Portrait by Launay after a drawing by Anne Germain
|Born||Guillaume-Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelle|
4 December 1752
|Died|| 8 October 1817 64) (aged|
Augy, Yonne, France
|Known for||Minister of Finance|
Guillaume-Charles Faipoult (Formally Guillaume-Charles, chevalier Faipoult de Maisoncelle;4 December 1752 – 8 October 1817) was a French aristocrat, soldier and politician who was Minister of Finance during the French Revolution. He then represented France in Italy, where he organized the newly formed republics. During the First French Empire he was prefect of the Scheldt department, and then Minister of Finance in Spain under Joseph Bonaparte. Faipoult was prefect of Saône-et-Loire during the Hundred Days.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
Escaut[ɛsko] was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium and Netherlands. It was named after the river Scheldt, which is called the Escaut in French. It was formed in 1795, when the Southern Netherlands were annexed by France. Before the occupation, the territory was part of the county of Flanders and the United Provinces (Staats-Vlaanderen).
Guillaume-Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelle, was born in Paris on 4 December 1752, son of a noble family of Champagne. His parents were Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelles, lord of Fays and of Trois-Fontaines-la-Ville, Marne (died 1761), and Marie Aubert (died 1754).He studied at the Royal School of Engineers at Charleville-Mézières, where Lazare Carnot was his fellow pupil, and graduated as a lieutenant of the engineers. He was promoted to captain, but resigned in 1780 after having been refused permission to fight for the independence of the English colonies in America. He then devoted himself to the study of the sciences.
Champagne is sparkling wine. Many people use the term Champagne as a generic term for sparkling wine but in some countries, it is illegal to label any product Champagne unless it both comes from the Champagne region and is produced under the rules of the appellation. Specifically, in the EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France can be labelled as Champagne. Where EU law applies, this alcoholic drink is produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from specific parcels in the Champagne appellation and specific pressing regimes unique to the region.
Charleville-Mézières is a commune in northern France, capital of the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region. Charleville-Mézières is located on the banks of the Meuse River.
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Faipoult was a partisan of the French Revolution, and a member of the Jacobins society. In 1792 he was appointed secretary-general of the Ministry of the Interior under Jean-Marie Roland. The next year he was forced out of office by a decree of the National Convention that banished all former nobles from Paris. He was not able to return until after the Thermidorian Reaction of 9 Thermidor II (27 July 1794).On 10 Vendémiaire III (1 October 1794) Faipoult was named Minister of Finance, and held this position until 24 Pluviôse IV (13 February 1796). It was under his administration that the pledges of assignats were broken.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality, commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendency is known as the Reign of Terror, during which time tens of thousands were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.
The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.
The Thermidorian Reaction was a counter revolution which took place in France on 9 Thermidor of the Year II. On this day, the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.
Faipoult was then sent as minister plenipotentiary to the Republic of Genoa, where he destroyed the influence of the agents of Austria and England and gained the confidence of Bonaparte.He was minister plenipotentiary to Genoa in years IV to VI. While in Genoa during the transition from the rule of the oligarchy to the Ligurian Republic in June 1797 he came into conflict with Jean Lannes, the future Marshall. Lannes' blunt speech threatened to undo Faipoult's diplomacy. Lannes accused Faipoult with meddling in military affairs. Napoleon had to intervene to smooth out the dispute.
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.
The Ligurian Republic was a short-lived French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797. It consisted of the old Republic of Genoa which covered most of the Ligurian region of Northwest Italy, and the small Imperial fiefs owned by the House of Savoy inside its territory. Its first Constitution was promulgated on 22 December 1797, establishing a Directorial republic. The directory was deposed on 7 December 1799 and the executive was temporarily replaced bij a commission. In 1800 a doge was nominated for 5 years. In 1802 he was nominated for life.
Napoleon wanted to take Faipoult on the expedition to Egypt. However he was charged in turn with missions to Milan, Rome and Naples, which kept him in Italy.Failpoult was commissioner of the French government in Italy from years VI to VII. He organized most of the small republics that were founded at that time. His quarrel with Jean Étienne Championnet in Naples were denounced by Bertrand du Calvados, and he was forced to go into hiding until the coup of 18 Brumaire VIII (9 November 1799).
