) (aged 64)
Augy, Yonne, France
Nationality French
Occupation Soldier, politician
Known for Minister of Finance

Guillaume-Charles Faipoult (Formally Guillaume-Charles, chevalier Faipoult de Maisoncelle; [1] 4 December 1752 – 8 October 1817) was a French aristocrat, soldier and politician who was Minister of Finance during the French Revolution. He then represented France in Italy, where he organized the newly formed republics. During the First French Empire he was prefect of the Scheldt department, and then Minister of Finance in Spain under Joseph Bonaparte. Faipoult was prefect of Saône-et-Loire during the Hundred Days.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Escaut (department) former French department (1795-1814)

Escaut[ɛsko] was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium and Netherlands. It was named after the river Scheldt, which is called the Escaut in French. It was formed in 1795, when the Southern Netherlands were annexed by France. Before the occupation, the territory was part of the county of Flanders and the United Provinces (Staats-Vlaanderen).

Contents

Early years

Guillaume-Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelle, was born in Paris on 4 December 1752, son of a noble family of Champagne. His parents were Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelles, lord of Fays and of Trois-Fontaines-la-Ville, Marne (died 1761), and Marie Aubert (died 1754). [2] He studied at the Royal School of Engineers at Charleville-Mézières, where Lazare Carnot was his fellow pupil, and graduated as a lieutenant of the engineers. He was promoted to captain, but resigned in 1780 after having been refused permission to fight for the independence of the English colonies in America. He then devoted himself to the study of the sciences. [3]

Champagne Sparkling wine

Champagne is sparkling wine. Many people use the term Champagne as a generic term for sparkling wine but in some countries, it is illegal to label any product Champagne unless it both comes from the Champagne region and is produced under the rules of the appellation. Specifically, in the EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France can be labelled as Champagne. Where EU law applies, this alcoholic drink is produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from specific parcels in the Champagne appellation and specific pressing regimes unique to the region.

Charleville-Mézières Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Charleville-Mézières is a commune in northern France, capital of the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region. Charleville-Mézières is located on the banks of the Meuse River.

Lazare Carnot French political, engineering and mathematical figure

Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

French Revolution

Faipoult was a partisan of the French Revolution, and a member of the Jacobins society. In 1792 he was appointed secretary-general of the Ministry of the Interior under Jean-Marie Roland. The next year he was forced out of office by a decree of the National Convention that banished all former nobles from Paris. He was not able to return until after the Thermidorian Reaction of 9 Thermidor II (27 July 1794). [3] On 10 Vendémiaire III (1 October 1794) Faipoult was named Minister of Finance, and held this position until 24 Pluviôse IV (13 February 1796). It was under his administration that the pledges of assignats were broken. [3]

Jacobin The most radical group in the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality, commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendency is known as the Reign of Terror, during which time tens of thousands were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

National Convention single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

Thermidorian Reaction event in 1794 in which Robespierre was denounced by the National Convention as a tyrant, leading to his (and his 21 associates’) arrest and beheading; named after the month Thermidor of the French Republican calendar in which the event took place

The Thermidorian Reaction was a counter revolution which took place in France on 9 Thermidor of the Year II. On this day, the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.

Italy

Germaine Faipoult de Maisoncelle and her daughter Julie by Serangeli circa 1799 by Gioacchino Giuseppe Serangeli Germaine Faipoult de Maisoncelle and her daughter Julie by Serangeli circa 1799.jpg
Germaine Faipoult de Maisoncelle and her daughter Julie by Serangeli circa 1799 by Gioacchino Giuseppe Serangeli

Faipoult was then sent as minister plenipotentiary to the Republic of Genoa, where he destroyed the influence of the agents of Austria and England and gained the confidence of Bonaparte. [3] He was minister plenipotentiary to Genoa in years IV to VI. [4] While in Genoa during the transition from the rule of the oligarchy to the Ligurian Republic in June 1797 he came into conflict with Jean Lannes, the future Marshall. Lannes' blunt speech threatened to undo Faipoult's diplomacy. Lannes accused Faipoult with meddling in military affairs. Napoleon had to intervene to smooth out the dispute. [5]

Republic of Genoa former state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1005–1797

The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Ligurian Republic former country

The Ligurian Republic was a short-lived French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797. It consisted of the old Republic of Genoa which covered most of the Ligurian region of Northwest Italy, and the small Imperial fiefs owned by the House of Savoy inside its territory. Its first Constitution was promulgated on 22 December 1797, establishing a Directorial republic. The directory was deposed on 7 December 1799 and the executive was temporarily replaced bij a commission. In 1800 a doge was nominated for 5 years. In 1802 he was nominated for life.

Napoleon wanted to take Faipoult on the expedition to Egypt. However he was charged in turn with missions to Milan, Rome and Naples, which kept him in Italy. [3] Failpoult was commissioner of the French government in Italy from years VI to VII. [4] He organized most of the small republics that were founded at that time. His quarrel with Jean Étienne Championnet in Naples were denounced by Bertrand du Calvados, and he was forced to go into hiding until the coup of 18 Brumaire VIII (9 November 1799). [3]

Coup of 18 Brumaire coup that brought Napoleon to power

The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution. This bloodless coup d'état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar.

First Empire

Bonaparte named Faipoult Prefect of the Scheldt department on 9 March 1800. [6] He was made a member of the Legion of Honour on 25 Prairial XII (14 June 1806). Accusations of negligence reached Napoleon, who dismissed him on 18 September 1808. The accusations proved false. Joseph Bonaparte, then king of Spain, compensated him with the position of his Minister of Finance. Faipoult did not return to France until 1813. [3]

Joseph Bonaparte elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte

Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe di Buonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.

During the Hundred Days of 1815 when Napoleon returned to power, Faipoult was prefect of Saône-et-Loire from 7 May to 30 July 1815. [4] He defended Mâcon against the allies. [6] He opened the gates of the city of Macon to the Austrians when authorized by Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet. [4] Faipoult was then arrested, and retired to Belgium. He returned to Paris in 1816. [6]

Guillaume-Charles Faipoult died in Augy, Yonne, on 8 October 1817. [2] He was survived by one daughter, who was married to the baron Louis de Séganville, a colonel of the hussars , commander of the 2d Hussar regiment. [4]

Selected publications

France

Italy

Scheldt

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References

Citations

  1. Charavay 1868, p. 165.
  2. 1 2 Antonetti 2007, p. 179ff.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Robert & Cougny 1891, p. 593.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Siraud 1886, p. 33.
  5. Chrisawn 2001, p. 34.
  6. 1 2 3 FAIPOULT (Guillaume-Charles), Archives Nationales.

Sources