The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution. This bloodless coup d'état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar.
Bonaparte named Faipoult Prefect of the Scheldt department on 9 March 1800.He was made a member of the Legion of Honour on 25 Prairial XII (14 June 1806). Accusations of negligence reached Napoleon, who dismissed him on 18 September 1808. The accusations proved false. Joseph Bonaparte, then king of Spain, compensated him with the position of his Minister of Finance. Faipoult did not return to France until 1813.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe di Buonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the older brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
During the Hundred Days of 1815 when Napoleon returned to power, Faipoult was prefect of Saône-et-Loire from 7 May to 30 July 1815.He defended Mâcon against the allies. He opened the gates of the city of Macon to the Austrians when authorized by Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet. Faipoult was then arrested, and retired to Belgium. He returned to Paris in 1816.
Guillaume-Charles Faipoult died in Augy, Yonne, on 8 October 1817.He was survived by one daughter, who was married to the baron Louis de Séganville, a colonel of the hussars , commander of the 2d Hussar regiment.
Édouard Benjamin Baillaud was a French astronomer.
The Journal officiel de la République française is the government gazette of the French Republic. It publishes the major legal official information from the national Government of France.
Charles Sorel, sieur de Souvigny was a French novelist and general writer.
Nicolas Bergasse was a French lawyer, philosopher, and politician, whose activity was mainly carried out during the beginning of the French Revolution during its early Monarchiens phase.
André Siegfried was a French academic, geographer and political writer best known to English speakers for his commentaries on American, Canadian, and British politics.
Robert Arnauld d’Andilly was a Frenchconseiller d’État, specialising in financial questions, in the court of Marie de' Medici. By the elegance of his language, he was among the major poets, writers and translators of 17th century French classicism. A fervent Catholic, he played an important role in the history of Jansenism and was one of the Solitaires of Port-Royal-des-Champs. He was also renowned for his part in the development of the pruning of fruit trees, to which he was devoted.
François de Cauvigny, sieur de Colomby was a French poet, translator, conseiller du roi and "orateur du roi pour les discours d'État".
Joseph-Jean Raikem or Jean-Joseph Raikem was a Roman Catholic Belgian politician, president of the National Congress of Belgium, magistrate and historian.
Robert Julien Courtine was a French food writer who also wrote under the pen names "La Reynière" and "Savarin".
Gaspard de Gueidan (1688–1767) was a French aristocrat and lawyer. He served as the Président à mortier of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence.
Dominique-Vincent Ramel was a French lawyer and politician who became Minister of Finance under the French Directory. He was an energetic reformer, but was blamed for many of the financial problems of the time, and went into retirement during the French Consulate and First French Empire. He supported Napoleon during the Hundred Days of 1815. After the second Bourbon Restoration, as a regicide he was forced into exile in Belgium, where he died without returning to France.
Charles Porée was a French priest, Jesuit, educator, orator, poet and homme de lettres. All his life, Voltaire, who was his pupil, kept a profound reverence for him.
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Philippe-Antoine Dorfeuille was an 18th-century French actor, playwright, great traveller and revolutionary.
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The écoles centrales were schools set up in 1795 during the French Revolution to replace the college of art faculties in France's historic universities. The idea for them came from the Committee of Public Instruction and their main instigators were Joseph Lakanal and Pierre Daunou, though Jean Henri Bancal des Issarts came up with the name for them. One work on their history states:
The republican government also engaged itself in an education policy that sought to replace the colleges of the Ancien Régime with establishments giving a scientific education, in which experimental physics and chemistry was part of the curriculum and was provided by professors with official status. It thus created the "Écoles Centrales" - these may have been short-lived, but they at least marked a break with the educational system that had previously predominated..
Laurent Lecointre was a French politician, born at Versailles on 1 February 1742, and died at Guignes, Seine-et-Marne on 4 August 1805. He is also known under the name of "Lecointre de Versailles".